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V.2 

Australian  race 


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THE   AUSTEALIAI   EACE: 

ITS    ORIGIN,    LANGUAGES, 

CUSTOMS, 
PLACE    OF    LANDING    IN    AUSTRALIA, 

AND 

THE  ROUTES  BY  WHICH  IT  SPREAD  ITSELF  OVER 
THAT   CONTINENT. 


BY 

ED^VARD       M.      CTJRR, 

Author  of  "Pure  Saddle  Horses,"  and  "Recollections  of  Squatting  in  Victoria." 


IN    FOUR    VOLUMES. 


VOLUME     II. 


MELBOUENE  :    JOHN    FERRES,     GOVERNMENT    PEINTEK. 
LONDON:    TRUBNER  AND   CO.,   LUDGATE  HILL. 

1  8  S  6  . 


n> 


CONTENTS    OF    VOLUME    II. 


■    PAGE 

List  of  Illustrations         --...---.  vi 


BOOK  .THE    SIXTH. 

No. 

Prefatory  Remarks  -        -        -        -  ' 3 

40.  Streaky  Bay (D.  K.  Richardson  \  g 

I.  O.  Provis  J 

41.  Port  Lincoln fA.  A.  O.  Le  Souef]  _  g 

I R.  W.  Holdm  I 

42.  Peake  Telegraph  Station  -        -        •     O.  Todd        -  -  -          10 

43.  North-weat  of  Lake  Eyre  -        -        -    F.E.Jacobs-  -  -          12 

44.  North  Shore  of  Lake  Byre        -        -    F.E.Jacobs-  -                  14 

45.  West  of  Lake  Eyre  -        -        -        JJoM  Warren  )  .          ^ 

I  John  Hogarth  > 

46.  Warburtoji  River      -        -        -  .    -     W.  J.  Paull  -  -  -          18 

47.  Warburton  River      -        -                 -     W.  H.  Cornish  -                   22 

48.  Cooper's  Creek,  to  the  eastward  of\ 

its  Northern  Branch ;  also  Koongi  I  ^-  5'  5'°™**"  }  -          24 

T   ,                                                  \  H.  G.  Salmon  ) 
Lake    -        -        -        -        -        -J 

49.  Cooper's  Creek  in  the  neighbourhood 

where  Burke  and  Wills  died        -    Alfred  Howitt  .  ■          30  . 

50.  Cooper's  Creek  near  the  Booloo  River  {''„,.  i  -          32 

(  Ernest  Eghnton  ) 

51.  Nockatoonga,  Wilson  River  .    -        -    T.  W.  Foott  -  -  -          34 

52.  Thargomiuda,  BuUoo  River       -        -    F.  W.  Myles  -  -  -          36 

53.  Lower  BuUoo  River  -        -        -        -    A.  F.  Sullivan  ■  -         42 

54.  A  Tribe  to  the  east  of  Strzelecki's 

Creek-        -        -        -        -        -         -         -        -  -  -          ** 

55.  Prom  Mount  Preeling  to  Pirigundi 

Lake Samuel  Oason  -  -          44 

56.  Kopperamana    -    .    -        -        -        -    F.  E.  Jacobs  -  -  -        108 

57.  Strangway  Springs    -        -        -        -    John  Warren  -  -        110 

58.  Umbertana        -        -         -        -        -    N.  E.  Phillipson  -  -        112 

59.  Mount  Serle      -        -        -        -        -     Charles  Wills  -  -        116 

60.Belta|.a      -        -        .        -        -        -IJlf^^^^M  '        "« 

61.  Wonoka W-  M.  Green  -  -        124 

62.  Eastern  Shore  of  Lake  Torrens-        -     W.M.Green  -                126 

63.  Gawler  Range   -        -        -                -    A.  D.  Sawers  -  -       ,130 

64.  Maraohowie      -        -        -        -        -    H.  L.  Beddom£  -  -        132 

65.  Mount  Remarkable   -        -        -        -    J.  C.  Valentine  -  -        136 

66.  Port  Pirie,  40  miles  east  of       •       •    S.  he  Brun    -  •  -  -       140 


IV 


CONTENTS. 


No. 


67.  Yorke's  Peninsula,  South  Australia 


69, 


.       (  Wilhel 
^^'  \w.  Fo 


BOOK    THE    SIXTR— continued. 

Wilhel/m  Kuhn       ) 
Fowler '  > 

Teichelmann   and 
68.  Adelaide  and  its  neighbourhood         -  -j      Schurmmn 

W.  Wyatt 
I    TT    1      r      v  I  ^-  Gromer  I 

'.  \  A,  Dewhurst         > 

69a.  Near  •  the    North-west    Corner    of  " 

New  South  Wales        -   "     -         -    A.  W.  Morton 


PAGE 

143 

148 
152 
158 


BOOK    THE    SEVENTH. 

Prefatory  Remarks    ------- 

70.  Country  North-west  of  the  Barrier 

Range -    Anonymous    - 

71.  Country  about  60  miles  North-west 

from  a  point  on  the  Darling 
midway  between  Menindie  and 
Wiloannia    -        -        -        -  '    -     W.  Haines     . 

72.  Boolcoomatta    -         -        -        -         -     W,  J.  Lake  Dix 

73.  Torrowotto J.  A.  Reid     - 

74.  Lower   portions   of    the   Paroo    and 

Warrego  Rivers  -        -        -        ■    G.  Scrivener  ■ 

75.  Bourke,  Darling  River      -        -         -     Q.  N.  Teuton 

76.  Fifty  miles  below   Bourke    on    the  ( Sir  S.  Wilson        ] 

Darling  River      -        -        -        -l  W.  Henderson        I 

77.  Wilcannia M.  Sogers 

78.  Tintinaligi         -         -        -  -     The  Author    - 

79.  Weinteriga        -         -        -  -A.  McLennan 

80.  Menindie,  Darling  River  -         -         -    —  Mair 

81.  Tolarno  Station         -'        -        -        -     O.  W.Shaw  - 

82.  Junction  of  the  Darling  and  Murray 

Rivers JohnBulmer- 

83.  From  the  Banks  of  the  Murray  River, 

where  it  enters  Lake  Alexandrina 
to  the  embouchure  of  that  river 
and  Laoepede  Bay       -        -        -    Qeorge  Taplin 

84.  Prom   Wellington,  on    the    Murray 

River,  to  the  North-west  Bend    -    M.  Moorehowse 

85.  North-west    Bend    of    the    Murray 

Ri'^^er .F.  W.Fulford 

86.  Ned's  Corner     -        -         -        -        -     A.  H.  Pegler 

87.  From  the  Mallee  Cliffs  to  Weutworth    —  McFarlane 

88.  Prom  the  Junction  of  the  Lachlan 

and  Murray  to  the  Junction  of 

the  Darling  and  Murray    -        -    J.  A.  Macdonald 


165 
173 


174 

176 

178 

182 
186 

224 

226 
230 
232 
234 
236 

238 


242 

274 

278 
280 

282 

285 


faqe 


326 


CONTENTS. 
BOOK    THE    EIGHTH. 

So. 

Prefatory  Remarks    ---■-.....        293 

89.  Eastward  of  the  Nicholson  River  and 

between  that  river  and  the  coast    Edward  Curr  -        -        296 

90.  Burketown         -         -        -        -        ■     T.  Ooward     -  -        -        298 

91.  The  Mouth  of  the  Leichardt  River    -     W.  E.  Armit  -        -        300 

92.  Mouth  of  the  Norman  River      -        -     W.  E.  Armit  -        -        306 

93.  Middle  Norman         .         -        -        -     W.  E.  Armit  -        -        310 

94.  On  the  West  Bank  of  the  Leichardt 

River,  near  the  sea      -        -        -     Edward  Curr  -        -        314 

95.  Leichardt  River,  twenty  miles  below 

Kamilaroi  Station        -        -        -     Edward  Curr  ■        -        316 

.  96.  Kamilaroi  Station,  Leichardt  River  -     Montagu  Curr  -        -        318 

97.  Betweeft  the  Gregory  and  Leichardt 

Rivers          .        -        -        -        •    M.  S.  Lamoiid  -        -        322 

98.  Seymour,  Templeton,  and  Clonourry  jF.  Urquhart  \ 

Rivers iJ.  O'BeiUey  I 

99.  The  Cloncurry  River         -        -     .   .  [^- P<^i"^er  a,id  )         _        33^ 

I  Anonymous  > 

100.  The  Flinders  and  Cloncurry  Rivers  -     A.  MacGUliway  -        -        340 

101.  The  Burke  River     -        -        -        -    E.  Eglinton   -  -        346 
( The  Hamilton  River      -        -        -     W.  Blair        .  -         -        350 

,n2   J  The  Lower  Georgiua  River   -        -    R.  N.  Collins  -        -        354 

j  Between  the  Georgina  and  Burke  (/.  Craigie      -  -        -        356 

(     Rivers        -        -        -        -        -\a.  McLean   -  -    •    -        358 

103.  Head  of  the  Hamilton  River    -        -    E.  Eglinton    -  -        -        360 

104.  On  the  Hamilton  River  near  Boulia    E.  Eglinton   -  -        -        364 

105.  Junction  of  King's  Creek  and  the  f  J.  0.  Machattie  \ 

Georgina  River    -        -        -        -  I  J.  S.  Little  1 

106.  Lower  Diamantina  -        -        -        -     Anonymous    -  -        -        371 

107.  Junction  of  Thomson  and  Barcoo  j  "^^  ^^S^ey  \ 

Rivers,  also  the  Whitula  Creek  -  i  ■"■  ^'"'^^f-  \        "        ^"* 

I  Edward  Curr  > 


BOOK    THE    NINTH. 

Prefatory  Remarks  -        -        .         -         -----        389 

108.  Princess    Charlotte's    Bay,     North 

Queensland W.  0.  Hodghinson         -        389 

109.  Endeavour  River     -        -        -        -l'^^"!.  }        -      '392 

I  P.  P.  Ktng  ! 

110.  Weary  Bay      -----  2',  Hughes     -  -  -  393 

111.  Akoonkoon,  Pahner  River       -        -  E.  Palmer     -  -  -  396 

112.  The  Lynd  River       -        -        -        -  W.  0.  K.  Hill  -  -  400 

113.  Granite  Range,  close  to  the  Head  of 

the  Mitchell  River  and  east  of 

the  Hodgkinson  Goldfields  -         ■    H.  M.  Mowhray    -        -        402 


366 


VI  CONTENTS. 

BOOK    THE    HINTH.— continued. 

So.                                                                                      .  PAGE 

114.  Near  the  Head  of  the  Walsh  River-    J._  Atherton    -  -        -        408 

115.  Country        about        Thornborough 

Diggings,  and  near  the  Head  of 

the  Mitchell       .-        -        -        -     W.  0.  HodgUnson         -        412 

116.  Granite  Range  at  the  Head  of  the 

Walsh  River       -        -        -        -    E.  R.  Davidson  -        -        414 

117.  Head  of  the  Gilbert          -         -        -     M.  Curr         -  -        -        416 

118.  Hinchinbrook  Island  and  the  Maia- j  M.  Armstrong  I         _        ^jg 

land  adjacent       -        .        -        -iJ.  Murray  ' 

119.  Herbert  River          .        -        -        -     W.S.Stephen  -        -422 

120.  Halifax  Bay iJ.  Cassady  )         .        ^24 

I  S.  Johnstone  i 

121.  Head-waters  of  the  Burdekin  River     TV.  0.  HodgUnson         -        432 

122.  Clarke  River    .         -        -         -        -  p"  -^"*'"  [         -       436 

I—  Beta  Tour  ) 

123.  Top  of  the  Range  near  Dalrymple   -     W.  E.  Armit  -        -        440 

124.  Cleveland  Bay          -        -        -          5  A.  R.  Johnstone  }         .        ^^ 

IM.  Gurr  ) 

125.  Mount  Elliott  -        -        -        -        -    E.  Gregory    -  -        -        448 

126.  Mouths  of  the  Burdekin  River         -     /.  O'Connor  -  -                 454 

127.  Porter's  Range         -        -        -         -    M.  Gurr        -  -         ■        456 

128.  Charters  Towers      -         -        -  \GUef  Grnnmissiwier  \       _        ^^g 

I  of  Pohce,  Brisbane  i 

129.  Upper  Blinders,  Hughenden,  Button  JJl/^,  CttT-r  1                .„. 

River,  &o. \  E.  Gurr  ) 

130.  The  Watershed  and  Upper  Portion 

of  the  Cape  River        -        -             M.  Armstrong  -        -        464 

131.  Natal  Downs  Station,  Cape  River   -  I  •'*'■ -^^  ^°™^T  i     '.        468 

I  W.   Chatfield  > 

132.  Ravenswood,  Upper  Burdekin         -     W.  H.  Kent  -        -        484 

133.  Mount  Black Government  of  Queensland       486 

134.  Lower  Burdekin       -         -        .         -  P"  Ounningham  ]         _ 

I  F.  J.  Gorton  f 

135.  Burdekin  River,  various  tribes        -     J.  Hall  Scott  -        -        492 


LIST   OF    ILLUSTRATIONS,   VOLUME    II. 


PAGE 


Kopi,  or  Mourning  Cap  of  Gypsum  -         -         .         .         .        238 

A  Tree  on  the  Diamantina  River,  Queensland.     Record  of  a  Fight 

which  took'  place  in  the  locality      -        -        -        .        .         .        433 


BOOK    THE    SIXTH 


VOL.   II. 


^k^  ^ttsttaliatt  ^aa. 


BOOK    THE    SIXTH. 

PREFATORY  REMARKS. 

The  tribes  whose  manners  and  languages  form  the  subject 
of  this  book  belong  to  the  Central  Division,  like  those 
treated  of  in  the  two  preceding  books.  In  many  of  these 
tribes  the  principal  article  of  food  was  a  sort  of  flour, 
obtained  by  grinding  grass-seeds,  which  was  made  into 
unleavened  bread  or  mixed  with  water  and  eaten  uncooked. 
With  these  tribes  we  come  to  the  termination  (in  this 
neighbourhood)  of  the  practices  of  circumcision  and  the 
terrible  rite,  a  fact  which  is  referred  to  at  length  in  the 
prefatory  remarks  to  Book  VII. 

In  the  languages  of  this  book  it  is  interesting  to  find 
paroo  and  booloo,  the  two  equivalents  for  fish,  also  the 
names  of  rivers.  The  explanation  probably  is  that  tribes 
which  used  these  words  (the  Peake  Telegraph  vocabulary, 
for  instance,  contains  both),  having  become  the  discoverers 
of  these  rivers,  which  abound  in  fish,  named  them  respec- 
tively Paroo  and  Bulloo  from  this  circumstance. 

In  some  of  these  languages  barkoola  means  2  and  in 
others  3. 


No.  40.— STREAKY  BAY. 

By  D.  K.  Richardson,  Esq.,  and  C.  Pkovis,  Esq. 

Feom  the  Streaky  Bay  district  I  have  received  two 
vocabularies,  both  of  which  I  have  thought  it  desirable  to 
insert;   for  though   for   the   most   part   they   agree,   they 

A2 


4 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


have  also  many  points  of  difference.  Indeed  the  two 
equivalents  of  Blackfellow  lead  to  the  inference  that  they 
represent  the  dialects  of  two  distinct  (though  neighbouring) 
tribes.  The  first  of  the  two  vocabularies,  forwarded  by 
Mr.  D.  K.  Richardson,  gives  in  addition  the  following 
names  of  persons: — Men:  Moongulta,  Koongulta,  Moonaga. 
Women:  Koomilya,  Tchoonbilla,  Noobillia.  For  the  second 
vocabulary  I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  Charles  Provis,  who  gives 
the  following  names  of  persons,  one  of  which  is  given  by 
Mr.  Eichardson:  —  Men:  Yaljulta,  Thangil.  Women: 
Koomilya  and  Koobillya. 


No.  40.— STREAKY  BAY. 


Kangaroo    - 
Opossum 
Tame  dog    - 
Wild  dog    - 
Emu    -        -        - 
Black  duck  - 
Wood  duck 
PeUoan 

Laughing  jackass 
Native  companion 
White  cockatoo  - 
Crow  -  -  - 
Swan  - 

Egg     -        -        - 
Track  of  a  foot    - 
Fish    - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito     - 
Fly      -        -        - 
Snake  -        -        - 
The  Blacks  - 
A  Blackfellow     - 
A  Black  woman  - 
Nose   -       -        - 


warroo. 

pilta. 

yelka. 

kurlea. 


weely. 


By  D.  K.  Richardson,  Esq. 

Hand  -. 

2  Blacks      - 

3  Blacks      - 
One     - 
Two    - 
Three  - 
Four  (many) 
Father 


yongona. 

wungara. 

koorti 

namboo. 

tchinna. 


koonaboonjeloo. 

yoombera. 

djoono. 

niunga. 

uiunga. 

weeinna. 

moola. 


Mother 
Sister-Elder 

,,      Younger   - 
Brother-Elder    - 

,,         Younger 
A  young  man 
An  old  man 
An  old  woman     - 
A  baby 
A  White  man 
Children 

Head  -        -        - 
Eye     - 
Ear     - 


murra, 

kootera  niunga. 

karboo  niunga. 

kooma 

kootera. 

karboo. 

yalkata. 

mumma. 

weea. 

konky. 


wannoo. 

chilby. 

kooroo. 

walboo. 

kooba.  • 

yarpo  kardo. 

kurka. 

meil. 

yooree. 


STREAKY   BAY. 


No.  40. — Streaky  Bay — continued. 


Mouth 

-  neemy. 

Teeth  - 

-  yira. 

Hair  of  the  heao 

-  ngooro. 

Beard  - 

-  ngangwin. 

Thunder      ■• 

-  toondooga. 

Grass  - 

-  kurroo. 

Tongue 

-  kyaling. 

Stomach      - 

-  choorda. 

Breasts 

-  moondundoo. 

Thigh 

-  kanty. 

Foot    - 

-  tcheena. 

Bone  - 

-  moolallie. 

Blood  - 

-  yaildo. 

Skin    - 

-  imba. 

Fat      - 

-  mainby. 

Bowels 

- 

Excrement  - 

-  galling. 

War-spear  - 

-  keea. 

B«ed-spear  - 

- 

Wommera   - 

-  meela. 

Shield 

- 

Tomahawk  - 

- 

Canoe - 

- 

Sun     - 

-  cheeando. 

Moon  - 

-  peea. 

Star    - 

-  kulka. 

Light  - 

- 

Dark  - 

-  moabu. 

Cold    - 

-  miniaroo. 

Heat  - 

-  ngunera. 

Day    - 

-  perria. 

Night  - 

-  maltie. 

Fire     - 

-  kulla. 

Water 

-  kaaby. 

Smoke 

-  pooyoo. 

Ground 

-  poordo. 

Wind  - 

-  eeneroo. 

Rain   - 

-  waiuburoo. 

God     - 

- 

Ghosts 

-  pokobidney. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Hill     -        - 

- 

Wood  - 

-  kulla. 

Stone  - 

-  poonda. 

Camp  - 

-  ngoora. 

Yes     -        - 

-  yooa. 

No       -        - 

-  mukka. 

I 

-  ngunna. 

You    - 

-  tchanna. 

Bark  - 

-  piltera. 

Good  - 

-  yardoo. 

Bad     -        - 

-  nunta. 

Sweet  - 

-  morogo. 

Food   -        - 

-  ma. 

Hungry 

-  meamukka. 

Thirsty 

-  mungarra. 

Eat      - 

-  ngaal. 

Sleep  - 

-  yango. 

Drink  - 

-  mungarra. 

Walk  - 

-  wayn. 

See      -        - 

-  ngakoon. 

Sit       - 

-  ngeedin. 

Yesterday  - 

-  wilyoodo. 

To-day 

-  pynyiayee. 

To-morrow  - 

-  maalduloo. 

Where    are    the 

Blacks? 

I  don't  know 

-  tchalla  mindy 

Plenty 

-  moona. 

Big      -        - 

-  willaroo. 

Little  - 

-  minyardo. 

Dead  - 

-  pilunabeena 

By-and-by  - 

-  wuneroo. 

Come  on 

-  panni  winni. 

Milk  - 

- 

Eaglehawk 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Wife  - 

- 

THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  40.— STREAKY  BAY. 


Bt  C.  Provis,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  waroo. 

Opossum     - 

-  pirlta. 

Tame  dog 

-  yelga. 

Wild  dog    - 

- 

Emu 

-  warritcha. 

Black  duck  - 

-  murrara. 

Wood  duck- 

- 

Pelican 

-  weele. 

Laughing  jackass 

Native  companion 

White  cockatoo 

-  yungana. 

Crow  - 

-  wamkara 

Swan  " 

-  kowerte. 

Egg    -        - 

-  peepee. 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  tchinna. 

Fish    - 

-  kooya. 

Lobster 

- 

Crayfish 

- 

Mosquito     - 

-  koonaboonjeloo 

Fly       -          -• 

-  yoonberra. 

Snake  - 

-  wobma. 

The  Blacks - 

-  kurda. 

A  Blackfellow 

-  kurda. 

A  Black  woman 

-  kore. 

Nose   •■ 

-  mootla. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  koothera  kurda 

3  Blacks      - 

-  kaboo  kurda. 

One     - 

-  kooma. 

Two    - 

-  koothera. 

Three  - 

-  kaboo. 

Pour   - 

-  wima. 

Father 

-  mamma. 

Mother 

-  weeya. 

Sister-Elder 

-  konbee. 

„     Younger 

- 

Brother-Elder 

-  yoonga. 

,,         Younger 

A  young  man 

-  wilyara. 

An  old  man 

-  poorlka. 

An  old  woman 

-  weeya. 

A  baby 

-  kaitoha. 

A  White  man 

-  koopa. 

Children      - 

-  keetchaba. 

Head  - 

-  koka. 

Eye     - 

-  meena. 

Ear     - 

-  yoore. 

STREAKY   BAY. 


No.  40. — Streaky  Bay — continued. 


Mouth 

-  meeme. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth 

-  yeera. 

Hill     -        - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  ngoora. 

Wood  - 

-  kurla. 

Beard  - 

-  ngomka. 

Stone  - 

-  pamta. 

Thunder      - 

-  kooroona. 

Camp  - 

-  ngoora. 

Grass  - 

-  korra. 

Yes     - 

-  ya. 

Tongue 

-  kyaking. 

No      - 

-  mukka. 

Stomach 

-  warna. 

I 

-  ngie. 

Breasts 

-  ebee. 

You     - 

-  noone. 

-Thigh 

-  wiitha. 

Bark   - 

-  yoolthe. 

Foot    - 

-  tcheena. 

Good  - 

-  yatto. 

Bone  - 

-  moolale. 

Bad    - 

-  ngontha. 

Blood  - 

-  yaildo. 

Sweet  - 

-  morrogo. 

Skin    - 

-  eemba. 

Food  - 

-  ma. 

Tat      - 

-  mainbe. 

Hungry 

-  karnpa. 

Bowels 

-  warna. 

Thirsty 

-  mungarra. 

Excrement  - 

-  kurta. 

Bat     - 

-  mungee. 

War-spear  - 

-  keeya. 

Sleep  - 

-  ngarbiroya. 

Reed-spear  - 
Throwing-stick 
Shield - 
Tomahawk  - 
Canoe  - 
Sun     - 
Moon  - 
Star    - 
Light  - 

-  konde. 

-  tchinta. 

-  peera. 

-  kulka 

Drink-        -        -  algoona. 
Walk  -        -        -  ngomema. 
See      -        -        -  meena. 
Sit       -        -        -  neena. 
Yesterday  -        -  wiltchera. 
To-day         -        -  pynea. 
To-morrow  -        -  molthaloo. 
Where  are    the     intha  kurda  ? 

Dark  - 

-  moaba. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    - 

-  pyala. 

I  don't  know 

-  yaminthe. 

Heat  - 

-  pookara. 

Plenty 

-  murna. 

Day    - 

-  pu-rea. 

Big     - 

-  murna. 

Night - 

-  molthe. 

Little  - 

-  meenya. 

Fire    - 

-  kurla. 

Dead  - 

-  kukabuk. 

Water 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind- 
Rain  - 
God    - 

-  koppe. 

-  pooya. 

-  mietlea. 

-  warre. 

-  wainbaroo. 

By-and-by  - 
Come  on 
Milk    - 
Eaglehawk  - 
WUd  turkey 

-  karree. 

-  pemee. 

Ghosts 

-  poorkabidue. 

Wife  - 

- 

8 


THE    AUSTRALIAN  RACE : 


No.  41.— PORT  LINCOLN. 

By  a.  A.  0.  Le  SouBF,  Esq.,  aud  the  Revd.  R.  W.  Holden. 
Vocabularies  of  the  Parnkalla  language,  whicli  is  spoken 
at  Port  Lincoln  and  along  the  western  shores  of  Spencer's 
Gulf,  have  been  sent  to  me  by  A.  A.  0.  Le  Souef,  Esq.,  and 
the  Revd.  R.  W.  Holden.  Of  this  language  a  dictionary  of 
about  2,200  words,  prefaced  by  a  grammar,  was  published 
in  Adelaide,  1844,  by  the  Revd.  C.  W.  Shurmann.  From 
these  sources  I  have  filled  up  the  following  vocabulary.  It 
is  to  be  noticed  that  in  the  Revd.  Mr.  Shurmann's  work 
there  is  but  one  word  which  begins  with  the  letter  a,  and 
the  sound  of  ck  is  entirely  wanting,  but  that  my  two 
contributors  both  give  kitcha  as  the  equivalent  of  hahy. 
Circumcision  prevails  in  this  tribe. 


No.  41.— PORT  LINCOLN. 

By  a.  a.  C 

.  Lb  Soubf,  Esq.,  and  the  Revd.  R. 

W.  HOLDBN. 

Kangaroo    - 

bulka,  warru. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum 

piUa. 

2  Blacks      - 

■  kallpille  toora. 

Tame  dog    - 

wilga. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  koolperrie  toora 

WUddog    - 

kurdniimi. 

One     -        - 

-  kubmanna. 

Emu    - 
Black  duck 

warraitya. 
murrarra. 

Two    - 

-  kallpille. 

Wood  duck 

Three  - 

-  koolperrie. 

Pelican 

widli. 

Four    - 

-  ngerla. 

Laughing  jackass 

kookark. 

Father 

-  pappi. 

Native  companion 

Mother     '  - 

-  ngan:uni. 

White  cockatoo  - 

Sister-Elder 

-  yakka. 

Crow  - 

Swan  - 

wornkarra. 
kooti. 

„      Younger 

- 

Egg     - 

peepee,  bebi. 

Brother-Elder 

-  yunga. 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

yedna,  weedla. 

„       Younger  ngaityaba. 

Fish    - 

kuya. 

A  young  man 

-  mooltappa. 

Lobster 

An  old  man 

-  meetta,  pulka. 

Crayfish 

An  old  woman 

-  moodalli. 

Mosquito     - 

kunnutyuUu, 

A  baby 

-  kitcha. 

Fly     - 

yuwunu. 
yumbarra. 

A  White  man 

-  koopa. 

Snake  - 

wamba. 

Children      - 

-  boolyoo,    mur- 

The  Blacks 

yoora,  toora. 

dalyi. 

A  Blackfellow     - 

Head 

-  kaka. 

A  Black  woman  - 

pallara. 

Eye     - 

-  mena. 

Nose   - 

moodla. 

Ear     - 

-  yoori. 

PORT   LINCOLN. 


No.  41.— PoKT  L 

INCOLN — continued 

Mouth 

-  ya,  narpartra. 

Boomerang '- 

. 

Teeth 

-  yerra,  ira. 

Hill     - 

-  purri. 

Hair  of  the  head-  kakaputti,  kurni' 

Wood-.       - 

-  gadla. 

Beard  - 

-  ngarnka. 

Stone  - 

-  kanya. 

Thunder 

-  kooranna. 

Camp  - 

-  koornkoo. 

Grass  - 

-  kurra,  uthera. 

Yes      - 

-  ia,    ya,    a,  nga, 

Tongue 

-  yarli. 

yooa. 

Stomach 

-  pompe     ngan- 

No       - 

-  mukka,  madia. 

kalla. 

I 

-  ngai. 

Breasts 

-  ngamma. 

You     - 

-  neena. 

Thigh 

-  yatla. 

Bark    - 

-  yoolthi. 

Foot    - 

-  idna. 

Good   - 

-  munjarri,  mar- 

Bone 

-  winma,  wurlpool. 

niti. 

Blood  - 

-  kartintye. 

Bad     - 

-  milla. 

Skin    - 

_ 

Sweet  - 

-  ngaltya. 

Fat      - 

-  mame,  ngappata. 

Food    - 

-  ma,  mai. 

Bowels 

-  kudna. 

Hungry 

-  karnba,  kurnpa. 

Excrement  - 

-  kudna. 

Thirsty 

-  yurne. 

War-spear  - 

-  kia,  kaya. 

Eat      - 

-  ngalgutu. 

Reed-spear  - 

_ 

Sleep  - 

-  meya,  wanniti. 

Wommera    - 

-  midla,  kundi. 

Drink - 

-  yappaka. 

Shield 

- 

Walk  - 

-  ngukata,    pad- 

Tomahawk  - 

-  kanti. 

nata. 

Canoe  - 

. 

See      - 

-  nakkuttu,   nak- 

Sun     - 
Moon  - 
Star    - 

-  yumo. 

-  pirra. 

-  purdli. 

Sit       - 
Yesterday  - 
To-day 

koo. 

-  yikketha. 

-  willjenna. 

-  yatha. 

Light  - 
Dark   - 

-  multhi. 

To-morrow  - 
Where    are    the 

-  wilcherpani. 
J    wanna  toora  ? 

Cold    - 

-  paialla,  pila. 

Blacks  ? 

Heat   - 

-  kallalla. 

I  don't  know 

-  ya-kood-la. 

Day     - 

-  wallina,  marka. 

Plenty 

-  nurla. 

Night  - 

- 

Big      -        - 

-  yoodlu,     mur- 

Fire     -        - 

-  gadla,  kurdla. 

nundo. 

Water 

-  kapi,  kauo. 

Little  - 

-  bulya,  peelyoo. 

Smoke 

r  puyu,  pooya. 

Dead  - 

-  kunya,  paruntu 

Ground 

-  yurra. 

By-and-by  - 

-  kani. 

Wind  - 

-  wirra. 

Come  on 

-  purdni. 

Rain    - 

-  kattari,    koorun- 

Milk    - 

- 

na-kowi. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  yamu. 

God     -        - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

-  walla. 

Ghosts 

-  nara,  wilya. 

Wife    - 

-  yungara. 

10 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  42.— PEAKE  TELEGRAPH  STATION. 


Kangaroo    - 
Opossum 
Tame  dog    -    ' 

-  koongoora. 

-  womboola. 

-  murdla. 

Wild  dog    - 
Emu    - 

-  erlea. 

Black  duck- 

-  oodla-oodla. 

Wood  duck- 
Pelican 

-  yarkalto. 

-  warrunto. 

Laughing  jackass 
Native  companion  mulpa. 
White  cockatoo  - 

Crow  - 

-  wokkoola. 

Swan  - 

-  kute. 

Egg     -        - 
Track  of  a  foot 

-  papoo. 

-  wimba. 

Fish    - 
Lobster 

-  paroo,  booloo 

Crayfish 
Mosquito     - 

-  ooiuya. 

Fly       . 
Snake  - 

-  oringore. 

-  wobma. 

The  Blacks  - 

-  nulla. 

A  Blackf ellow 

-  nulla. 

A  Black  woman 

-  miiTikera. 

Nose    - 

-  media. 

By  Charles  Todd,  Esq.,  C.M.G. 

Hand  -        -  -  murra. 

2  Blacks      -  -  parakuUa  nuUa. 

3  Blacks      -  -  kulpura  nulla. 
Cue     -        -  -  weyoo. 
Two    -        -  -  parakuUa. 
Three  -        -  -  kulpura. 
Four   -        -  -  nooyoo. 
Father         -  -  meeya. 
Mother        -  -  alooka. 
Sister-Elder  -  karkoo. 

„      Younger  - 

Brother-Elder  -  noota. 

,,        Younger 

A  young  man  -  yawonka. 

An  old  man  -  waroo. 

An  old  woman  -  wittoola. 

A  baby        -  -  marchi. 

A  White  man  -  koopia  woonka. 

Children      -  -  koopakurdli. 

Head  -  -  kurty. 

Eye     -        -  -  milchi. 

Ear      -        -  _  yeari. 


PEAKE    TELEGRAPH    STATION. 


11 


No.  42. — Peake  Telbgkaph  Station — continued. 


Mouth 

-  muma. 

Teeth  - 

-  yakkara. 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  wilpoora. 

Beard  - 

-  numka. 

Thunder      - 

-  mungaunda. 

Grass  - 

-  kunchara. 

Tongue 

-  tardli. 

Stomach 

-  yarrakoora. 

Breasts 

-  nama. 

Thigh - 

-  walpoo(?) 

Foot    - 

-  peedna. 

Bone   - 

-  walpoo(?) 

Blood  - 

-  koobmara. 

Skin    - 

-  maramakoo. 

Fat      - 

-  punga,  marri. 

Bowels 

Excrement  - 

-  koodna. 

War-spear  - 

- 

Reed-spear  - 

- 

Wommera  - 

- 

Shield-       •- 

- 

Tomahawk  - 

- 

Canoe  - 

- 

Sun     - 

-  yarro. 

Moon  - 

-  parralla. 

Star    - 

-  kartepela. 

Light  - 

-  poorinda. 

Dark  - 

-  wonga. 

Cold    - 

-  madlera. 

Heat   - 

-  alpa. 

Day     - 

-  wolta. 

Night  - 

-  woogna. 

Fire     - 

-  mukka. 

Water 

-  koota. 

Smoke 

-  ukurta. 

Ground 

•■  yoopella. 

Wind  - 

-  wohnurra. 

Rain    - 

-  chilta. 

God     - 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

Boomerang  - 

- 

HUl    - 

- 

Wood  - 

-  nartanda. 

Stone  - 

-  kardna,  opata. 

Camp  - 

-  nura. 

Yes     - 

-  arri. 

No      - 

-  myella. 

I 

-  aupa. 

You     - 

-  autoo. 

Bark   - 

-  peeta. 

Good  - 

- 

Bad     - 

-  tetalla. 

Sweet  - 

- 

Food  - 

-  chalpa. 

Hungry 

-  wodla. 

Thirsty 

-  yunkurta. 

Eat      - 

-  tanera. 

Sleep   - 

-  koortana. 

Drink  - 

-  poontara. 

Walk  -        - 

-  ukandanda. 

See      - 

-  yungunda. 

Sit      - 

-  tunkanna. 

Yesterday  - 

-  ukunta. 

To-day 

■  chalpa. 

To-morrow  - 

-  wongara. 

Where    are  1 

;he    weterla  nulla 

Blacks  ? 

paraka  ? 

I  don't  know 

-  anakoli. 

Plenty 

-  nooka. 

Big      - 

-  paranda. 

Little  - 

-  pekammaroo. 

Dead  - 

-  pooranda. 

By-and-by  - 

-  uta. 

Come  on 

-  karwona  wee. 

Milk    - 

- 

Eaglehawk 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Wife  - 

- 

12 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  43.— NORTH-WEST  OF  LAKE   EYRE. 

By  F.  E.  Jacobs,  Esq. 

The  following  vocabulary  from  the  language  of  the  trihe 
which  dwells  to  the  north-west  of  Lake  Eyre  was  kindly 
forwarded  to  me  by  Mr.  F.  E.  Jacobs,  a  German  gentleman 
resident  at  the  Lutheran  Mission  Station  at  Kopperamana. 
I  have  thought  it  necessary  to  call  attention  to  the  nation- 
ality of  my  correspondent,  as  in  many  cases  the  spelling  of 
the  words  of  his  vocabulary,  taken  from  an  English  point 
of  view,  represents  sounds  which  it  would  be  impossible  for 
an  Australian  Black  to  utter.  The  sth,  which  occurs  so 
frequently,  I  take  to  represent  the  nasal  sound  which  is 
generally  expressed  by  ng. 


No. 

43.— NORTH-WEST  OF  LAKE  EYRE. 

By  F.  E.  Jacobs,  Esq. 

Kangaroo    - 

kungara. 

Hand  - 

masra. 

Opossum      - 

pilda. 

2  Blacks       - 

tua  parakulu. 

Tame  dog    - 

madia. 

3  Blacks      - 

tua  kulpari. 

Wild  dog     - 

One     - 

sthuja. 

Emu    - 

wurrukotti. 

Black  duck  - 

dummi. 

Two     - 

parakulu. 

Wood  duck 

Three  - 

kulpari. 

Pelican 

■  tampanpara. 

Pour    - 

parakulu-para- 

Laughing  jackass 

kulu. 

Native  companion  puralka. 

Father 

ainja. 

White  cockatoo 

nardnanpn. 

Mother 

stharluka. 

Crow  - 

■  wokkala. 

Sister-Elder 

kuppali. 

Swan  - 

■  kurti. 

„     Younger  ■ 

Egg     - 

pappu. 

Brother-Elder 

sthutti. 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  tidna. 

„       Younger 

Fish    - 

-  worri. 

A  young  man 

tarinka. 

Lobster 

kurukudirri. 

Crayfish 

An  old  man 

muttupurdu. 

Mosquito     - 

tudinma. 

An  old  woman 

wuljula. 

Fly      -        - 

-  sthurrinhurri. 

A  baby 

sthallua. 

Snake  - 

titta. 

A  White  man 

The  Blacks  - 

-  tua. 

ChUdren      - 

sthallua. 

A  Blackfellow 

tuachuju. 

Head  - 

kartapu. 

A  Black  woman 

-  boku. 

Eye     - 

mUkikardi. 

Nose    - 

-  milla. 

Ear     - 

turri. 

NORTH-WEST   OF   LAKE    EYRE. 


13 


No. 

43. — North-west  oi 

Lake  Eyee — continued. 

Mouth 

■  moma. 

Boomera.ng  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

-  tuckara. 

Hill     - 

. 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  whirri. 

Wood  - 

-  sthalpa. 

Beard  - 

-  stharukats- 
charda. 

Stone  - 

-  kadna. 

Camp  - 

Yes      - 

-  sthura. 

Thunder      - 
Grass  - 

-  pUdri-pildri. 

-  kutu. 

-  kau. 

Tongue 

-  tanjama. 

No       - 

-  banni. 

Stomach 

-  kunnakardi. 

I 

-  sthanna. 

Breasts 

-  sthamma. 

You     - 

-  andrugundree 

Thigh  - 

-  tarra. 

Bark    - 

-  pitjamurru. 

Foot    - 

-  tidna. 

Good   - 

-  sthurku. 

Bone    - 

-  wolpu. 

Bad     - 

-  madia. 

Blood  - 

-  giimTnari. 

Sweet  - 

-  murdu. 

Skin    - 

-  batta. 

Food    - 

-  workana. 

Fat      ■         -       ■ 

-  mami. 

Hungry 

-  wordlara. 

Bowels 

-  kunmateiri. 

Thirsty 

-  sthalparia. 

Excrement  - 

-  kunna. 

Eat      - 

-  tarumda. 

War-spear   - 
Reed-spear  - 

-  pirrimpara. 

Sleep  - 

-  kurmala. 

Wommera   - 

. 

Drink 

-  puntarda. 

Shield-       ■- 

-  mudluworru. 

Walk  - 

-  tuckanda. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  karlara. 

See      - 

-  sthanninda 

Oanoe - 

Sit       - 

-  tankarda. 

Sun     - 

-  muju. 

Yesterday    - 

-  woldapurta. 

Moon  - 

-  purtu. 

To-day 

-  amti. 

Star     - 

-  kardipilla. 

To-morrow  - 

-  wongara. 

Light  - 

-  paredscM. 

Where  are  the 

tua  tiara  ? 

Dark   - 

-  sthalpuru. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    - 

-  backala. 

I  don't  know 

-  sthannago. 

Heat    - 

-  karrara. 

Plenty- 

-  sthadla. 

Day     - 

-  muju. 

Big      - 

-  kartuwirri. 

Night 

-  wompa. 

Fire     - 

-  macka. 

Little  - 

-  stharra. 

Water 

-  kutta. 

Dead   - 

-  kumpirra. 

Smoke 

-  mackatupu. 

By-and-by  - 

-  thaeinni. 

Ground 

-  wodlu. 

Come  on 

-  kaua. 

Wind  - 

-  wonunara. 

Milk   - 

- 

Rain    - 

-  kurraworra. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God     - 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife    - 

- 

14 


THE  AUSTRALIAN  RACE: 


No,  44.— THE  NORTH  SHORE  OP  LAKE  EYRE. 


By  p.  E.  Jacobs,  Esq. 
Per  remarks  on  the  spelling  of  this  vocabulary  see  No.  43. 


Kangaroo    - 
Opossum     - 
Tame  dog    - 
Wild  dog    - 
Emu   -        -        . 
Black  duck 
Wood  duck 
Pelican 

Laughing  jackass 
Native  companion 
White  cockatoo  - 
Crow 

Swan  -        -        - 
Egg     - 
Track  of  a  foot 
Pish    - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito     - 
Ply      .        - 
Snake  - 
The  Blacks  - 
A  Blackfellow 
A  Black  woman 
Nose   - 


yshuckuru. 

pilka. 

tirrita. 

workatji. 
durnmi. 

worrantjuma. 

puralku. 

wauwacka. 

pampu. 


pirtipupu. 

dritji. 

tipamakatu. 

karna. 

karmaehunara. 

widla. 

mudla. 


Hand  - 

2  Blacks      - 

3  Blacks      - 

One     -        - 
Two    - 
Three  - 
Pour  - 

Pather 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

„       Younger 
Brother-Elder 

,,  Younger 

A  young  man 
An  old  man 
An  old  woman     - 
A  baby 
A  White  man 
Children 
Head 
Bye     - 
Ear      - 


-  karna  parukulu, 

-  karna  paraku- 
auna. 

-  sthunara. 

-  parukulu. 

-  parakuauna. 

-  parakulu-para- 
kulu. 

-  stharrapi. 

-  sthandri. 

-  sthuttari. 

-  sthuju. 

woUunku. 
kurkaru. 
wildapirna. 
kubanaukatu. 


sthurdutandra, 

milki. 

turpa. 


THE  NORTH  SHORE  OF  LAKE  EYRE. 


15 


No.  44. — The  North  Shobe  of  Lake  Eybx.— continued. 


Mouth 

-  morna. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth 

-  mornatirri. 

Hill     - 

- 

Hah-  of  the  heac 

-  wuilpuru. 

Wood 

-  pinta. 

Beard 

_ 

Stone  - 

-  marda. 

Thunder      - 

Camp  - 

- 

Yes     - 

_ 

Grass  - 

-  kuttu. 

No      - 

- 

Tongue 

-  tarlimaukatu. 

I 

Stomach 

-  tundru. 

You    - 

-  tidni. 

Breasts 

- 

Bark  - 

-  pitji. 

Thigh  - 

- 

Foot    - 

Good  - 

-  tampa. 

Bad     - 

-  manna. 

Bone  - 

-  worrupu. 

Sweet  - 

-  mardu. 

Blood  - 

- 

Food   - 

_ 

Skin    - 

-  kadla. 

Pat      - 

Hungry 

-  mauanu. 

Bowels 

-  kunnaworla. 

Thirsty 

-  tardinu. 

Excrement  - 

- 

Eat      - 

-  taiima. 

War- spear  - 

-  kuju. 

Sleep  - 

-  mokaparrena 

Reed-spear  - 

- 

Drink  - 

-  tubburra. 

Thro  wing-stick 

- 

Walk  - 

-  wappema. 

Shield 

-  stharranamma 

See      - 

-  sthirkana. 

Tomahawk  - 

- 

Sit       - 

-  sthammana. 

Canoe  - 

- 

Yesterday    - 

-  woldra. 

Sun     - 

-  ditji. 

To-day  .     - 

-  karikura. 

Moon  - 

-  stharra. 

To-morrow  - 

-  wonganuUi. 

Star     - 

-  ditjinaukata. 

Where    are   ■ 

the 

Light  - 

- 

Dark   - 

- 

Blacks? 

Cold    - 

-  backala. 

I  don't  know 

- 

Heat  - 

- 

Plenty 

-  whitta. 

Day     - 

-  ditji. 

Big      -        - 

-  pirma. 

Night 

-  palkara. 

Little  - 

-  wolka. 

Fire     - 

-  ture. 

Dead  -        - 

-  naccri. 

Water 

-  sthappa. 

By-and-by  - 

-  karra. 

Smoke 

-  turotupu. 

Come  on 

-  phuila. 

Ground 

-  woiliu. 

Milk    - 

- 

Wmd- 

- 

Rain    - 

-  kurrara. 

Eaglehawk 

- 

God     - 

_ 

WUd  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife  - 

- 

16 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  45.— WEST  OP  LAKE  EYRE. 


By  John  Wabkbn,  Esq.,  and  John  Hogarth,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  koongaroo. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum 

-  wombla. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  nulla  parakula. 

Tame  dog    - 
Wild  dog    - 
Emu   - 
Black  duck 
Wood  duck 
Pelican 

-  mudlu. 

-  wilki. 

•  warrewotti. 

-  mulchawaroo. 

-  worandoo. 

3  Blacks      - 
One     - 
Two    - 
Three  - 
Four   - 

-  nulla  kulparte. 

-  oyoo. 

-  parakula. 

-  kulparte. 

-  parakula-para- 

Laughing  jackass 
Native  companion  wooroo. 
White  cockatoo  -  kadaroonga. 
Crow  -        -        -  wakilla. 

Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

kula. 

-  neia. 

-  looka. 

-  kakoo. 

Swan  - 

-  kooti. 

,,     Younger 

-  koobakoo. 

Egg     - 

-  bapoo. 

Brother-Elder 

-  nooto. 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  darri. 

,,        Younger  koobakoo. 

Fish    - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito     - 
Fly      - 

-  paroo. 

-  koongideri. 

-  ueni. 

-  yoorgoori. 

A  young  man 
An  old  man 
An  old  woman 
A  baby 

r  kulpi. 

-  warroo. 

-  willula. 

-  koopa-koopa. 

Snake 

-  wabina. 

A  White  man 

- 

The  Blacks  - 

-  nulla. 

Children      - 

- 

A  Blackfellow 

-  nulla. 

Head  - 

-  kardiapoo. 

A  Black  woman 

-  bookoo. 

Bye     - 

-  miltekurte. 

Nose    - 

-  meetla. 

Ear      - 

-  yerri. 

WEST    OP    LAKE    EYRE. 


17 


No.  45.- 


Mouth 

-  murna. 

Teeth 

-  yakkara. 

Hair  of  the  head-  yarree. 

Beard  - 

-  minga. 

Thunder      - 

-  pulpa. 

Grass  - 

-  komgara. 

Tongue 

-  tarli. 

Stomach 

-  koodnakurte. 

Breasts 

-  ngumma. 

Thigh - 

- 

Foot   - 

-  tidna. 

Bone  - 

-  walpoo. 

Blood  - 

-  kooabmarri. 

Skin    - 

-  pelta-nooree. 

Fat      - 

-  mumi. 

Bowels 

-  kunakurri. 

Excrement  - 

-  koodna 

War-spear  - 

-  peremboora. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  katchi. 

Wommera    or 

throwing-stick 

Shield 

-  moodlawarroo 

Tomahawk  - 

-  kaudi. 

Canoe  - 

- 

Sun     - 

-  mooyoo. 

Moon  - 

-  burilla. 

Star    - 

-  kardikilla. 

Light  - 

-  arka. 

Dark  - 

-  milooroo. 

Cold    - 

-  mudli. 

Heat  -        -    . 

-  warontoha. 

Day     - 

-  wudla. 

Night  - 

-  alboonoo. 

Fire    - 

-  mukka. 

Water 

-  koota. 

Smoke 

-  toopo. 

Ground 

-  wodla. 

Wind  - 

-  wobnera. 

Rain   - 

-  chaili. 

God     - 

- 

Ghosts 

_ 

SB  Eyrs— continued. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Hill     - 

- 

Wood  - 

-  mukka. 

Stone  - 

-  kadna. 

Camp  - 

-  oo-oo-oor-roo. 

Yes     - 

-  pee,  yarra. 

No       . 

-  padne. 

I 

-  outu. 

You     -        - 

-  anpa. 

Bark    - 

- 

Good  - 

-  oo-oo-koo. 

Bad     - 

-  mudlante. 

Sweet  - 

- 

Food  - 

-  chalpa. 

Hungry       - 

- 

Thirsty 

- 

Eat      - 

Sleep  - 

-  koodnuUana. 

Drink  - 

-  poontarda. 

Walk  - 

-  ukunda. 

See      - 

-  nangenda. 

Sit       - 

-  tonkuima. 

Yesterday  - 

-  kulkara. 

To-day 

-  woldarapoota 

To-morrow  - 

-  wongara. 

Where    are 

the    wetiara  nulla 

Blacks  ? 

I  don't  know 

-  wijero. 

Plenty 

-  nooka. 

Big      - 

■■  burra-burra. 

Little  - 

-  kooparkoopa. 

Dead  - 

-  boorunda. 

By-and-by  - 

-  yadnai. 

Come  on 

-  kowana. 

Milk   - 

- 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Wife  - 

- 

VOL.  II. 


18  THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

No.  46.-WAEBURTON    EIVER. 

By  W.  J.  Paull,  Esq. 

The  following  vocabulary  of  the  language  of  tlie  Ominee 
tribe  was  forwarded  to  me  by  Mr.  W.  J.  Paull,  if  I  read 
the  signature  correctly.  That  gentleman  informs  me  that 
the  marches  of  the  lands  of  the  Ominee,  Wongonooroo, 
Kuranyooroo,  and  Yarleeyandee  tribes,  all  intimately  con- 
nected, meet  on  the  Warburton  Eiver,  at  Oowarie  head- 
station.  This  country,  my  correspondent  goes  on  to  say, 
was  first  occupied  by  the  Whites  in  1876,  at  which  time 
these  tribes  amounted  in  the  aggregate  to  between  six 
and  eight  hundred  souls,  at  which  number  they  still 
remain.  No  clothes  are  worn  by  them ;  the  women  go 
quite  naked,  and  the  men  have  only  a  belt  made  of 
human  hair  round  the  waist,  from  which  a  fringe  spun 
from  the  fur  of  rats  hangs  in  front.  The  men  also 
smear  the  skin  with  grease,  and  daub  the  body  with 
red  and  yellow  ochre,  and  the  women  sometimes  wear 
a  bone  through  the  septum  of  the  nose,  which  is  pierced 
for  the  purpose.  Most  of  the  males  have  two  teeth 
extracted,  but  not  all  of  them.  Several  sorts  of  nets 
are  in  use,  made  of  rushes  or  human  hair.  This  tribe 
use  no  tomahawks,  properly  speaking;  but  for  tomahawk 
purposes  a  flint  fixed  chisel-fashion  on  to  the  end  of 
a  piece  of  wood  by  means  of  a  compound  of  water, 
sand,  and  the  ashes  of  a  bush  called  mindree.  This 
instrument  is,  as  the  reader  has  seen,  in  extensive  use 
on  the  west  coast.  Their  weapons  are  clubs,  boomerangs, 
and  spears  thrown  by  hand.  The  chief  articles  of  food 
are  nardoo,  fish,  wild-fowl,  eggs,  rats,  and  snakes  of 
various   sorts. 

Cannibalism  exists  amongst  them,  but  is  not  com- 
monly practised.  Sometimes  when  a  Black  dies  from 
natural  causes,  his  relations  eat  portions  of  the  body; 
but  if  a  death  happens  in  a  piny  a  or  war  party,  any 
of  the  tribe  who  are  present  partake  of  the  fiesh  of  the 


WARBURTON   RIVER.  19 

deceased.  The  reason  of  these  differences  probably  is 
that  in  camp  a  person  might  by  magic  take  the  life 
of  one  not  nearly  related  to  him  for  the  sake  of  a 
meal;  that  relatives  would  never  commit  such  an  act;  and 
that  none  would  do  it  whilst  on  the  war-path,  when  every 
combatant  is  of  consequence.  They  say  the  human  flesh 
tastes  much  like  that  of  the  iguana.  Mr.  PauU  gives 
me  the  following  names  of  persons: — Men:  Yanchillina, 
Pirrillina,  Tarrallina,  Nalkallina.  Women:  Yinkeetarrina, 
Ithapappina,  Waunillina,  Koorakookanea. 

The  men  marry  women  of  other  tribes.  Polygamy  is 
in  force,  but  my  informant  says  that  neither  widows  nor 
widowers  marry  again,  in  which  I  think  he  must  be 
mistaken.  He  also  remarks  that  most  of  the  women  who 
have  children  seem  to  be  between  28  and  40  years  of  age, 
and  that  children  are  not  numerous.  These  tribes  scar  the 
body  extensively  by  way  of  ornament.  Most  of  the  males 
are  admitted  at  about  fifteen  years  of  age  to  the  rank  of 
young  man  by  means  of  the  terrible  rite.  Some,  how- 
ever, undergo  circumcision  only,  and  these  are  said  to  be 
the  fathers  of  the  children  in  the  tribe.  Weighing  the 
facts,  that  the  women  rear  no  children  until  well  on  in 
life,  that  the  great  majority  of  the  males  are  rendered 
incapable  of  begetting  children  and  others  not,  and  that 
only  some  of  them  have  teeth  knocked  out,  I  have  no 
doubt  that  these  practices  are  the  results  of  precise  laws 
the  particulars  of  which  have  not  reached  me,  the  object 
of  which  is  to  limit  population.  In  connection  with  this 
subject  the  reader  is  referred  to  the  account  of  the  Birria 
tribe,  near  the  junction  of  the  Thompson  and  Barcoo. 

Pitcheree  is  chewed  by  these  tribes,  and  Mr.  PauU 
remarks  that  some  of  the  Whites  who  have  smoked  it, 
when  tobacco  has  been  scarce,  say  that  it  puts  them  to 
sleep. 

Around  places  where  emu  are  known  to  be,  the  grass 
is  set  on  fire,  and  by  this  means  they  are  driven  into 
nets    or    waterholes    and    killed.      Kangaroo    are    hardly 

B  Z 


20 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


found  in  this  country.  As  usual,  the  hair  of  these  tribes 
is  long,  sometimes  straight,  and  at  others  wavy  and 
curly.  When  a  man  dies,  it  is  often  thought  to  be  the 
result  of  a  hone  having  been  pointed  at  him  by  the 
doctor  of  another  tribe,  and  then  an  expedition  to  revenge 
his  death  follows.  Messengers  are  sometimes  sent  to 
absent  friends  bearing  a  string  saturated  with  the  blood  of 
the  sender,  as  an  intimation  to  come  to  him  speedily. 
Friends-  embrace  each  other  on  meeting  after  a  long 
absence.  No  signs  of  government  or  distinction  of  rank 
exist  in  these  tribes. 

Mr.  PauU's  account  is  full  of  interest,  and  one  cannot 
help  regretting  that  he  had  not  materials  to  make  it 
more  complete. 


No.  46.— WARBURTON  RIVER. 
By  W.  J.  Paull,  Esq. 


Kangaroo  - 
Opossum  - 
Tame  dog  - 
Wild  dog  - 
Emu  - 
Black  duck  - 
Wood  duck 
Pelican 

Laughing  jackass 
Native  companion 
White  cockatoo  - 
Crow  -  -  - 
Swan  -  -  - 
Egg    - 

Track  of  a  foot    - 
Fish    - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito     - 
Fly      -        . 
Snake 
The  Blacks 
A  Blackfellow 
A  Black  woman 
Nose  - 


chookeroo. 

marloo. 

kinthalla. 

(the  same). 

warroogatty. 

pia. 

-  toompingaroo. 


pooralco. 

karrong. 

kowilka. 

kootee. 

kaapee. 

dinna. 

paroo. 

koonkoodirri. 

koontie,  koinyee. 

moonchow. 

toothoo. 

marroopoo. 

kanna. 

willa, 

moola. 


Hand  -        -        .. 

2  Blacks      - 

3  Blacks      - 
One     - 
Two    - 
Three 

Four   -        -        - 

Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

„       Younger  - 
Brother-Elder     - 

,,         Younger 
A  young  man 
An  old  man 
An  old  woman     - 
A  baby 
A  White  man 
Children 

Head  -        -        . 
Eye     - 
Ear     - 


koono. 
mandroo. 
parrakoolo. 
mandroo-man- 
droo. 
appurree. 
andree 
karkoo. 

naatatta. 

tarree. 
pinaroo. 
widleepena. 
wakka-wakka. 

primna-primna. 
mungatundra. 
milkee. 
talpa. 


WARBURTON    EIVER. 


2] 


No.  46. — Wabbukton  'Riveb.— continued. 

Boomerang  - 
Hill,  if  rocky 
„    if  sand 
Wood  - 
Stone  - 
Camp  - 
Yes     - 

No      -        -        ■ 
I  -        - 

You  - 
Bark  - 
Good  - 
Bad  - 
Sweet  - 
Food  - 
Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat  - 
Sleep  - 
Drink  - 
Walk  - 
See     - 

Sit      -       -        - 
Yesterday  - 
To-day 
To-morrow  - 
Where    are    the 
Blacks  ? 
I  don't  know       -  anacoo. 
Plenty         -        -  murrapoo. 
Big      -        -        -  piarree. 
Little  -        -        -  waddawak. 
Dead  -        -        -  palHna. 
By-and-by  -        -  wallyea. 
Come  on      -        -  kopperow. 
Milk   -        -        -  namma. 
Baglehawk  -        -  karrawurra. 
Wild  turkey        -  kallatoora. 
Wife    -        .        -  nooa. 


Mouth 

-  muma. 

Teeth  - 

-  munathundra. 

Hair  of  the  head-  parra. 

Beard  - 

-  nanka. 

Thunder      - 

-  pildree-pildree. 

Grass  - 

-  kanta. 

Tongue 

-  tarlee. 

Stomach 

-  mandree. 

Breasts 

-  mamma. 

Thigh - 

-  noora. 

Foot    - 

-  dinna. 

Bone   - 

-  mookoo. 

Blood  - 

-  koomarree. 

Skin    - 

-  dalla. 

Fat      - 

-  marnee. 

Bowels 

-  kippera. 

Excrement  - 

-  koodna. 

War-spear  - 

-  kaltee. 

Reed-spear  - 

- 

Wommera  or 

preeta. 

thro  wing-stick 

Shield 

-  pirramurra. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  toola. 

Canoe  - 

- 

Sun     - 

-  ditchee. 

Moon  - 

-  pirra. 

Star    - 

-  ditchee  (?) 

Light  - 

-  marroo. 

Dark  - 

-  warroo-warroo. 

Cold    - 

-  killpolee. 

Heat  - 

-  waldra. 

Day    - 

-  karrarree. 

Night  - 

-  melyarroo. 

Fire     - 

-  tooroo. 

Water 

-  appa. 

Smoke 

-  topoo. 

Ground 

"  meta. 

Wind  - 

-  wattara. 

Rain  - 

-  tallarra. 

God    - 

-  mooroo-moora. 

Ghosts 

-  koochee. 

keera. 

murda. 

dakko. 

raoolyea. 

murda. 

nooia. 

yow. 

pannee, 

akannee. 

inkannee. 

pitchee. 

nkoma. 

moontohoo. 

mardoopinna. 

boaka. 

mowallee. 

tardeeallee. 

tina. 

moka. 

tapooinna. 

wappina. 

nina. 

nammerna. 

waldrawirtee. 

kurraree. 

tunkapuma. 

widderee  kanna? 


22 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  47.— WARBURTON  RIVER. 


By  W.  H.  Cornish,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

chookooroo. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum 

wampala. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  yoo-oo  parakoo- 

Tame  dog    - 

muUa. 

loo. 

Wild  dog     - 

3  Blacks      - 

-  yoo-ou  koolparie 

Emu    - 

waraguita. 

One     - 

. 

Black  duck  - 

Two     - 

-  parakooloo. 

Wood  duck- 

Three  - 

-  koolparie. 

Pellcan 
Laughing  jackass 

tumpunara. 

Four    - 

Native  companion  pooralkoo. 

Father 

-  anya. 

White  cockatoo  - 

kudaroonka. 

Mother 

-  umma. 

Crow  - 

wackalla. 

Sister-Elder 

-  karkoo. 

Swan  - 

koodie. 

„      Younger 

-  koopalie. 

Egg     -        - 

parpoo. 

Brother-Elder 

-  nutie-nutie. 

Track  of  a  foot 

tidna. 

,,        Younger  koopalie. 

Fish     - 

warrie. 

A  young  man 

-  kerna. 

Lobster 

Crajrflsh 

koonkooderie. 

An  old  man 

-  matapoota. 

■ 

An  old  woman 

-  willula. 

Mosquito 

yoowinya. 

Fly      - 

ooringoorie. 

A  baby 

-  nara-nara. 

Snake  (carpet) 

wonungunnie. 

A  White  man 

- 

The  Blacks  - 

yoo-oo-oodla. 

Children 

-  nara  naroo-o-la. 

A  Blackfellow 

yoo-oo. 

Head 

-  kardappoo. 

A  Black  woman 

moncurra. 

Eye     - 

-  milkey. 

Nose    - 

meedla. 

Ear      - 

-  yarrie, 

WARBURTON    RIVER. 


23 


No.  47. — Wabbubton  Riveb — continued. 


Mouth 

-  murna. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

-  yackarra. 

Hill     - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head-  wirrie. 

Wood- 

-  muoka. 

Beard 

-  unka. 

Stone  - 

-  kadna. 

Thunder 

-  moonkarda. 

Camp  - 

-  ooria. 

Grass  - 

-  chilpa. 

Yes     - 

-  kowina. 

Tongue 

-  tanjauna. 

No       -        - 

-  panie. 

Stomach 

-  koona-kuddie. 

I 

-  unta. 

Breasts 

-  umma. 

Thigh 

-  tarra. 

You     - 

-  umpa. 

Foot    - 

-  tidna. 

Bark   - 

-  pitchamooroo. 

Bone   - 

-  walpoo. 

Good  - 

-  oorkoo. 

Blood  - 

-  koomarie. 

Bad     - 

-  mudla. 

Skin    - 

-  putta. 

Sweet  - 

-  oorkoo. 

Fat     - 

-  monnie. 

Food  - 

-  kartie. 

Bowels 

-  koonaturie. 

Hungry 

-  wadlara. 

Excrement  - 

- 

Thirsty 

-  aparra. 

War-spear  - 

-  wonna. 

Eat     - 

-  tuninda. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  kutchie. 

Sleep  - 

-  koonalunda. 

Wommera  or 

munkoorara. 

Drink  - 

-  poontada. 

throwing-stick 

Walk  - 

-  ukunda. 

Shield - 

-  mooloowarroo. 

Tomahawk  - 

See      - 

-  nuninda. 

Canoe  - 

_ 

Sit       - 

-  tunkada. 

Sun     - 

-  mooyoo. 

Yesterday  - 

-  kulkawarra. 

Moon  - 

-  arkunnie. 

To-day 

-  untie. 

Star     - 

-  kerdie-billa. 

To-morrow  - 

-  wongara. 

Light  - 

-  bukkie. 

Where   are 

the    yoo-too  teara? 

Dark  - 

-  wona. 

Blacks? 

Cold    - 

-  muUara. 

I  don't  know 

-  ina  koo. 

Heat  - 

-  kuna-kuUa. 

Plenty 

-  udla. 

Day     - 

- 

Big     - 

-  kirtiewirrie. 

Night  - 

-  wonga. 

Fire     - 

-  mukka. 

Little  - 

-  nara-nara. 

Water 

-  koola. 

Dead  - 

-  wonchada. 

Smoke 

-  toopoo. 

By-and-by  - 

-  woolya. 

Ground 

-  wadlea. 

Come  on 

-  kowanarie. 

Wind- 

-  womara. 

Milk    - 

- 

Rain    - 

-  koorowara. 

Baglehawk  - 

- 

God     - 

-- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 



Wife  - 

- 

24 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  48.— COOPER'S  CREEK,  TO  THE  EASTWARD  OF 
ITS  NORTHERN  BRANCH ;  ALSO  KOONGI  LAKE. 

By  W.  H.  Coknish,  Esq.,  and  Henky  G.  Salmon,  Esq. 

In  connection  with  this  portion  of  the  Cooper's  Creek 
country,  I  have  received  vocabularies  from  W.  H.  Cornish, 
Esq.,  and  Henry  G.  Salmon,  Esq.  The  one  supplied  by 
the  first  of  these  gentlemen  is  from  the  language  of  the 
Yowerawoolka  tribe,  and  Mr.  Salmon's  from  Koongi 
(usually  &pelt  Coongy)  Lake  Station,  lat.  27°  south,  long. 
140°  east,  or  thereabouts. 

With  his  vocabulary,  Mr.  Salmon  has  also  sent  me  some 
particulars  concerning  the  plant  called  pitcheree,  which  is 
very  extensively  used  in  this  portion  of  Australia.  As  the 
weed  is  not  found  near  Koongi  (dry)  Lake,  long  journeys 
are  made  periodically  to  the  north-west  by  the  men  of  the 
tribe  to  procure  it.  It  is  said  to  be  a  mild  narcotic. 
Women  use  it,  but  less  frequently  than  men.  The  specimen 
sent  me  by  Mr.  Salmon  consisted  of  small  sticks  about  the 
thickness  of  rye-grass  stems.  "The  Blacks'' — says  this 
gentleman — "  first  chew  it  into  a  mass,  then  mix  it  with  the 
ashes  of  gum-tree  leaves,  making  a  paste  ball.  This,  when 
kept  in  the  mouth  for  some  time,  has  a  highly  stimulating 
effect."     Mr.  Salmon  gives  the  following  additional  words : — 


Quick  - 

-  pukkulli. 

Forehead     - 

-  unda. 

Knee   - 

-  punta. 

Feather 

-  kootya. 

Gum-tree     - 

-  yallawarroo. 

Box-tree 

-  kulparoo. 

SandhiU       - 

-  merree. 

Plain  - 

-  yumburri. 

Creek  - 

-  kurrari. 

Lake    - 

-  ngappa-puina,  or 

big  water. 

Clouds 

-  parraweelpa. 

Centipede    - 

-  thinga-thinga. 

Lizard - 

-  kupa. 

Fishulg-net- 

-  peerly. 

Ashes  - 

-  toorpa. 

Sick    - 

-  woodiawarra. 

COOPER'S    CREEK.  25 

Bring  a  fire-stiok  -         -        -  mukka  arrangunoo. 

Bring  water ngappa  arramundratulka. 

Which  way  shall  we  go  ?       -        -  iilanda  towmahatohi  ? 

Where  are  you  sick?  or  In  what  part  iilanoonoo  woodiwarra  inganitchi  ? 

do  you  feel  amiss  ? 

It  is  going  to  rain  -         -         -        -  mura  (or  unyara)  towara. 

In  the  vocabulary  and  Additional  Words  of  this  language 
the  reader  may  compare  the  equivalents  of  The  Blacks; 
Where  are  the  Blacks?  Where  shall  we  go?  and  Where 
are  you  sick?  The  termination  hatchi,  itchi,  &c.,  in  con- 
nection with  iilanda,  &c.  =  where  is  remarkable. 


26 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE : 


No.  48.— COOPER'S  CREEK. 


By  H.  G.  Salmon, 


Kangaroo    - 

-  chookooroo. 

Hand  - 

- 

-  murra. 

Opossum      - 

-  murloo. 

2  Blacks 

- 

-  kooroo  barkoola. 

Tame  dog    - 

-  pandi. 

3  Blacks 

. 

-  kooroo   barkoola 

Wild  dog    - 

- 

goona. 

Emu   - 

-  warrawidgee. 

One     - 

_ 

-  goona. 

Black  duck 

-  dickeri. 

Two    - 

-  barkoola. 

Wood  duck 

-  goornabrinna. 

Three - 

-  barkoola  goona. 

Pelican 

-  dookamerri. 

Four   - 

. 

-  barkoola-bar- 

Laughing  jackass 

koola. 

Native  companion  koodri. 
White  cockatoo  -  nerrapitita. 

Father 
Mother 

- 

-  appari. 

-  undri. 

Crow  - 

-  kaoolika. 

Sister-Elder 

-  kako. 

Swan  - 

-  kurrawatti. 

Egg     - 

-  pampo. 

,,      Younger 

- 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  palto. 

Brother-Elder 

-  mooto. 

Fish    - 

-  kooya 

j» 

Young 

er 

Lobster 

_ 

A  young 

man 

-  poolya. 

Crayfish 

-  narramiuyeh. 

An  old  man 

-  kooroo-kooroo. 

Mosquito     - 

-  koonti. 

An  old  woman 

-  gooroolpo. 

Fly      - 

-  moondyoo. 

A  baby 

- 

-  tiddari. 

Snake  - 

-  parday. 

A  White 

man 

-  purloo. 

The  Blacks  - 

-  kooroo. 

Children 

. 

-  murrowa. 

A  Blackfellow 

-  koornoo. 

Head  - 

- 

-  koka. 

A  Black  woman 

-  yewa. 

Eye     - 

- 

-  meetyee. 

Nose   - 

-  kinta. 

Ear     - 

- 

-  tulpa. 

COOPER'S    CREEK. 


27 


No.  48. — Cooper's  Creek — continued. 


Mouth 

-  murna. 

Boomerang  - 

-  yarrakoodakoo 

Teeth  - 

-  nurruko. 

dari. 

Hair  of  the  head-  oolparoo. 

Hill     - 

- 

Beard 

-  unga. 

Wood 

-  wottee. 

Thunder      - 

-  unnera. 

Stone  - 

-  muddra. 

Grass  • 

-  poka. 

Camp  - 

-  noora. 

Tongue 

-  pulpa. 

Yes     - 

-  kow. 

Stomach 

-  toondroo. 

No      - 

-  pannee. 

Breasts 

-  umma. 

I 

-  unnyi. 

Thigh 

-  wondakilla. 

You    - 

-  yeanyi. 

Foot   - 

-  tinna. 

Bark  - 

-  dallamurroo. 

Bone   - 

-  moko. 

Good  - 

-  pytchi. 

Blood  - 

-  purrutera,  yanga- 

Bad     - 

-  murlundi. 

rungooroo. 

Sweet  - 

-  palyunginee. 

Skin   - 

-  durla. 

Food  - 

-  tyinunga. 

Fat     - 

-  munni. 

Hungry 

-  moaly. 

Bowels 

-  koornaduUa. 

Thirsty 

-  tatipalla. 

Excrement  - 

-  kooma. 

Bat     - 

-  boorta,      kur- 

War-spear  - 

-  windra. 

nunga. 

Reed-spear  - 

- 

Sleep  - 

-  toorungariati. 

Wommera  - 

-  yarra. 

Drink  - 

-  tappernunga. 

Shield 

-  narratitta. 

Walk  - 

-  tooarnunga. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  mudramoodipa. 

See      -        - 

-  wooranunga. 

Canoe  - 

-  ukobichi. 

Sit      -        - 

-  ninanunga. 

Sun     - 

-  trlchi. 

Yesterday  - 

-  ananinna  nook 

Moon  - 

-  prira. 

dra. 

Star    - 

-  trichi  poolya. 

To-day 

-  kaiiri. 

Light  - 

-  minda. 

To-morrow  - 

-  murrawinka. 

Dark  - 

-  murree. 

Where    are 

;he    iilatunna  koor- 

Cold    - 

-  multee. 

Blacks? 

natohi? 

Heat   - 

-  murpununga. 

I  don't  know 

-  kareel  atunna. 

Day     - 

-  mindii. 

Plenty 

-  mulkuri. 

Night 

-  murilla. 

Big      - 

-  uli. 

Fire     - 

-  mukka. 

Little  - 

-  poolya. 

Water 

-  ngappa. 

Dead  - 

-  puldringunna. 

Smoke 

-  toopo. 

By-and-by  - 

-  mini. 

Ground 

-  purla. 

Come  on 

-  kupparow. 

Wind- 

-  tyiri. 

Milk   - 

- 

Rain   - 

-  unyara. 

Eaglehawk 

- 

God     -        - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife   - 

- 

28 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  48.— COOPER'S  CREEK. 


By  W.  H.  CoKNiSH,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

chookooroo. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum 

mulloo. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  kerna  parakoola 

Tame  dog    - 

pandi. 

3  Blacks     - 

-  kerna   parakoola 

Wild  dog     - 

koornoo 

Emu    - 

quarra. 

One     - 

-  koornoo. 

Black  duck  - 

Two     - 

-  parakoola. 

Wood  duck- 

Three  - 

-  parakoola 

Pelican 

dukkamirri. 

koornoo. 

Laugking  jackass 

Pour    - 

- 

Native  companion  pooralko. 

Pather 

-  appardi. 

White  cockatoo 

koodrnnkoo. 

Mother 

-  undri. 

Crow  - 

kowulka. 

Sister-Elder 

-  karoo. 

Swan  - 

koodri. 

„      Younger 

- 

Egg     -        - 

pompoo. 

Brother-Elder 

-  ootoo. 

Track  of  a  foot    ■ 

tidna. 

,,          Younger 

Fish     - 

paroo. 

A  young  man 

-  karroo. 

Lobster 

An  old  man 

-  karroo-karroo  (?) 

Crayfish       - 

kidneykooderi. 

An  old  woman 

-  kooroopoo. 

Mosquito     - 

kunti. 

A  baby 

-  poola-poola. 

Ply       .         -         - 

moonohoo. 

A  White  man 

- 

Snake  - 

wooma. 

Children      - 

-  poolung  malkeri 

The  Blacks  - 

kerna. 

(many). 

A  Blackfellow     - 

kerna,  koornoo. 

Head  - 

-  koonkoo. 

A  Black  woman  - 

moukurra. 

Eye     -         - 

-  mitchie. 

Nose   - 

kitita. 

Ear 

koochara, 

COOPER'S    CREEK. 


29 


No.  48. — Cooper's  Creek — continued. 


Mouth 

-  muma. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth 

-  mundrakoo. 

Hill     - 

- 

Hair  of  the  heac 

-  koonkoo. 

Wood  - 

-  mukka. 

Beard 

-  unga. 

Stone  - 

-  murdra. 

Thunder 

-  yinki,  indie. 

Camp  - 

-  ooria. 

Grass 

-  kuntha. 

Yes      -        - 

-  kowina. 

Tongue 

-  perpa. 

No       - 

-  hii  panni. 

Stomach 

-  koonanewa. 

I 

-  ini. 

Breasts 

-  umma. 

You     - 

-  yinni. 

Thigh 

-  wondakilla. 

Bark   - 

-  delamooroo. 

Foot    - 

-  tidna. 

Good    - 

-  wotchi. 

Bone   - 

-  mookoo. 

Bad     - 

-  munamerla. 

Blood  - 

-  yoongooroo- 

Sweet  - 

- 

Skin    - 

-  dulla(bark?) 

Food   - 

-  booka. 

Fat      - 

-  monni. 

Hungry 

-  mooalli. 

Bowels 

-  koonakuUi. 

Thirsty 

-  moorrelli. 

Excrement  - 

-  koodna. 

Eat      - 

-  taindri. 

War-spear  - 

-  winara. 

Sleep  - 

-  mookapiari. 

Reed-spear  - 

- 

Drink  - 

-  tupendri. 

Wommera  - 

-  munkoorara. 

Walk-        - 

-  towindri. 

Shield-        - 

-  narateta 

See      - 

-  wowindri. 

Tomahawk  - 

- 

Sit       - 

-  ninindri. 

Canoe  - 

_ 

Sun     - 

-  kooti. 

Yesterday   - 

-  kulkunni. 

Moon  - 

-  pirra. 

To-day 

-  kiari. 

Star    - 

-  koolipoolya. 

To-morrow  - 

-  mumatunka. 

Light  - 

-  karumha. 

Where    are 

the    kerna  ilakarri  ? 

Dark  - 

-  murri. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    - 

-  poondrali. 

I  don't  know 

-  ha  koo. 

Heat  - 

-  mukkalla. 

Plenty 

-  mulkirri. 

Day     - 

-  karumba. 

Big      -        - 

■•  puma. 

Night  - 

-  murri. 

Little  - 

-  poolya. 

Fire     - 

-  mukka. 

Dead  - 

-  nari. 

Water 

-  apa. 

By-and-by  - 

-  minni. 

Smoke 

-  toopoo. 

Come  on 

-  kaparow. 

Ground 

-  pudla. 

Wmd  - 

-  tiarri. 

Milk  - 

- 

Rain   - 

-  unjara. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God     - 

. 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

Wife   - 

- 

30 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   EACE  : 


No.  49.— COOPER'S  CREEK,  IN  THE  NEIGHBOURHOOD  WHERE 
BURKE  AND  WILLS  DIED. 

By  Alfred  Howitt,  Esq.,  P.M. 


Kangaroo     - 

tchukuro. 

Hand  - 

-  mirra. 

Opossum 

2  Blacks      - 

-  mandra  kurna. 

Tame  dog    - 

kintalla. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  barcolo  kurna. 

Wild  dog     - 

One      - 

-  coono. 

Emu    - 

warrawatty. 

Two    - 

-  mandro. 

Black  duck  - 

tarralko. 

Wood  duck  - 

Three  - 

-  barcolo. 

Pelican 

tampangra. 

Four    ■        - 

-  mandro-mandro 

Laughing  jackass 

Father 

- 

Native  companion 

bouralko. 

Mother 

- 

White  cockatoo  - 

Sister-Elder 

. 

Crow   - 

,,      Younger 

Swan  - 

cotee. 

Brother-Elder 

_ 

Egg     -        -        - 
Track  of  a  foot     - 

capee. 
palto. 

,,          Younger 

Fish    - 

paroo. 

A  young  man 

-  carra-wallee, 

Lobster 

coopa. 

Crayfish 

An  old  man 

-  pinnaroo. 

Mosquito     - 

An  old  woman 

- 

Ply      - 

A  baby 

- 

Snake  - 

tuohu. 

A  White  man 

-  pirri-wirri. 

The  Blacks  - 

kurna. 

Children      - 

. 

A  Blaokfellow 

kurna. 

Head  - 

_- 

A  Black  woman  - 

noa. 

Eye      - 

-  milkee. 

Nose    - 

Ear      - 

. 

COOPER'S    CREEK. 


31 


No.  49. — Cooper's  Greek — continued. 


Mouth 

- 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

- 

Hill    - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head 

- 

Wood  - 

-  pattara. 

Beard  - 

- 

Stone  - 

-  murda. 

Thunder 

Camp  - 

-  gnoura  (ngoora?) 

Grass  - 

- 

Yes      -        - 

-  aho. 

Tongue 

- 

No       - 

-  watta. 

Stomach 

. 

Breasts 

. 

I 

-  gnannee,  gnatto 

Thigh - 

. 

You    - 

-  yennee. 

Foot    - 

-  tinna. 

Bark   - 

- 

Bone  - 

. 

Good  - 

-  gnomo. 

Blood  - 

- 

Bad     - 

-  malinkee. 

Skin    - 

Sweet  - 

-  ngomo. 

Fat      - 

- 

Food  - 

-  mowalley. 

Bowels 

- 

Hungry 

-  minalley. 

Excrement  - 

- 

Thirsty 

- 

War-spear  - 

- 

Eat      - 

-  tyena. 

Reed-spear  - 

Sleep 

-  ngourana. 

Throwing-stick 
Shield - 

- 

Drink 

-  tappena. 

Walk 

-  balkala,  taykana. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  bomaiko. 

See      - 

-  milkelee. 

Canoe  - 

-  (none). 

Sun     - 

■  deekee. 

Sit      - 

-  ningeea. 

Moon  - 

-  peera. 

Yesterday  - 

- 

Star    - 

-  peera  warka- 

To-day 

- 

warka. 

To-morrow  - 

-  tanko-burna. 

Light  - 

- 

Where    are 

uhe    kurna  woordary? 

Dark   - 

- 

Blacks? 

Cold    - 

-  puldralee. 

I  don't  know 

- 

Heat   - 

- 

Plenty 

- 

Day    - 

-  deekee. 

Big      -        - 

-  pinna. 

Night  - 

- 

Little  - 

-  warka-warka. 

Fire     - 

-  tooroo. 

Dead   - 

-  nandrena. 

Water 

-  appa. 

By-and-by  - 

-  minny-miniiy. 

Smoke 

-  toopoo. 

Ground 

-  mitta. 

Come  on 

■     -  ooperow. 

Wind- 

_ 

Milk   - 

- 

Rain   - 

-  tallera. 

Baglehawk  - 

- 

God     - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife   - 

- 

32 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  50.— COOPER'S  CREEK,  NEAR  THE  BOOLOO  RIVER. 
Bt  a.  F.  Sullivan,  Esq.,  and  Ernest  Eolinton,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

thaldara. 

Hand  - 

murra. 

Opossum     - 

murrathurra. 

2  Blacks      - 

Tame  dog    - 

thit-the. 

3  Blacks      - 

Wild  dog    - 

One     - 

watohualie. 

Emu    - 

koolbaree. 

Two    - 

barcoola. 

Black  duck 

willunga. 

Three  - 

barcoola    ther- 

Wood  duck 

ngowera. 

watchoo. 

Pelican 

Four    - 

barcoola  tra  bar- 

Laughing jackass 

coola. 

Native  companion  koonthurra. 

Father 

umacher. 

White  cockatoo 

thirindhella. 

Mother 

ummaldja. 

Crow  - 

worgaritchee. 

Sister-Elder 

kurrunni. 

Swan  - 

kootooroo. 

,,       Younger 

koorkane. 

Egg     -        -        - 

kupiuya. 

Brother-Elder 

koortchie. 

Track  of  a  foot 

thinna. 

, ,          Younger 

karkuudi. 

Fish    -        - 

kooa. 

A  young  man 

buloabit-thee. 

Lobster 

thandoola. 

An  old  man 

kurroo. 

Crayfish 

An  old  woman 

bootchoo,  minna 

Mosquito     - 

eurie. 

A  baby 

warniwah. 

Fly      - 

mooginger. 

A  White  man 

■  birrie. 

Snake - 

ngoothe. 

Children 

warrawarra  min 

The  Blacks  - 

kurna. 

gee. 

A  Blackfellow     - 

kurna. 

Head  - 

kooka. 

A  Black  woman  - 

walga. 

Eye     - 

bootharoo. 

Nose    -        -         - 

moola. 

Ear      - 

ngurramunda. 

COOPER'S    CREEK. 


33 


No.  50. — Cooper's  Ckeek,  neae,  the  Booloo  Eivbe — continued. 


Mouth 

-  thiga,  thaia. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth 

-  dthiga. 

Hill     - 

, 

Hair  of  the  head 

■  konkooroo. 

Wood  - 

-  muckoora. 

Beard  - 

-  unkooroonka. 

Thunder      - 

-  malloo. 

Stone 

-  yundera. 

Grass 

-  koola. 

Camp  - 

-  ngoora. 

Tongue 

-  thulgunya. 

Yes     - 

-  kow. 

Stomach 

-  i-e-mulla. 

No      -       - 

-  walya. 

Breasts 

-  umma. 

I 

-  ngoocha. 

Thigh 

-  thoorka. 

You    -       ■- 

■•  unnee. 

Foot 

-  thinna. 

Bark  - 

-  wombo. 

Bone  - 

-  moko. 

Blood  - 

-  mundalga. 

Good  - 

-  thallie. 

Skin    - 

•  nuncheenia. 

Bad    - 

-  mepa. 

Fat      - 

-  murnee. 

Sweet  - 

- 

Bowels 

-  goonabulga- 

Pood   - 

-  thalthurra. 

bulga. 

Hungry 

-  unga. 

Excrement  - 

-  koona. 

Thirsty 

-  ungegula. 

War-spear  - 

-  yungoo. 

Eat     - 

-  thalthagurra 

Reed-spear  - 
Wommera    or 

" 

Sleep 

-  walgurra. 

throwing-stick 

Drink 

-  ungegula. 

Shield- 

-  bur-o-goo. 

Walk  - 

-  yanthegurra. 

Tomahawk  - 

. 

See      - 

-  yaddegurra. 

Canoe  - 

-  ngumboo. 

Sit       - 

-  koolagurra. 

Sun     - 

-  milla. 

Yesterday  - 

-  neela. 

Moon  - 

-  mirriekurinya. 

To-day 

-  puUa. 

Star    - 

-  titchee. 

To-morrow  - 

-  wekuUa. 

Light  - 

-  bitthemurra- 

Where   are  the 

gurra. 

Blacks  ? 

Dark  - 
Cold    - 

-  ngowoo. 
•*  thillaba. 

I  don't  know 

-  walya. 

Heat   - 

-  yowoora. 

Plenty 

-  marrkoo. 

Day    - 

-  weka.  " 

Big      -        - 

-  thoondoo. 

Night  - 

-  nala. 

Little  - 

-  whyewa. 

Fire     - 

-  wee. 

Dead  - 

-  palloogurra. 

Water 

-  ugukka. 

By-and-by  - 

-  thoona. 

Smoke 

-  thopo. 

Come  on 

-  kowatha. 

Ground 

-  thukka. 

Wind- 

-  yalla. 

Milk   - 

- 

Rain   - 

-  peeter. 

Eaglehawk 

- 

God    - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife  - 

- 

VOL.   II. 

( 

-1 

34 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE; 


No.  51.— NOCKATOONGA,  WILSON  RIVER. 


By  T.  W.  Foott,  Esq. 


Kangaroo     - 

thuldra. 

Hand  - 

munbroo. 

Opossum 

murrathurra. 

2  Blacks      - 

Tame  dog     - 

thithe. 

3  Blacks       - 

Wild  dog     - 

One      - 

witeyooally. 

Emu"  - 

koolpurri. 

Two     - 

barkoola. 

Black  duck  - 
Wood  duck 
Pelican 

nowirra. 
kooraburra. 

Three  - 
Four    - 

wunnoo. 

Laughing  jackass 

(none). 

Father 

nundetya. 

Native  companion 

goonthurra. 

Mother 

umdetya. 

White  cockatoo  ■ 

Sister-Elder 

thurrengera. 

Crow   - 

Swan  - 
Egg     -        - 
Track  of  a  foot 
Fish     ■ 

wawkaretche. 

thurragoora. 

kuppy. 

thinna. 

gooia. 

„      Younger 
Brother-Elder 

Younger 
A  young  man 

kurwidge. 
kumgoo. 

Lobster 

An  old  man 

kurroo. 

Crayfish 

thinta. 

An  old  woman 

wuUganooga. 

Mosquito     - 

noonaruUy. 

A  baby 

wurriwa. 

Fly      - 

mokinga. 

A  White  m.au 

Snake 

The  Blacks  - 

A  Blackfellow 

moona. 
noo-ga. 

Children      - 
Head  - 

-  mootha. 

-  thumkoora. 

A  Black  woman 

wuUga. 

Eye      - 

-  boolderoo. 

Nose    - 

moolya. 

Ear      - 

-  nurramunda. 

NOCKATOONGA,   WILSON    RIVER. 


35 


No.  51. — NoCKATOONOA,  WiLSON  RivEB — contimied. 


Mouth 

-  tia. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

-  neelumburra. 

Hill     - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  kumkoora. 

Wood  - 

-  mukoora. 

Beard  - 

-  unkoora. 

Stone  - 

-  yandra. 

Thunder 

-  muUoo. 

Camp  - 

-  noora. 

Grass  - 

■  goola. 

Yes      - 

-  maia. 

Tongue 

-  thuUunya. 

No       - 

-  yow. 

Stomach 

-  naiamuUa. 

I- 

Breasts 

-  numma. 

You     - 

- 

Thigh  - 

-  bilgurra. 

Bark    - 

-  kooly. 

Foot    - 

-  thinna. 

Good   - 

-  muUinye. 

Bone    ■ 

-  munka. 

Bad     - 

-  toonka. 

Blood  - 

-  pundulya. 

Sweet  - 

. 

Skin    - 

-  boontyoo. 

Food    - 

-  tulta. 

Fat      - 
Bowels 
Excrement  - 

-  mumi. 

Hungry 

Thirsty 

-  goouga. 

-  nukka  linya 

(water  want) 

War-spear  - 

-  muUyoo. 

Eat      -    ■    - 

-  thultola. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  (not  used). 

Sleep  - 

-  woggo-gilla. 

Wommera   - 

-  (not  used). 

Drink - 

- 

Shield - 

-  boorgoo. 

Walk  - 

-  yantharilla. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  kootya. 

See      - 

-  thundolo. 

Canoe  - 

-  (not  used). 

Sit       - 

-  koolo-gilla. 

Sun      - 

-  yow-wirra. 

Yesterday  - 

- 

Moon  - 

-  merbirinye. 

To-day 

- 

Star     - 

-  ditye. 

To-morrow  - 

- 

Light  - 

-  weeka. 

Where  are  the 

Dark   - 

-  nowa. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    - 

-  thalluba. 

I  don't  know 

- 

Heat   - 

-  yow-wirra. 

Plenty- 

-  noo-ga. 

Day     - 

-  puUa. 

Big      - 

-  noo-ga. 

Night  - 

-  wawgurra. 

Little  - 

-  rhunyam. 

Fire     - 
Water - 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind  - 
Rain    - 

-  wee. 

-  nukka. 

-  thoopoo. 

-  thukka. 

Dead   - 
By-and-by  - 
Come  on 
Milk    - 
Eaglehawk  - 

-  pooloowuUa. 

-  mulpurra. 

God     - 

. 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife   - 

- 

C2 


36  THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  52.— THARGOMINDA,  BULLOO  EIVER. 

By  p.  W.  Mtles,  Esq.,  P.M. 

Foe  my  information  concerning  the  Wonkomarra  tribe, 
which  inhabits  the  Bulloo  within  a  radius  of  twenty  miles 
around  Thargominda,  I  am  indebted  to  the  kindness  of 
Frederic  W.  Myles,  Esq.,  P.M.  The  names  of  the  tribes 
which  adjoin  the  Wonkomarra  are,  to  the  south,  the  Poid- 
gerry  (on  the  Currowinya  Downs  station)  and  the  Bitharra 
(on  the  Bulloo  Downs  station);  to  the  west,  the  Thiralla 
(on  the  Nockatoongo  station)  and  Bromarra  (on  the  Con- 
bar  station) ;  to  the  north,  the  Bunthomarra  (on  the  Mount 
Margaret  station)  and  the  Murgoin  (on  the  Ardock 
station) ;  and  on  the  east  by  the  same  tribe  (on  the  Dyne- 
vor  station).  How  many  the  Wonkomarra  tribe  numbered 
when  the  Whites  took  possession  of  their  country  is  not 
known,  but  in  1883  ninety  of  them  were  still  alive,  nine 
being  children,  and  the  females  more  numerous  than  the 
males,  both  of  which  facts  point  to  a  very  considerable 
decrease  in  numbers.  Their  country  was  first  occupied  by 
the  Whites  in  1863  or  thereabouts.  At  that  time  opossum- 
rugs  were  not  much  in  use  in  the  tribe.  Their  ornaments 
were  reed  necklaces,  shells,  and  feathers,  the  women  wearing 
at  the  corroboree  a  fringe  of  string  from  waist  to  mid-thigh. 
When  menstruating,  the  women  paint  the  body  with  red 
ochre,  and  persons  in  mourning  with  mud  or  pipe-clay.  Their 
tomahawks,  before  they  obtained  iron  ones  from  the  Whites, 


THARaOMINDA,    BULLOO    RIVER.  37 

were  of  green  stone,  as  large  as  an  American  axe,  the  sides 
rather  roughly  chipped,  and  the  edges  ground  smooth. 
Their  knives,  as  usual,  were  bits  of  flint  gummed  on  to 
wooden  handles;  weapons  were  of  the  common  sorts;  their 
spears  thrown  by  hand  and  not  with  the  wommera;  and 
their  toy  boomerangs  returned  to  the  thrower.  Their  food, 
as  usual,  comprised  whatever  living  things  and  edible  roots 
their  country  produces  and  also  seeds.  In  cookery,  they 
grilled  on  the  fire;  they  also  baked  their  food  in  ovens,  or 
holes  dug  in  the  ground  for  the  purpose,  at  whatever  place 
they  might  chance  to  encamp,  and  not,  as  in  the  south,  at 
particular  places,  so  that  the  ash-heaps  found  in  Victoria, 
and  commonly  called  ovens  (and  by  one  writer  myrnong 
heaps),  are  not  found  in  their  country.  Eestrictions  with 
respect  to  the  use  of  certain  sorts  of  food  by  females  and 
youths  were  in  force.  Small-pox,  which  devastated  the 
Australian  tribes  from  1789  to  1840,  did  not  reach  the 
BuUoo. 

With  the  object  of  preventing  consanguineous  marriages, 
the  Wonkomarra  tribe  is  divided  into  several  classes,  each 
called  after  some  animal,  as  emu,  snake,  opossum,  &c.  In 
or  out  of  the  tribe  (for  the  neighbouring  tribes  had  similar 
organizations)  a  male  of  the  snake  class,  for  instance,  could 
only  marry  a  female  of  the  emu  6lass,  and  so  on.  Before 
the  coming  of  the  Whites,  any  infraction  of  this  law  was 
visited  with  death;  but  in  this  tribe,  as  in  all  others, 
aboriginal  laws  have  given  way  before  our  civilization.  Mr. 
Myles  thinks  the  women  gave  birth,  on  an  average,  to  about 
eight  children  each.  Infanticide  is  a  practice  of  old- 
standing.  Scrofulous  swellings  of  the  neck  are  common, 
and .  consumption  the  prevailing  disease.  The  males  have 
the  usual  ornamental  scars  on  the  forearm,  chest,  and  thighs  ; 
the  females  on  the  thighs  and  upper  part  of  the  stomach. 
The  septum  of  the  nose  is  perforated  in  both  sexes,  and  the 
females  have  two  front  teeth  knocked  out.  In  performing 
this  operation,  a  stone  is  held  inside  the  mouth  in  contact 
with  the  teeth  which  are  to  be  removed ;  against  them,  on 


38  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

the  outside  of  the  gums,  is  placed  the  aboriginal  chisel, 
which  is  smartly  struck  with  a  heavy  bit  of  wood  or  stone, 
and  by  this  means  the  teeth  are  punched  out.  A  fire-stick 
is  then  applied  to  the  bleeding  gums  to  remove  the  pain  or 
stop  the  bleeding.  Some  only  of  the  males  are  circumcised. 
Pitcheree  is  in  use,  being  obtained  by  barter  from  the 
Cooper's  Creek  tribes.  This  weed,  which  my  informant  says 
has  much  the  same  effects  as  opium  on  a  Chinaman,  is 
prepared  by  chewing  and  then  mixing  with  wood-ashes  and 
the  leaf  of  some  plant  of  which  he  does  not  know  the  name  ; 
it  is  then  baked  in  the  hot  embers  of  the  fire,  after  which  it 
is  ready  for  use.  The  first  chewing  was  a  part  of  the 
process  of  preparation ;  it  is  now  chewed  for  pleasure, 
like  tobacco.  A  man  at  the  camp  masticates  a  quid,  and 
after  a  time  passes  it  to  his  neighbour,  who  does  the 
same,  and  so  it  goes  round  the  party. 

In  this  tribe,  I  am  informed,  the  women  bury  the 
dead,  an  instance  of  the  fact  that,  amidst  the  sameness 
of  Australian  manners,  there  is  no  tribe  without  some 
little  novelty.  The  most  common  causes  of  war  are  steal- 
ing women  and  hunting  on  the  territory  of  a  neighbouring 
tribe.  Before  the  fighting  men  set  out  to  avenge  an  injury 
of  any  sort,  a  herald  is  despatched  to  the  enemy  to  declare 
war,  and  his  life  is  held  sacred.  The  members  of  the 
tribe  salute  each  other  on  meeting  after  an  absence  hy 
throwing  their  hands  up  to  their  heads.  No  form  of 
government  exists,  but  in  matters  of  importance  the  old 
men  are  always  consulted.  One  old  female,  whom  the 
Blacks,  when  speaking  English,  call  doctor,  has  great 
influence.  With  this  tribe  some  difficulty  is .  found  in 
getting  persons  to  tell  their  native  names.  The  following, 
however,  have  been  obtained: — Men:  Mipbungithe,  Pialli, 
Cobongooe,  Bobitje,  Burbinni,  and  Bathine.  Women:  Coo- 
lethe,  Barkaunta,  Bingeranta,  Nanbaranga,  Etheranga. 
Boys:  Beuranga,  son  of  Etheranga;  Undaranga,  son  of 
Nanberanga.  Qirls:  Billethe,  Mara;  and  Wingo,  daughter 
of  Pialli. 


THARGOMINDA,    BULLOO   RIVER. 


39 


It  is  important  to  notice  that  this  language  is  related 
to  those  of  Cooper's  Creek,  Umbertana,  Beltana,  Port 
Lincoln,  and  others  to  the  south-west,  whilst  the  tribes 
immediately  to  the  eastward-  of  the  Wonkomarra  speak 
languages  akin  to  those  in  use  to  the  north-east.  A  com- 
parison of  the  Upper  BuUoo  equivalents  for  a  Black,  yes, 
kangaroo,  emu,  egg,  hair,  &c.,  with  those  of  Cooper's 
Creek  and  the  other  places  named  will  make  this  relation- 
ship clear,  the  agreement  of  the  equivalents  of  a  Black 
and  yes  being  strong  evidence  on  this  point.  The  practice 
the  BuUoo  tribes  have  of  chewing  pitckeree  is  another 
evidence  of  the  relationship  in  question.  On  these  cir- 
cumstances I  lay  particular  stress,  as  they  go  to  show 
the  correctness  of  the  map  on  which  the  routes  taken  by 
the  several  sections  into  which  the  race  split  as  it  spread 
itself  over  the  continent  are  indicated. 

The  reader  will  notice  in  the  vocabulary  the  affinities 
between  the  words  tongue,  eat,  and  drink,  a  not  uncommon 
occurrence  in  our  languages,  and  may  find  himself  led  by 
them  to  some  considerations  in  connection  with  savage 
prehistoric  speech  generally.  The  female  with  tribal 
influence  amongst  the  Wonkomarra  is  an  exceptional 
feature  in  aboriginal  manners.  Besides  the  common 
vocabulary,  Mr.  Myles  gives  the  following  additional 
words : — 


Ribs    - 

-  monka. 

Near  at  hand 

-  wena. 

Side     -     ,   - 

-  warriba. 

I  think  so    - 

-  na-berri. 

Elbow - 

-  thurte. 

Yam-stick  - 

-  marie. 

Lightning   - 
Sky     -        - 
Go  quickly  - 
Come  quickly - 
Stop    - 

-  bitha-bitha. 

-  i-yerra. 

-  yerrangurra. 

-  yannaera. 

-  nina-yatho. 

Cloud  - 
Mist    - 
Husband     - 
Angry 
Jealous 
Strong 

-  thiringera. 

-  gunmo. 

-  nupa. 

-  malu. 

-  como,  keranetha 

-  mirtimberri. 

Young  woman 

-  maie. 

That  will  do 

-  nore. 

Dirty  fellow 

-  dooka-bitte. 

Flour  - 

-  bullowarra. 

Stinking 

-  dunka. 

Bread  - 

-  mano. 

A  long  way  off 

-  camparre. 

Comet 

-  gunke. 

40 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RAGE: 


No.  52.— THARGOMINDA,  BULLOO  RIVER. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  kuUa. 

Hand  - 

-  mara. 

Opossum 

-  gurrigen. 

2  Blacks      - 

- 

Tame  dog    - 

-  mari. 

3  Blacks      - 

- 

Wild  dog    - 

-  mari. 

One     - 

-  tharranya. 

Emu   - 

-  koolberri. 

Two    - 

-  barcoola. 

Black  duok- 

-  urle. 

Three  -      ■  - 

-  barcoola  go 

Wood  duck 

-  bitta-bitta. 

warra. 

Pelican 

-  kaubungarra. 

Four   - 

-  barcoola-bar- 

Laughing  jackass   (none). 

coola. 

Native  companion  (none). 

Father 

-  wanyu. 

White  cockatoo 

-  derringerri. 

Mother 

-  unu. 

Crow  - 

-  wathakur. 

Sister-Elder 

-  yaggoarre. 

Swan  - 

- 

,,      Younger 

-  gunyarre. 

Egg    -        - 

-  kuppe. 

Brother-Elder 

-  bommo. 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  yappara. 

„         Younge 

r   gongoogo. 

Fish    -        - 

-  guia. 

A  young  man 

-  oolyarra. 

Lobster 

- 

An  old  man 

-  korroo. 

Crayfish 

-  buggilla. 

An  old  woman 

-  budtha  mepa. 

Mosquito    - 

-  yoori. 

A  baby 

-  mitha  burlu  (i.e., 

Fly      - 

-  mogundhoo. 

little  one). 

Snake  - 

-  yethe,  moona. 

A  White  man 

-  doona(see  ghost) 

The  Blacks  - 

-  waruo,  ura. 

Children      - 

-  mutba. 

A  Blackfellow 

-  ura,    kunga. 

Head  - 

-  bunda. 

A  Black  woman 

-  wethetha. 

Eye     - 

-  mongoora. 

Nose    - 

-  minke. 

Ear     - 

-  bina. 

THARGOMINDA,    BULLOO   RIVER 


41 


No.  52.— Thabgomikda,  Bulloo  River— coniimiterf. 


Mouth 

-  thia. 

Teeth  - 

-  tiaa. 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  konkoora. 

Beard  - 

-  nankoora. 

Thunder     - 

-  mlndarro. 

Grass  ■• 

-  gootho. 

Tongue 

-  therlia. 

Stomach      - 

-  na-e-mil-la. 

Breasts 

-  nama. 

Thigh - 

-  thara. 

Foot    - 

-  dinna. 

Bone   - 

-  monka. 

Blood  - 

-  gomia. 

Skin    - 

-  oolia  Off  yoolia. 

Fat      - 

-  monne. 

Bowels 

-  warria. 

Excrement  - 

-  oono. 

War-spear  - 

-  yongo. 

Reed -spear  - 

-  (none). 

Throwing-stick 

-  (none). 

Shield - 

-  burrigo. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  gudga. 

Canoe  - 

-  (none). 

Sun     - 

-  thurnwia. 

Moon  - 

-  mirkerinia. 

Star    - 

-  teke. 

Light  - 

-  bitta  (muna?) 

Dark  - 

-  birta. 

Cold    - 

-  terria. 

Heat   - 

-  boia. 

Day     - 

-  muma. 

Night - 

-  birta. 

Fire    - 

-  wee. 

Water 

-  napa. 

Smoke 

-  bobatho. 

Ground 

-  docka^ 

Wind- 

- 

Rain    - 

-  yama. 

God     - 

-  pedongaloo. 

Ghosts 

-  doona. 

Boomerang  ■ 
Hill  - 
Wood  - 
Stone  - 
Camp  - 
Yes  - 
No  - 
I 

You 
Bark 
Good 
Bad 
Sweet  - 
Food 
Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat      - 
Sleep  - 
Drink  - 
Walk  - 
See      - 
Sit       - 
Yesterday  - 
To-day 
To-morrow  - 
Where    are 
Blacks? 
I  don't  know 

Plenty 
Big     -        - 
Little  - 
Dead  - 
By-and-by  ■ 
Come  on 

Milk   - 
Baglehawk  - 
Wild  turkey 
Wife   - 


the 


wanna, 
bompa  (sand). 

nora. 

thurloo. 

kow. 

yow. 

atho. 

yundo. 

birrea,    toombo. 

oloberri. 

winne-winne. 

■  monne  gubba. 

■  birajanna. 

'  napa  thala  altha. 

•  thale. 

•  annetho(?) 

-  thale. 

-  aunetho(?) 

-  nantharriga. 

-  yennana. 

-  nelia. 

-  konye. 

-  birtarra. 
ye  ninka  ura 

wamo  ? 
ni  yea  allit 

nanka. 
wamo. 
koba. 

mitta  burlo. 
daukeyan. 
boUee. 
kommera,  ko- 

mitha. 


new-wera. 


42 


THE  AUSTRALIAN  RACE: 


No.  53.— LOWER  BULLOO  RIVBR. 


By  a.  F.  Sullivan,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  koola. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum 

-  koorakunnia. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  barkoola  ngooara 

Tame  dog    - 

-  mirre. 

3  Blacks      - 

- 

Wild  dog    - 

- 

One     - 

-  warra. 

Emu 

-  koolbarree. 

Two    - 

-  barkoola. 

Black  duck 

-  willunga. 

Three  - 

-  barkoola  ma 

Wood  duck          -  koonare. 
Pelican        -        -  kowbernuggera. 
Laughing  jackass 

Four   - 

warra. 
-  barkoola  ma 

Native  companion  koonthurra. 
White  cockatoo  -  thirindthela. 

Father 

UaiLiS.\3\}Lcbt 

-  urni. 

Crow 

-  worga. 

Mother 

-  ummadi. 

Swan  - 

-  kootooroo. 

Sister-Elder 

-  kurrangi. 

Egg     -        - 

-  kuppo. 

„     Younger 

- 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  chinna. 

Brother-Elder 

-  karkoori. 

Fish     - 

-  kooya. 

„        Younger 

Lobster 

- 

A  young  man 

-  bulkabUthi. 

Crayfish 

-  boogali. 

An  old  man 

-  kurookuroo. 

Mosquito     - 

-  oonawalli. 

An  old  woman 

-  bootchoo. 

Fly      -        ~ 

-  moogingoo. 

A  baby 

-  kidtha. 

Snake  - 

-  yelohi. 

A  White  man 

-  birri-birri. 

The  Blacks 

-  ngoorra. 

Children 

-  gidthuga. 

A  Blackfellow 

-  tharinya. 

Head  - 

-  boontha. 

A  Black  woman 

-  wilthetha. 

Eye     - 

-  mungaroo(?) 

Nose    - 

-  minchi. 

Ear     - 

-  pinna. 

LOWER    BULLOO    RIVER. 


43 


No.  53. — LowEB  BuLLOO  RiVEB — continued. 


Mouth 

-  thiga. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

-  tiga. 

Hill    - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  koonkooroo. 

Wood  - 

-  wagga. 

Beard  - 

-  unkooroo. 

Stone  - 

-  yernda. 

Thunder      ■■ 

-  girriwarra. 

Camp  - 

-  thalloo. 

Graas  - 

-  kuudha. 

Yes     - 

-  kow. 

Tongue 

-  thuUa. 

No      - 

-  yowoo. 

Stomach 

-  i-e-muUa. 

I 

-  witchi. 

Breasts 

-  umma. 

You    - 

- 

Thigh 

-  thurra. 

Bark   - 

-  bindara. 

Foot    - 

-  thinna. 

Good  - 

-  ooloo. 

Bone   - 

-  munka. 

Bad     - 

-  wiTime. 

Blood  - 

-  kooma. 

Sweet  - 

- 

Skin    - 

-  but-tha. 

Food  - 

-  thuUinna. 

Fat      - 
Bowels 

-  murni. 

-  goonabulga. 

Hungry 
Thirsty 

-  unga. 

-  thirtima. 

Excrement  - 
War-spear  - 

-  oonoo. 

-  murli. 

Eat     - 
Sleep  - 

-  thuUigurra. 

-  oonana. 

Reed-spear  - 
Throwing-stick 
Shield 
Tomahawk  - 

-  googarra. 

-  kootcha. 

Drink  - 
Walk  - 
See      - 

-  thirtima. 

-  unnegarra. 

-  yundergurra. 

Canoe  - 

-  boorlee. 

Sit       - 

-  yinnagurra. 

Sun     - 

-  thunoo. 

Yesterday  - 

-  ueela. 

Moon  - 

-  mirri-kurringa. 

To-day 

-  kunye. 

Star    - 

-  titchi. 

To-morrow  - 

-  piltowera. 

Light  - 

-  bithangurrigurri. 

Where   are   the    thunbooroo 

Dark  - 
Cold    - 
Heat  - 
Day     - 
Night  - 
Fire     - 

-  bithan. 

-  markooroo. 

-  bo-i-ga. 

-  weka. 

-  nala. 

-  wee. 

Blacks  ? 
I  don't  know 
Plenty 
Big     - 

Little  - 

ngoorra? 

-  yowoo. 

-  marroo. 

-  gi-joba. 

-  mitchewarroo 

Water 

-  nguppa. 

Dead  - 

-  thanchegurra. 

Smoke 

-  thooraka. 

By-and-by  - 

-  barloo. 

Ground 

-  thukka. 

Come  on 

-  kowi. 

Wind 

-  koogathinne. 

Milk    - 

- 

Rain    - 

-  yanna. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God     -        - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife  -       - 

- 

44  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

No.  54.— A  TEIBE  TO  THE  EAST  OF  STEZELECKI'S 

CREEK. 

The  words  wMch  I  have  received  from  this  locality,  at 
which  the  boundaries  of  Queensland,  New  South  Wales,  and 
South  Australia  come  into  contact,  are  so  few  as  not  to  be 
worth  transcribing.  The  first  of  them  is  Chookaroo  =  kanga- 
roo, and  they  show  generally  an  affinity  with  the  languages 
of  Cooper's  Creek. 


No.  55.— FROM  MOUNT  FREELING  TO  PIRIGUNDI 

LAKE. 

By  Me.  Samuel  Gason. 

The  following  account  of  the  Dieyerie  tribe  was  published 
in  1874  by  Mr.  Samuel  Gason,  who  has  kindly  allowed 
me  to  republish  it.  Mr.  Gason  spent  over  nine  years  in 
the  country  of  the  Dieyerie,  and  his  monograph  of  that 
tribe  seems  to  me  to  stand  alone  in  excellence  amongst 
accounts  of  the  sort,  if  we  except  the  late  George  Taplin's 
account  of  the  Narrinyeri  tribe.  Mr.  Gason's  pamphlet 
is,  omitting  the  preface,  &c.,  as  follows: — 

THE  DIEYERIE  TRIBE  OP  AUSTRALIAN  ABORIGINES. 
PAET  I. 

The  Tribe;  Country;  Neighbours;  Good  and  Evil  Quali- 
ties; Low  of  Bartering;  Food;  Dogs;  Traditions  of 
the  Creation,  and  of  the  Sun;  Subdivision  into 
Families. 

The  Dieyerie  tribe  numbers  about  230;  the  four  neigh- 
bouring tribes — the  Yandrawontha,  Yarrawaurka,  Auminie, 
and  Wongkaooroo,  about  800— in  all  about  1,030. 


MOUNT    ^REELING    TO    PIRIGUNDI    LAKE.  45 

Their  country  is  about  630  railes  north  of  Adelaide,  the 
capital  of  the  Province  of  South  Australia,  and  is  bounded 
at  the  most  southerly  point  by  Mount  Freeling,  at  the  most 
northerly  point  by  Pirigundi  Lake  (on  the  Cooper  Eiver), 
at  the  most  easterly  point  by  Lake  Hope,  and  at  the  most 
westerly  point  at  a  part  yet  unnamed,  but  about  eighty 
miles  from  Lake  Hope.  This  country  is  traversed  by 
Cooper's  Creek — there  only  a  chain  of  lakes  without  any 
defined  channel. 

Their  language  is  understood  by  the  four  neighbouring 
tribes,  with  whom  they  keep  up  ostensibly  a  friendly  inter- 
course, inviting  and  being  invited  to  attend  each  other's 
festivals,  and  mutually  bartering,  but  in  secret  they  enter- 
tain a  most  deadly  enmity  to  each  other,  although  at  the 
same  time  believing  that  they  came  from  a  parent  stock, 
and  even  intermarrying. 

A  more  treacherous  race  I  do  not  believe  exists.  They 
imbibe  treachery  in  infancy,  and  practice  it  until  death,  and 
have  no  sense  of  wrong  in  it.  Gratitude  is  to  them  an 
unknown  c[ua,lity.  No  matter  how  kind  or,  generous  you 
are  to  them,  you  cannot  assure  yourself  of  their  affection. 
Even  amongst  themselves,  for  a  mere  trifle,  they  would  take 
the  life  of  their  dearest  friend,  and  consequently  are  in 
constant  dread  of  each  other,  while  their  enmity  to  the 
White  man  is  only  kept  in  abeyance  by  fear.  They  will 
smile  and  laugh  in  your  face,  and  the  next  moment,  if 
opportunity  offers,  kiU  you  without  remorse. 

Kindness  they  construe  into  fear;  and,  had  it  not  been 
for  the  determination  and  firmness  of  the  early  settlers,  they 
would  never  have  been  allowed  to  occupy  the  country. 
The  tribe  is  numerous,  and  if  they  knew  (and  it  is  feared 
they  will  eventually  learn)  their  own  power  the  present 
White  inhabitants  could  not  keep  them  down,  or  for  one 
day  retain  their  possessions. 

They  seem  to  take  a  delight  in  lying,  especially  if  they 
think  it  will  please  you.  Should  you  ask  them  any  ques- 
tion, be  prepared  for  a  falsehood  as  a  matter  of  course. 


46  THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

They  not  only  lie  to  the  White  man,  but  to  each  other,  and 
do  not  appear  to  see  any  wrong  in  it. 

Notwithstanding,  however,  what  has  been  said  of  their 
treachery,  and  however  paradoxical  it  may  appear,  they 
possess  in  an  eminent  degree  the  three  great  virtues  of 
hospitality,  reverence  to  old  age,  and  love  for  their  children 
and  parents. 

Should  any  stranger  arrive  at  their  camp,  food  is  im- 
mediately set  before  him. 

The  children  are  never  beaten,  and  should  any  woman 
violate  this  law  she  is  in  turn  beaten  by  her  husband. 
Notwithstanding  this  tenderness  for  their  remaining  off- 
spring, about  thirty  per  cent,  are  murdered  by  their  mothers 
at  their  birth,  simply  for  the  reasons — firstly,  that  many 
of  them  marrying  very  young  their  firstborn  is  considered 
immature  and  not  worth  preserving;  and  secondly,  because 
they  do  not  wish  to  be  at  the  trouble  of  rearing  them, 
especially  if  weakly.  Indeed,  all  sickly  or  deformed  chil- 
dren are  made  away  with  in  fear  of  their  becoming  a 
burthen  to  the  tribe. 

The  children  so  destroyed  are  generally  smothered  in 
sand,  or  have  their  brains  dashed  out  by  some  weapon; 
the  men  never  interfering,  or  any  of  either  sex  regarding 
infanticide  as  crime.  Hardly  an  old  woman,  if  questioned, 
but  will  admit  of  having  disposed  in  this  manner  of  from 
two  to  four  of  her  offspring. 

Their  whole  life  is  spent  in  bartering;  they  rarely 
retain  any  article  for  long.  The  articles  received  by  them 
in  exchange  one  day  are  bartered  away  the  next,  whether 
at  a  profit  or  loss.  Should  any  one  of  them,  more  shrewd 
than  another,  profit  on  one  occasion  by  this  traffic,  he  is 
sure  immediately  after  to  sacrifice  his  advantage,  and  the 
majority  of  their  quarrels  are  caused  by  bartering  or 
refusing  to  barter. 

Their  food  is  principally  vegetable,  animals  being  very 
scarce,  if  we  except  rats  and  their  species,  and  snakes  and 
other  reptiles,  of  which  there    is   an   unlimited   number. 


MOUNT   FREELING    TO    PIRIGtFNDI   LAKE.  47 

There  are  no  kangaroo,  and  very  few  emu,  the  latter  of 
which  is  their  favorite  food;  and  occasionally,  in  very  hot 
weather,  they  secure  one  by  running  it  down. 

In  a  dry  season  they  mainly  subsist  on  ardoo,  but  in  a 
good  season  with  plenty  of  rain  they  have  an  ample  supply 
of  seeds,  which  they  grind  or  pound,  make  into  small 
loaves,  and  bake  in  the  ashes.  They  gather  also  then 
plenty  of  plants,  herbs,  and  roots,  a  description  of  which, 
with  their  native  names,  appears  in  another  place. 

Their  dogs,  of  which  every  camp  has  from  six  to  twenty, 
are  generally  a  mangy  lot,  but  the  natives  are  very  fond 
of  them,  and  take  as  much  care  of  them  as  if  they  were 
human.  If  a  White  man  wants  to  offend  the  native,  let  him 
beat  his  dog.  I  have  seen  women  crying  over  a  dog,  when 
bitten  by  snakes,  as  if  over  their  own  children. 

The  Dieyerie  would  as  soon  think  of  killing  themselves 
as  their  dogs,  which  are  of  great  service  to  them,  assisting 
them  to  find  snakes,  rats,  &c. 

Animal  food  being  very  scanty,  the  natives  subsist 
chiefly  on  vegetable  matter,  so  that,  eating  the  flesh  of  any 
animal  they  may  procure,  the  dog,  notwithstanding  its 
services  and  their  affection  for  it,  fares  very  badly,  receiving 
nothing  but  the  bones.  Hence  the  dog  is  always  in  very 
low  condition,  and,  consequently,  peculiarly  subject  to  the 
diseases  that  affect  the  canine'  race. 

Their  Tkaditions. — The  Cebation. 

In  the  beginning,  say  the  Dieyerie,  the  Mooramoora 
(Good  Spirit)  made  a  number  of  small  black  lizards  (these 
are  still  to  be  met  with  under  dry  bark),  and  being  pleased 
with  them  he  promised  they  should  have  power  over  all 
other  creeping  things. 

The  Mooramoora  then  divided  their  feet '  into  toes  and 
fingers,  and  placing  his  forefinger  on  the  centre  of  the  face 
created  a  nose,  and  so  in  like  manner  afterwards  eyes,  mouth, 
and  ears.  The  Spirit  then  placed  one  of  them  in  a  standing 
position,  which  it  could  not,  however,  retain,  whereupon  the 


48  THE   AtrSTBALIAK    RACE: 

Deity  cut  off  the  tail,  and  the  lizard  walked  erect.  They 
were  then  made  male  and  female,  so  as  to  perpetuate  the 
race,  and  leave  a  tribe  to  dispute  their  ancestry  with  Darwin's 
monkeys. 

Men,  women,  or  children  do  not  vary  in  the  slightest 
degree  in  this  account  of  their  creation. 

Creation  of  the  Sun. 

Their  traditions  suppose  that  man  and  all  other  beings 
were  created  by  the  moon  at  the  bidding  of  the  Mooramoora. 

Finding  the  emu  pleasant  to  the  sight,  and  judging  it  to 
be  eatable  (but  unable,  owing  to  its  swiftness,  to  catch  it 
during  the  cold  that  then  prevailed),  the  Mooramoora  was 
appealed  to  to  cast  some  heat  on  the  earth  so  as  to  enable 
them  to  run  down  the  desired  bird. 

The  Mooramoora,  complying  with  their  request,  bade 
them  perform  certain  ceremonies  (yet  observed,  but  too 
obscene  to  be  described),  and  then  created  the  sun. 

MuEDOO. — (Subdivision  of  Tribe  into  Families.) 

Murdoo  means  taste;  but  in  its  primary  and  larger 
simplification  implies  family,  founded  on  the  following 
tradition: — 

After  the  creation,  as  previously  related,  fathers,  mothers, 
sisters,  brothers,  and  others  of  the  closest  kin  intermarried 
promiscuously,  until  the  evil  effects  of  these  alliances  becom- 
ing manifest,  a  council  of  the  chiefs  was  assembled  to  con- 
sider in  what  way  they  might  be  averted,  the  result  of  their 
deKberations  being  a  petition  to  the  Mooramoora,  in  answer 
to  which  he  ordered  that  the  tribe  should  be  divided  into 
branches,  and  distinguished  one  from  the  other  by  different 
names,  after  objects  animate  and  inanimate,  such  as  dogs, 
mice,  emu,  rain,  iguana,  and  so  forth,  the  members  of  any 
such  branch  not  to  intermarry,  but  with  permission  for  one 
branch  to  mingle  with  another.  Thus  the  son  of  a  dog 
might  not  marry  the  daughter  of  a  dog,  but  either  might 


MOUNT   FREELING   TO   PIRIGUNDI   LAKE.  49 

form  an  alliance  with  a  mouse,  an  emu,  a  rat,  or  other 
family. 

This  custom  is  still  observed,  and  the  first  question 
asked  of  a  stranger  is  "What  Murdoo?"  namely,  of  what 
family  are  you. 


PART   II. 

Councils;  Treaty ;  Mode  of  Reception;  Armed  Party;  Lams. 

Ceremonies — Hole  in  the  Nose;  Extraction  of  Teeth; 
Circumcision;  To  Procure  Harvest;  To  Invoke  Peace; 
Operation  of  Koolpie ;  Funeral  Rites;  Death  Spell; 
Making  of  Rain ;  Making  Wild  Fowl  lay  Eggs ; 
Making  Iguanas ;  Superstition  about  Trees  and 
Iguanas;  Remedy  for  Accidents  ;  Expedition  for  Red 
Ochre;  Diseases  and  Doctor;    Cure  for  Wounds. 

Councils. 

Should  any  matter  of  moment  have  to  be  considered — such 
as  removing  the  camps,  making  of  rain,  marrying,  circum- 
cision, or  what  not — one  of  the  old  men  moots  the  subject 
late  at  night,  before  the  camp  retires  to  rest. 

At  dawn  of  the  succeeding  day,  each  question  as  proposed 
by  the  old  man  is  answered  at  once,  or,  should  they  wait 
until  he  has  finished,  three  or  four  speak  together ;  with 
this  exception,  there  being  no  interruptions,  and  stillness 
prevailing  in  the  camp. 

At  first  they  speak  slowly  and  quietly,  each  sentence  in 
its  delivery  occupying  three  or  four  minutes,  but  generally 
become  excited  before  the  conclusion  of  their  speeches. 

Treaty. 

Should  there  be  any  misunderstanding  between  two 
tribes,  the  women  are  sent  to  the  other  as  ambassadors  to 
arrange  the  dispute,  which  they  invariably  succeed  in  doing, 
when  women  from  the  other  return  the  visit  to-  testify  their 
approval  of  the  treaty  arrived  at. 


50  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

The  reason  women  are  appointed  in  this  capacity  is  that 
they  are  free  from  clanger,  while,  should  the  men  go,  their 
lives  would  be  in  peril. 

Mode  of  Reception. 

A  native  of  influence,  on  arriving  at  one  of  the  camps  of 
his  own  tribe,  is  usually  received  in  the  following  manner: — 

On  approaching  the  camp,  the  inmates  close  in  with 
raised  arms,  as  in  defence ;  upon  this,  the  person  of  note 
rushes  at  them,  making  a  faint  blow  as  if  to  strike  them, 
they  warding  it  off  with  their  shields;  immediately  after 
they  embrace  him  and  lead  him  into  the  camp,  where  the 
women  shortly  bring  him  food.  Should  any  female  relatives 
to  him  be  present  they  cry  with  joy. 

If  he  visits  a  neighbouring  tribe  he  is  received  in  the 
same  manner  as  by  his  own. 

A  native  of  no  influence  or  note,  on  returning  after  con- 
siderable absence,  takes  his  seat  near  the  camp  without 
passing  any  remark. 

After  remaining  a  few  minutes  as  if  dumb,  the  old  men 
close  round  him,  ask  where  he  came  from,  and  what  befel 
him,  when  he  tells  them  plenty  of  news,  not  forgetting  to 
embellish.  Then  two  old  men  stand  up,  one  retailing  it, 
and  the  other  repeating  the  sentences  in  an  excited  manner. 

Upon  this,  as  on  all  other  occasions,  the  new  comer  is 
hospitably  received,  plenty  to  eat  being  furnished  him. 

PiNYA. — (Armed  Party.) 

The  armed  band,  entrusted  with  the  office  of  executing 
offenders  (elsewhere  referred  to),  is  entitled  Pinya,  and 
appointed  as  follows  : — 

A  council  is  called  of  all  the  old  men  of  the  tribe:  the 
chief — a  native  of  influence — selecting  the  men  for  the 
Pinya,  and  directing  when  to  proceed  on  their  sanguinary 
mission. 


MOUNT   PREELING   TO   MRIGUNDI   LAKE.  51 

The  night  prior  to  starting,  the  men  composing  the 
Pinya,  at  about  seven  p.m.,  move  out  of  the  camp  to  a 
distance  of  about  three  hundred  yards,  where  they  sit  in  a 
circle,  sticking  their  spears  in  the  ground  near  them; 

The  women  form  an  outer  circle  round  the  men,  a 
number  of  them  bearing  fire-sticks  in  their  hands. 

The  chief  opens  the  council  by  asking  who  caused  the 
death  of  their  friend  or  relative,  in  reply  to  which  the  others 
name  several  natives  of  their  own  or  neighbouring  tribes, 
each  attaching  the  crime  to  his  bitterest  enemy. 

The  chief,  perceiving  whom  the  majority  would  have 
killed,  calls  out  his  name  in  a  loud  voice,  when  each  man 
grasps  his  spear. 

The  women  who  have  fire-sticks  lay  them  in  a  row, 
and,  while  so  placing  them,  call  out  the  name  of  some 
native,  till  one  of  them  calls  that  of  the  man  previously  con- 
demned, when  all  the  men  simultaneously  spear  the  fire-stick 
of  the  woman  who  has  named  the  condemned. 

Then  the  leader  takes  hold  of  the  fire-stick,  and,  after  one 
of  the  old  men  has  made  a  hole  a  few  inches  deep  in  the 
ground  with  his  hand,  places  the  fire-stick  in  it,  and  covers 
it  up,  all  declaring  that  they  will  slay  the  condemned,  and 
see  him  buried  like  that  stick. 

After  going  through  some  practices,  too  beastly  to  narrate, 
the  women  return  to  the  camp. 

The  following  morning,  at  sunrise,  the  Pinya  attire  them- 
selves in  a  plaited  band  painted  white  (charpoo),  and  pro- 
ceed on  their  journey  until  within  a  day's  stage  of  the 
place  where  they  suppose  the  man  they  seek  will  be  found, 
and  remain  there  during  the  day  in  fear  they  may  be 
observed  by  some  straggling  native. 

At  sunset  they  renew  their  journey  until  within  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  of  their  intended  victim's  camp,  when  two  men 
are  sent  out  as  spies  to  the  camp  to  ascertain  if  he  is  there, 
and,  if  possible,  where  he  sleeps.  After  staying  there  about 
two  hours,  they  report  what  they  have  seen  and  heard. 


52  THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

Tke  next  thing  done  is  the  smearing  of  the  Pinya  with 
white  clay,  so  as  to  distinguish  them  from  the  enemy,  in 
case  any  of  the  latter  should  endeavour  to  escape. 

They  then  march  towards  the  camp  at  a  time  when  they 
think  the  inmates  are  asleep,  from  about  midnight  to  two 
a.m. ;  and,  when  within  one  hundred  yards  of  it,  divide  into 
two  parties,  one  going  round  on  one  side  of  the  camp  and 
the  second  round  on  the  other — forming  a  complete  circle  to 
hinder  escape. 

The  dogs  begin  to  bark,  and  the  women  to  whimper,  not 
daring  to  cry  aloud  for  fear  of  the  Pinya,  who,  as  they  invest 
the  camp,  make  a  very  melancholy  grunting  noise. 

Then  one  or  two  walk  up  to  the  accused,  telling  him  to 
come  out  and  they  will  protect  him,  which  he,  aware  of  the 
custom,  does  not  believe,  yet  he  obeys,  as  he  is  powerless  to 
resist. 

In  the  meanwhile,  boughs  are  distributed  by  the  Pinya  to 
all  the  men,  women,  and  children,  wherewith  to  make  a 
noise  in  shaking,  so  that  friends  and  relatives  of  the  con- 
demned may  not  hear  his  groans  while  he  is  being  executed. 

The  Pinya  then  kill  the  victim  by  spearing  him  and 
striking  him  with  the  two-handed  weapon,  avoiding  to  strike 
him  below  the  hips,  as  they  believe,  were  they  to  injure  the 
legs,  they  would  be  unable  to  return  home. 

The  murder  being  consummated,  they  wait  for  daylight, 
when  the  young  men  of  the  Pinya  are  ordered  to  lie  down. 

The  old  men  then  wash  their  weapons,  and,  getting  all 
the  gore  and  flesh  adhering  to  them  off,  mix  it  with  some 
water ;  this  agreeable  draught  being  carried  round  by  an 
old  man,  who  bestows  a  little  upon  each  young  man  to 
swallow,  believing  that  thereby  they  will  be  inspired  with 
courage  and  strength  for  any  Pinya  they  may  afterwards 
join. 

The  fat  of  the  murdered  man  is  cut  off  and  wrapped 
round  the  weapons  of  all  the  old  men,  which  are  then 
covered  with  feathers. 

They  then  make  for  home. 


MOUNT    PBBELING    TO    PIRIGUNDI   LAKE.  53 

Law  of  Muedee. 

If  two  or  more  men  fight,  and  one  of  the  number  should 
be  accidentally  killed,  he  who  caused  his  death  must  also 
suffer  it.  But  should  the  offender  have  an  elder  brother, 
then  he  must  die  in  his  place,  or,  should  he  have  no  elder 
brother,  then  his  father  must  be  his  substitute  ;  but  in  case 
he  has  no  male  relative  to  suffer  for  him,  then  he  himself 
must  die.  He  is  not  allowed  to  defend  himself,  nor  indeed 
is  he  aware  of  when  the  sentence  may  be  executed.  He 
knows  the  law. 

On  some  night  appointed,  an  armed  party  surround  and 
despatch  him. 

Two  sticks,  each  of  about  six  inches  in  length — one 
representing  the  killed,  and  the  other  the  executed — are 
then  buried,  and  upon  no  occasion  is  the  circumstance  after- 
wards referred  to. 

Should  a  man  of  influence  and  well-connected,  that  is 
have  numerous  relatives,  die  suddenly  or  after  a  long  illness, 
the  tribe  believe  that  he  has  been  killed  by  some  charm.  A 
secret  council  is  held,  and  some  unhappy  innocent  is  accused 
and  condemned,  and  dealt  with  by  the  Pinya  as  previously 
described. 

Law  of  Felony,  etc. 

Should  any  native  steal  from  another,  and  the  offender 
be  known,  he  is  challenged  to  fight  by  the  person  he  has 
robbed,  and  this  settles  the  matter. 

Should  any  native  accuse  another  wrongfully,  he  is  dealt 
with  in  the  same  manner  as  for  stealing. 

Children  are  not  punished  on  committing  theft,  but  the 
father  or  mother  has  to  fight  with  the  person  from  whom 
the  property  was  stolen,  and  upon  no  occasion,  as  stated 
elsewhere,  are  the  children  beaten. 

MooDLAWiLLPA. — (Holc  in  the  Nose.) 
This  operation  is  inflicted  on  the  boy  or  girl  at  the  age 
of  from  five  to  ten  years. 


54  THE    AUSTRALIAN    EACE: 

The  father  generally  proposes  to  the  other  denizens  of 
the  camp  to  have  his  child's  nose  pierced,  and  one  old  man 
is  selected  to  perform  the  ceremony,  which  is  usually  done 
at  mid-day. 

A  piece  of  wood,  six  inches  long,  from  a  tree  called 
Cooyamurra  (a  species  of  acacia),  is  pointed  at  one  end 
sufficiently  sharp  to  pierce  the  nose,  the  partition  of  which 
the  operator  takes  in  his  left  hand,  while  he  pierces  it  with 
the  right. 

A  few  minutes  before,  and  during  the  operation,  the  men 
and  women  sing,  believing  that  by  singing  a  great  deal  of 
the  pain  is  taken  away  from  the  child. 

The  hole  being  made,  a  large  quill,  about  a  quarter  of  an 
inch  in  diameter,  is  placed  in  it  to  prevent  it  from  closing  up, 
and  kept  there  until  the  wound  is  thoroughly  healed. 

The  word  Moodlawillpa  is  derived  from  moodla  (nose), 
and  willpa  (hole),  hence,  hole  in  the  nose. 

Chikeinchirkie. — (Extraction  of  the  Teeth.) 

From  the  age  of  eight  to  twelve  years,  the  two  front 
teeth  of  the  upper  jaw  are  taken  out  in  the  following 
manner: — 

Two  pieces  of  the  Cooyamurra  tree,  each  about  a  foot 
long,  are  sharpened  at  one  end  to  a  wedge-Hke  shape,  then 
placed  on  either  side  of  the  tooth  to  be  extracted,  and  driven 
between  as  tightly  as  possible.  The  sMn  of  a  wallaby,  in 
two  or  three  folds,  is  then  placed  on  the  tooth  about  to  be 
drawn,  after  which  a  stout  piece  of  wood,  about  two  feet 
long,  is  applied  to  the  wallaby  skin,  and  struck  with  a  heavy 
stone,  two  blows  of  which  is  sufficient  to  loosen  the  tooth, 
when  it  is  pulled  out  by  the  hand.  This  operation  is 
repeated  on  the  second  tooth. 

As  soon  as  the  teeth  are  drawn,  a  piece  of  damp  clay  is 
placed  on  the  holes  whence  they  were  extracted  to  stop  the 
bleeding. 

The  boy  or  girl  (for  this  ceremony  is  performed  indif- 
ferently on  either  sex)  is  forbidden  to  look  at  any  of  the 


MOUNT    FREELING    TO    PIRIGUNDI    LAKE.  55 

men  whose  faces  may  be  turned  from  them,  but  may  look  at 
those  in  front  of  them,  as  it  is  thought  that  should  the  boy 
or  girl  look  towards  the  men  while  their  backs  are  turned 
from  them  the  child's  mouth  would  close  up,  and  con- 
sequently never  allow  them  to  eat  thereafter. 

For  three  days  this  prohibition  is  maintained,  after 
which  it  is  removed. 

The  teeth  drawn  are  placed  in  the  centre  of  a  bunch  of 
emu  feathers,  smeared  with  fat,  and  kept  for  about  twelve 
months,  or  some  length  of  time,  under  the  belief  that  if 
thrown  away  the  eaglehawk  would  cause  larger  ones  to 
grow  in  their  place,  turn  up  on  the  upper  lip,  and  thus 
cause  death. 

The  Dieyerie,  on  being  questioned,  can  assign  no  reason 
for  thus  disfiguring  their  children  than  that  when  they 
were  created  the  Mooramoora*  knocked  out  two  front  teeth 
of  the  upper  jaw  of  the  first  child,  and,  pleased  at  the  sight, 
commanded  that  such  should  be  done  to  every  male  or 
female  child  for  ever  after. 

This  ceremony  has  been  witnessed  by  me  on  several 
occasions,  and,  though  it  must  be  very  painful,  the  boy  or 
girl  never  winces. 

KuEEAWELLiE  "WoNKANNA. — (Oircumcisiou.) 

As  soon  as  the  hair  on  the  boy's  face  makes  its  appear- 
ance, a  council  of  old  men,  not  relatives  to  the  boy,  is  held, 
but  no  warning  is  given  to  him  or  his  parents.  Everything 
is  kept  secret. 

A  woman,  also  not  related  to  the  boy,  is  then  selected, 
and  her  duty  is  to  suspend  a  mussel  shell  round  his  neck. 
Whereupon,  some  appointed  night,  just  before  the  camp 
retires  to  rest,  ordinarily  about  nine  p.m.,  she  watches  an 
opportunity  to  speak  to  him,  during  which  she  contrives  to 

*  Note. — Mooramoora  is  a  Good  Spirit,  God,  or  Divine  Being;  and, 
although  they  have  no  form  of  religious  worship,  they  speak  of  the  Moora- 
moora with  great  reverence. 


56  THE    AUSTRAUAJSr   RACE: 

cast  over  tlie  boy's  liead  a  piece  of  twine,  to  which  the  shell 
is  attached  by  a  hole  drilled  at  one  end.  He,  knowing  the 
meaning  of  this  by  having  observed  the  same  thing  done  to 
other  boys,  immediately  runs  out  of  the  camp. 

The  inhabitants  of  the  camp,  upon  learning  what  has 
happened,  directly  commence  crying  and  shrieking  at  the 
top  of  their  voices. 

The  father  and  elder  brothers  at  this  become  excited  and 
quarrelsome,  demanding  by  what  right  the  old  men  of  the 
camp  seized  their  sons  or  brothers.  However,  after  about 
an  hour's  quarrelling  (without  fighting),  they  go  to  sleep  as 
if  nothing  had  happened. 

In  the  meanwhile  the  boy  remains  alone,  camped  by 
himself,  until  the  following  day,  when  the  young  men  (not 
relatives)  visit  him,  and  take  him  away  to  other  camps, 
fifty  or  sometimes  one  hundred  miles  distant,  for  the 
purpose  of  inviting  other  natives  to  the  intended  ceremony. 

The  lad,  during  the  day,  keeps  aloof  from  the  camps  he 
has  been  led  to;  at  daybreak,  before  the  camp  arises,  being 
away  hunting,  and  at  night  camped  about  four  hundred 
yards  apart  from  the  other  natives. 

During  the  boy's  absence,  his  near  relatives  collect  all 
the  hair  off  the  heads  of  the  men,  women,  and  children,  till 
they  are  thoroughly  shorn,  spin  it,  and  twist  it  into  a  fine 
thread  about  the  thickness  of  ordinary  twine,  in  one  con- 
tinuous length,  without  break,  of  about  five  hundred  yards. 

This  is  made  for  the  purpose  of  winding  round  the  waist 
of  the  lad  after  circumcision,  when  it  is  called  Yinka. 

On  the  day  previous  to  that  appointed  for  the  ceremony, 
at  four  p.m.,  all  the  old  women  of  the  camp  are  sent  in 
search  of  the  boy,  knowing  where  to  find  him,  for,  after 
proceeding  as  before  described  a  distance  from  his  relatives, 
occupying  so  long  as  a  fortnight,  he  returns  homeward,  and 
prepares  the  knowledge  of  his  whereabouts  by  raising  smoke 
twice  or  thrice  each  day,  which  also  indicates  that  he  is 
alive;  they  then  bring  him  into  the  camp,  when  he  is 
directed  to  stand  up  for  a  few  minutes  until  everything  is 


MOUNT    FREELESTG    TO    PIRIGUNDI   LAKE.  57 

ready.  (The  natives  never  can  prepare  until  the  very  last 
moment,  generally  causing  mucli  confusion  wlien  tlie  time 
arrives  for  work.)  The  father  and  near  relatives  walk  up  to 
the  lad  and  embrace  him,  when  immediately  two  or  three 
smart  young  men  rush  at  the  boy,  place  him  on  the  back  of 
another  man,  all  the  men  of  the  camp  shouting  at  their 
highest  pitch  thrice. 

The  boy  is  then  taken  about  one  hundred  yards  away 
from  the  women,  and  covered  up  in  skins,  remaining  so  till 
daybreak. 

The  father  and  relatives  of  the  lad  now  renew  their 
quarrelling  with  those  that  ordered  the  shell  to  be  suspended 
to  the  neck  of  the  boy,  and  a  general  fight  ensues,  all  able- 
bodied  men  joining  in  the  fray,  each  helping  his  friend  or 
relative,  until  by  the  time  the  row  is  ended  there  are  many 
broken  heads  and  bruised  bodies — the  women  in  the  mean- 
while crjring,  shouting,  screaming,  hissing,  and  making 
many  other  hideous  sounds,  like  so  many  hyenas. 

Subsequent  to  the  suspension  of  hostilities,  the  men 
keep  up  an  incessant  humming  noise,  or  singing  (not 
dancing),  and  practising  most  horrible  customs,  until  about 
four  a.m.,  when  the  women  and  children  are  ordered  off  to  a 
distance  of  four  hundred  yards  from  the  camp,  where  they 
remain  beating  a  kind  of  wooden  trough  with  their  hands 
once  every  minute  (as  in  civilized  communities  beUs  are 
tolled  for  the  dead),  the  men  replying  to  the  noise  in  like 
manner,  untU  day  dawns,  when  the  beating  ceases. 

Immediately  before  the  boy's  circumcision,  a  young  man 
picks  up  a  handful  of  sand,  and  sprinkles  it  as  he  runs, 
round  the  camp,  which  is  supposed  to  drive  the  devil  out, 
keeping  only  Mooramoora,  the  Good  Spirit,  in. 

As  soon  as  circumcision  has  taken  place,  the  father 
stoops  over  the  boy,  and,  fancying  himself  inspired  by 
Mooramoora  to  give  him  a  name  other  than  that  he  pre- 
viously had,  re-names  him,  upon  which  he  is  taken  away 
by  some  young  men,  and  kept  away  for  three  or  four  months 
after,  when  he  returns,  virtually  a  man ;  for  though  only  a 


58  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

lad  in  years,  he  is  allowed  tlie  same  privileges  as  a  man  in 
consequence  of  being  circumcised. 

I  have  omitted  to  state  that,  in'  the  event  of  no  father 
living,  his  next-of-kin  stands  in  place  thereof. 

Decency  has  compelled  me  to  suppress  the  worst  fea- 
tures of  the  ceremony. 

"WiLLTAKOO.^-(To  procure  a  good  Harvest;  Supply  of 
Snakes,  and  other  Reptiles.) 

The  next  ceremony  following  circumcision  is  that  now  to 
be  described. 

A  young  man,  without  previous  warning,  is  taken  out  of 
the  camp  by  the  old  men,  whereon  the  women  set  up 
crying,  and  so  continue  for  almost  half  the  night. 

On  the  succeeding  morning,  at  sunrise,  the  men  (young 
and  old),  excepting  his  father  and  elder  brothers,  surround 
him,  directing  him  to  close  his  eyes. 

One  of  the  old  men  then  binds  another  old  man  round 
his  arm,  near  the  shoulder,  with  string,  pretty  tightly,  and 
with  a  sharp  piece  of  flint  lances  the  main  artery  of  the 
arm,  about  an  inch  above  the  elbow,  causing  an  instant  flow 
of  blood,  which  is  permitted  to  play  on  the  young  man  until 
his  whole  frame  is  covered  with  blood.* 

As  soon  as  the  old  man  becomes  exhausted  from  loss  of 
blood  another  is  operated  on,  and  so  on,  two  or  three  others 
in  succession,  until  the  young  man  becomes  quite  stiff 
and  sore  from  the  great  quantity  of  blood  adhering  to  his 
person. 

The  next  stage  in  the  ceremony  is  much  worse  for  the 
young  man.  He  is  told  to  lay  with  his  face  down,  when 
one  or  two  young  men  ciit  him  on  the  neck  and  shoulders 

*  Note. — The  reasons  assigned  for  this  barbarous  practice  are  that 
thereby  courage  is  infused  into  the  young  man,  and  to  show  him  that  the 
sight  of  blood  is  nothing;  so  that  should  he  receive  a  wound  in  warfare,  he 
may  account  it  a  matter  of  no  moment,  but  remark,  bravely — -That  he  has 
previously  had  blood  running  all  over  his  body,  therefore,  why  should  he 
feel  faint  or  low-hearted. 


MOUNT   FREELING    TO    PIRIGUNDI    LAKE.  59 

with  a  sharp  flint,  about  a  sixteenth  of  an  inch  in  depth,  in 
from  six  to  twelve  places,  which  incisions  create  scars, 
which  until  death  show  that  he  has  gone  through  the 
Wniyaroo. 

When  tattooed,  a  piece  of  wood  about  nine  inches  long 
by  two  and  a  half  wide  and  about  a  sixteenth  of  an  inch 
thick,  with  a  hole  at  one  end,  is  attached  to  a  piece  of  string 
eight  feet  or  so  long,  and  this  is  called  Yuntha,  which  he  is 
instructed  to  twirl  when  hunting,  so  the  tribe  may  reap  a 
good  harvest  of  reptiles,  snakes,  and  other  game,  and  every 
night  until  his  wounds  are  healed  he  must  come  within 
four  hundred  yards  of  the  camp  (but  no  nearer),  and  twirl  it 
so  as  to  acquaint  his  parents  that  he  is  alive,  and  they  may 
send  him  some  food;  and  in  the  meanwhile  he  must  look 
upon  no  woman. 

After  perfect  recovery,  he  returns  to  the  camp,  when 
there  is  great  rejoicing  over  the  missing  young  man. 

He  remains  there,  however,  only  for  a  few  days ;  when, 
accompanied  by  some  of  the  tribe,  he  is  sent  away  to  visit 
other  camps  for  the  purpose  of  receiving  presents,  such  as  a 
a  spear,  boomerang,  or  other  native  weapon  or  curiosity. 
This  flying  trip  is  called  Yinninda. 

On  the  night  of  his  return,  these  presents  he  hands  over 
to  those  who  operated  on  him,  and  a  song,  composed  during 
his  absence,  by  a  young  woman  selected  for  that  purpose,  is 
sung  by  her,  the  men,  women,  and  children  dancing,  and 
this  revel  is  maintained  for  about  two  hours. 

MiNDARiB. — (Festival  to  invoke  Peace.) 
After  enduring  the  ordeal  of  the  Willyaroo,  the  next 
ceremony  the  young  man  has  to  go  through  is  that  of  the 
Mindarie,  which  is  held  about  once  in  two  years,  by  this  as 
by  other  neighbouring  tribes. 

When  there  are  sufficient  young  men  in  the  tribe  who 
have  not  passed  this  ceremony,  and  each  tribe  being  on 
friendly  terms  with  the  others,  a  council  is  held,  when  time 
and  place  are  appointed  in  which  to  hold  it — some  three 


60  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

months  after  it  is  determined  on— to  allow  the  hair  to  grow 
sufficiently  long  to  be  dressed  in  the  manner  hereafter 
described,  and  those  young  men  whose  hair,  at  the  termina- 
tion of  this  period,  is  not  long  enough  cannot  take  part  in 
the  ceremony. 

Women  are  sent  to  the  neighbouring  tribes  to  invite 
them  to  the  ceremony,  the  preparations  for  which,  in  build- 
ing wurleys,  &c.,  occupies  from  six  to  seven  weeks. 

Every  day  witnesses  fresh  arrivals  of  men,  women,  and 
children;  and,  as  soon  as  the  first  native  heaves  in  sight,  the 
Mindarie  song  is  sung,  to  show  the  stranger  that  he  is 
hailed  as  a  friend. 

At  length  all  having  arrived,  they  wait  on  the  full  of  the 
moon,  so  as  to  have  plenty  of  light  during  the  ceremony, 
which  commences  at  sunset.  In  the  meanwhile,  at  every 
sunrise,  and  at  intervals  during  the  day,  every  man-  in  the 
camp  joins  in  the  Mindarie  song. 

They  then  proceed  to  dress  the  young  men  who  have 
not  gone  through  the  ceremony  previously. 

First  of  all  the  hair  of  their  heads  is  tied  with  string  so 
that  it  stands  on  end.  Thippa  (the  tails  of  rats),  are  then 
fastened  to  the  top  of  the  hair,  the  ends  hanging  down  over 
the  shoulders.  Feathers  of  the  owl  and  emu  are  fastened 
on  the  forehead  and  ears.  A  large  yinka  (previously  de- 
scribed), is  wound  round  their  waist,  and  in  which,  near  the 
spine,  a  bunch  of  emu  feathers  is  worn,  and  the  face  is 
painted  red  and  black.  By  the  time  the  young  men  are 
dressed  the  sun  has  set. 

All  the  men,  women,  and  children  now  begin  and 
continue  to  shout  with  the  full  power  of  their  lungs 
for  about  ten  minutes.  They  then  separate,  the  women 
going  a  little  way  from  the  camp  to  dance,  while  the 
men  proceed  to  a  distance  of  300  yards;  the  site  selected 
being  a  plain,  generally  of  hard  ground,  which  is  neatly 
swept. 

A  little  boy,  about  four  years  of  age,  deputed  to  open 
the  ceremony,   is   tricked   out    all   over  with   down   from 


MOUNT    FREELING    TO    PIRIGUNDI    LAKE.  61 

the  swan  and  duck,  bearing  a  buncli  of  emu  feathers  on 
his  head,  and  having  his  face  painted  with  red  ochre  and 
white  clay. 

He  dances  into  the  ring,  the  young  men  following 
him,  and  they  followed  by  the  old  men. 

They  dance  for  about  ten  minutes,  when  the  little  boy 
stops  the  dance  by  running  off  the  dancing  ground. 

All  the  young  men  then  re-commence,  going  through 
many  extraordinary  evolutions,  standing  on  their  toes, 
then  on  their  heels,  then  on  one  leg,  shaking  their  whole 
frame  at  a  rapid  rate,  and  keeping  accurate  time,  throw- 
ing their  hands  in  the  air  simultaneously,  and  clapping; 
running  one  way  as  fast  as  they  can  go,  they  will  suddenly 
halt,  renew  the  dance  with  hands  and  feet  both  in  motion, 
again  run  off,  perhaps  twenty  abreast,  and  at  the  sound 
of  a  certain  word,  as  one  man,  drop  one  shoulder,  and 
then  the  other.  Then  they  throw  themselves  down  on 
the  ground,  dance  on  their  knees,  again  clap  their  hands, 
and  accompany  these  postures  by  shouting  and  singing 
throughout  the  night  without  ceasing;  the  whole  keeping 
time  as  perfectly  as  a  trained  orchestra. 

By  sunrise,  becoming  tired,  the  ceremony  is  closed, 
when  they  retire  to  rest,  and  sleep  during  the  day. 

The  reason  of  holding  this  ceremony  is  to  enable  all 
the  tribes  to  assemble  and  renew  peace,  by  making  presents 
to  each  other,  and  amicably  settle  any  disputes  that  may 
have  arisen  since  the  last  Mindarie. 

The  natives  are  aU.  pleased  at  this  observance,  and  talk 
of  the  event  for  many  days  after. 

KOOLPIE. 

So  soon  as  the  hair  on  the  face  of  a  young  man  is 
sufficiently  grown  to  admit  the  ends  of  the  beard  being 
tied,  the  ceremony  of  the  Koolpie  is  decided  on. 

A  council  of  old  men  assemble,  fix  the  site,  and  appoint 
a  day  for  the  operation,  on  the  morning  of  which  he  is 


62  THE    AUSTEALIAIf    RACE: 

invited  out  to  hunt.  The  young  man  not  suspecting 
anything  is,  at  a  given  signal,  seized — one  of  the  party 
placing  his  hand  on  the  young  man's  mouth,  while  others 
remove  the  yinka  (elsewhere  described)  from  his  body. 

He  is  then  directed  to  lie  down,  when  a  man  is  sta-. 
tioned  at  each  limb,  and  another  kneels  on  his  chest  to 
keep  him  steady. 

The  operation  is  then  commenced  by  first  laying  his 
penis  on  a  piece  of  bark,  when  one  of  the  party,  provided 
with  a  sharp  flint,  makes  an  incision  underneath  into  its 
passage,  from  the  foreskin  to  its  base. 

This  done,  a  piece  of  bark  is  then  placed  over  the 
wound,  and  tied  so  as  to  prevent  it  from  closing  up. 

This  concludes  the  operation,  and  the  young  man  goes 
away,  accompanied  by  one  or  two  others,  and  remains 
away  from  the  camp  until  such  time  as  the  wound  is 
thoroughly  healed,  when  the  bark  may  be  removed. 

Men  who  have  passed  through  this  ceremony  are  per- 
mitted to  appear  in  the  camp,  and  before  women,  without 
wearing  anything  to  hide  their  person. 

Funeral  Eites. — CAiwiBALiSM. 

When  a  man,  woman,  or  child  dies,  no  matter  from 
what  cause,  the  big  toe  of  each  foot  are  tied  together,  and 
the  body  enveloped  in  a  net. 

The  grave  is  dug  to  about  three  feet,  and  the  body  is 
carried  thither  on  the  heads  of  three  or  four  men,  and  on 
arrival  is  placed  on  its  back  for  a  few  minutes.  Then 
three  men  kneel  down  near  the  grave,  while  some  other 
natives  place  the  body  on  the  heads  of  the  kneehng  men. 

One  of  the  old  men  (usually  the  nearest  relative)  now 
takes  two  light  rods,  each  about  three  feet  long  (these 
are  called  coonya),  and  holds  one  in  each  hand,  standing 
about  two  yards  from  the  corpse;  then  beating  the  coonya 
together,  he  questions  the  corpse,  in  the  belief  that  it  can 
understand  him,  inquiring  how  he  died,  who  was  the  cause 


MOUNT    FEEELING    TO    PIEIGUNDI   LAKE.  63 

of  his  death,  and  the  name  of  the  man  who  killed  him — 
as  even  decease  from  natural  causes  they  attribute  to  a 
charm  or  spell  exercised  by  some  enemy. 

The  men  sitting  round  act  as  interpreters  for  the  de- 
funct, and,  according  as  the  general  opinion  obtains,  give 
some  fictitious  name  of  a  native  of  another  tribe. 

When  the  old  man  stops  beating  the  eoonya,  the  men 
and  women  commence  crying,  and  the  body  is  removed 
from  the  heads  of  the  bearers,  and  lowered  into  the  grave, 
into  which  a  native  (not  related  to  the  deceased)  steps, 
and  proceeds  to  cut  off  all  the  fat  adhering  to  the  musdes 
of  the  face,  thighs,  arms,  and  stomach,  and  passes  it  round 
to  be  swallowed.  The  reason  assigned  for  this  horrible 
practice  being  that  thus  the  nearest  relatives  may  forget 
the  departed,  and  not  be  continually  crying. 

The  order  in  which  they  partake  of  their  dead  relatives 
is  this : — 

The  mother  eats  of  her  children. 

The  children  eat  of  their  mother. 

Brothers-in-law  and  sisters-in-law  eat  of  each  other. 

Uncles,  aunts,  nephews,  nieces,  grandchildren,  grand- 
fathers, and  grandmothers  eat  of  each  other. 

But  the  father  does  not  eat  of  his  offspring,  or  the 
offspring  of  the  sire. 

After  eating  of  the  dead  the  men  paint  themselves  with 
charcoal  and  fat,  marking  a  black  ring  round  the  mouth. 
This  distinguishing  mark  is  called  Munamuroomuroo.  The 
women  do  likewise,  besides  painting  two  white  stripes  on 
their  arms,  which  marks  distinguish  those  who  have  par- 
taken of  the  late  deceased ;  the  other  men  smearing  them- 
selves all  over  with  white  clay,  to  testify  their  grief. 

The  grave  is  covered  in  with  earth,  and  a  large  stack 
of  wood  placed  over  it. 

The  first  night  after  the  burial  the  women  dance  round 
the  grave,  crying  and  screaming  incessantly  till  sunrise, 
and  so  continue  for  a  week  or  more. 


64  THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

Should  the  weather  be  cold  when  a  native  dies,  fires  are 
lighted  near  the  grave  so  that  the  deceased  may  warm  himself, 
and  often  they  place  food  for  him  to  eat. 

Invariably  after  a  death  they  shift  their  camp,  and  never 
after  speak  of,  or  refer  to,  the  defunct. 

MooKOOELLiE  DucKANA. — (Bone  Strike,  or  Death  SpeU.) 

The  words  at  the  head  of  this  chapter  are  derived  from 
Mookoo  {hone)  and  Duchana  {strike),  the  compound  word 
implying  struck  by  a  bone. 

As  no  person  is  supposed,  from  whatever  cause,  to  die  a 
natural  death,  but  is  conjectured  to  have  been  killed,  either 
by  one  of  a  neighbouring  tribe  or  of  his  own,  men,  women, 
and  children  are  in  constant  terror  of  having  offended  some 
one  who  may  therefore  bear  them  enmity. 

Thus,  so  soon  as  a  native  becomes  HI,  a  council  is  held 
solely  to  ascertain  who  has  given  him  the  bone. 

Should  he  remain  a  considerable  time  without  a  change, 
or  his  malady  increase,  his  wife  if  he  has  one,  or  if  he  has 
not  the  wife  of  his  nearest  relative,  is  ordered  to  proceed  to 
the  person  who  is  supposed  to  have  caused  the  sickne,ss.  She 
does  so,  accompanied  by  her  paramour  (whose  relationship 
is  explained  elsewhere),  and  on  arrival  immediately  makes 
a  few  presents  to  the  person  suspected  of  her  relative's 
illness,  but  makes  no  accusation  against  him,  contenting 
herself  with  simply  stating  that  her  relative  is  fallen  HI  and 
is  not  expected  to  recover,  whereupon  he  sympathizes  with 
her,  and  expresses  a  hope  that  the  invalid  will  soon  be  well 


He  knows,  however,  perfectly  well,  though  not  accused, 
that  he  is  suspected  of  having  caused  the  malady;  and,  on 
the  following  morning,  acquaints  the  woman  that  she  can 
return  to  her  relative,  as  he  would  draw  all  power  away  from 
the  bone  by  steeping  it  in  water.  Accordingly  the  woman 
carries  back  the  joyful  tidings  that  she  has  seen  the  party 
who  has  the  bone,  and  he  has  promised  to  take  all  the  power 
out  of  it. 


MOUNT    FREELING    TO    PIBIGUNDI    LAKE.  65 

Now,  should  the  invalid  happen  to  die,  and  be  a  person  of 
any  influence,  the  man  who  acknowledged  to  having  the  bone 
is  murdered  on  the  first  opportunity. 

Men  threaten  their  wives  (should  they  do  anything 
wrong)  with  the  bone,  causing  such  dread  in  their  Arrives 
that  mostly,  instead  of  having  a  salutary  effect,  it  causes 
them  to  hate  their  husbands. 

This  bone  is  not  an  ordinary  one,  but  the  small  bone  of 
the  human  leg ;  and  one  of  every  two  of  the  natives  is 
charged  with  having  one  in  his  possession  wherever  he  may 
go ;  but,  in  my  own  experience,  I  have  never  seen  more  than 
a  dozen,  and  those  at  one  of  their  ceremonies ;  as,  for  instance, 
when  the  whole  tribe  desire  to  kill  at  a  distance,  say  from 
50  to  100  miles,  some  influential  man  of  another  tribe,  they 
order  several  of  the  old  men  to  despoil  the  dead,  that  is,  to 
take  the  small  leg-bones  from  many  skeletons. 

Of  these,  the  relicts  of  their  own  tribe,  they  take  from 
three  to  eight,  which  they  wrap  in  fat  and  emu  feathers  ;  all 
the  most  noted  men  of  the  tribe  taking  them  and  pointing 
towards  the  place  where  their  intended  victim  is  supposed  to 
reside,  while  doing  which  they  curse  the  man  they  desire  to 
kill,  naming  the  death  they  would  wish  him. 

All  present  are  bound  to  secrecy,  and  the  ceremony  lasts 
about  an  hour. 

Should  they  learn,  after  a  few  weeks,  that  the  man  they 
destine  to  destruction  is  still  alive  and  hearty,  they  account 
for  it  by  supposing  that  some  one  of  the  tribe  of  the  person 
cursed  had  stopped  the  power  of  the  bone. 

So  strongly  are  men,  women,  and  children  convinced  of 
the  power  of  the  bone,  that  no  reasoning  can  shake  their 
belief. 

I  have  frequently  asked  why  they  did  not  give  a  bone  to 
myself  or  any  of  the  settlers,  knowing  that  they  mortally 
hate  all  "White  men,  but  they  meet  this  by  saying  we  are  too 
superior  in  knowledge,  so  that  the  bone  would  have  no  effect 
on  us. 

VOL.    II.  E 


66  the  australian  race: 

The  Making  of  Rain. 

This  is  one  of  their  grandest  ceremonies. 

When  there  is  a  drought  or  dry  season,  frequent  in  the 
Dieyerie  country,  the  natives  hare  a  hard  time  of  it.  No 
fresh  herbs,  no  roots,  nothing  but  ardoo  have  they  to  subsist 
on.  The  parched  earth  yielding  no  grass,  the  emu,  reptiles, 
&c..,  are  so  poor  as  to  be  nearly  valueless  for  food ;  it  is, 
therefore,  easily  perceived  that  to  the  natives  rain  is  the 
supremest  blessing. 

Believing  they  have  the  power  of  producing  it,  under  the 
inspiration  of  Mooramoora  (the  Good  Spirit),  they  proceed  as 
follows : — 

Women,  generally  accompanied  by  their  paramours,*  are 
despatched  to  the  various  camps  to  assemble  the  natives 
together  at  a  given  place.  After  the  tribe  is  gathered,  they 
dig  a  hole,  about  two  feet  deep,  twelve  feet  long,  and  from 
eight  to  ten  feet  broad.  Over  this  they  build  a  hut,  by  placing 
stiff  logs  about  three  feet  apart,  filling  the  spaces  between 
with  slighter  logs,  the  building  being  of  conical  form,  as  the 
base  of  the  erection  is  wider  than  its  apex — then  the  stakes 
are  covered  with  boughs.  This  hut  is  only  sufficiently  large 
to  contain  the  old  men;  the  young  ones  sit  at  the  entrance  or 
outside. 

This  completed,  the  women  are  called  to  look  at  the  hut, 
which  they  approach  from  the  rear,  then  dividing,  some  one 
way  and  some  the  other,  go  round  until  they  reach  the 
entrance — each  looking  inside,  but  passing  no  remark.  They 
then  return  to  their  camp,  distant  about  500  yards. 

Two  men,  supposed  to  have  received  a  special  inspiration 
from  the  Mooramoora,  are  selected  for  lancing,  their  arms 
being  bound  tightly  with  string  near  the  shoulders  to  hinder 
too  profuse  an  effusion  of  blood. 

When  this  is  done  all  the  men  huddle  together,  and  an 
old  man,  generally  the  most  influential  of  the  tribe,  takes 

*  Each  married  -woman  is  permitted  a  paramour. 


MOUNT    FREELING    TO    PIRIGDNDI    LAKE..  67 

a  sharp  flint  and  bleeds  the  two  men  inside  the  arm  below 
the  elbow  on  one  of  the  leading  arteries,  the  blood  being 
made  to  flow  on  the  men  sitting  around,  during  which  the 
two  men  throw  handsful  of  down,  some  of  which  adheres  to 
the  blood,  the  rest  floating  in  the  air. 

This  custom  has  in  it  a  certain  poetry,  the  blood  being 
supposed  to  symbolize  the  rain  and  the  down  the  clouds. 

During  the  preceding  acts  two  large  stones  are  placed  in 
the  centre  of  the  hut ;  these  stones  representing  gathering 
clouds,  presaging  rain. 

At  this  period  the  women  are  again  called  to  visit  the 
hut  and  its  inmates,  but  shortly  after  return  to  the  camp. 

The  main  part  of  the  ceremony  being  now  concluded,  the 
men  who  were  bled  carry  the  stones  away  for  about  fifteen 
miles,  and  place  them  as  high  as  they  can  in  the  largest  tree 
about. 

In  the  meanwhile,  the  men  remaining  gather  gypsum, 
pound  it  fine,  and  throw  it  into  a  waterhole.  This  the  Moo- 
ramoora  is  supposed  to  see,  and  immediately  he  causes  the 
clouds  to  appear  in  the  heavens. 

■  Should  they  not  show  so  soon  as  anticipated,  they  account 
for  it  by  saying  that  the  Mooramoora  is  cross  with  them;  and 
should  there  be  no  rain  for  weeks  or  months  after  the  cere- 
mony they  are  ready  with  the  usual  explanation  that  some 
other  tribe  has  stopped  their  power. 

The  ceremony  considered  finished,  there  yet  remains  one 
observance  to  be  fulfilled.  The  men,  young  and  old,  encircle 
the  hut,  bend  their  bodies,  and  charge,  like  so  many  rams, 
with  their  heads  against  it,  forcing  thus  an  entrance,  reap- 
pearing on  the  other  side,  repeating  this  act,  and  continuing 
at  it  until  nought  remains  of  their  handiwork  but  the  heavy 
logs,  too  solid  even  for  their  thick  heads  to  encounter.  Their 
hands  and  arms  must  not  be  used  at  this  stage  of  the  per- 
formance, but  afterwards  they  employ  them  by  pulling  simul- 
taneously at  the  bottom  of  the  logs,  which  thus  drawn  out- 
wards causes  the  top  of  the  hut  to  fall  in,  so  making  it  a 
total  wreck. 

E  2 


68  THE    AUSTEALIAiSr    RACE: 

The  piercing  of  the  hut  with  their  heads  symbolizes  the 
piercing  of  the  clouds;  the  fall  of  the  hut  the  fall  of  rain. 

The  Making  the  Wild-Fowl  lay  Eggs. 

After  heavy  rains,  the  smaller  lakes,  lagoons,  and  swamps 
are  generally  filled  with  fresh  water,  attracting  flocks  of  wild- 
fowl ;  and  the  natives  go  through  a  horrible  ceremony,  with- 
out which  they  believe  the  birds  would  not  lay. 

On  a  fine  day,  after  the  rains,  all  the  able-bodied  men  sit 
in  a  circle,  each  having  a  bone  from  the  leg  of  a  kangaroo,* 
sharpened  at  one  end,  when  the  old  men  commence  singing, 
and  the  others  pierce  their  scrotum  several  times.  This  must 
be  very  painful,  yet  they  show  no  sense  of  it.  They  are 
generally  laid  up  for  two  or  three  weeks,  unable  to  walk. 
While  thus  torturing  themselves  the  women  are  crying.  At 
this  ceremony  a  song  is  sung,  but  it  is  too  obscene  to  be 
translated  here. 

It  is  useless  to  argue  with  them  on  the  absurdity  of  this 
custom;  for  all  answer,  they  say  it  is  impossible  for  White 
men  to  know  their  power. 

The  Making  of  Iguanas. — (Kaupirrie  Wima.) 

Whenever  it  is  a  bad  season  for  iguanas  (Koppirries),  one 
of  the  principal  articles  of  their  food,  some  of  the  natives 
proceed  to  make  them.  The  ceremony  is  not  observed  by  the 
Dieyerie,  but  as  they  are  invariably  invited  and  attend, 
I  think  it  proper  to  describe  it. 

On  a  day  appointed,  they  sit  in  a  circle,  when  the  old  men 
take  a  few  bones  of  the  leg  of  an  emu,  about  nine  inches  long, 
and  sharpened  at  both  ends. 

Each  old  man  then  sings  a  song,  while  doing  so  piercing 
his  ears,  first  one  and  then  the  other,  several  times,  regardless 
of  the  pain,  if  not  insensible  to  it. 

*  It  is  said  elsewhere  that  there  are  no  kangaroo  in  the  Dieyerie  country, 
but  it  must  be  remembered  that  in  their  expeditions  for  red  ochre  they  travel 
over  the  lands  of  other  tribes  where  the  kangaroo  can  be  procured. 


MOUNT    FRBELESTG   TO    PIRIGUNDI   LAKE.  69 

I  add  the  song,  whicli  is  not  in  the  Dieyerie  dialect,  and 
a  translation  of  it : — 

THE   IGUAl^A   SONG. 

Pa-pa-pa.     Kirra-a.     Lulpara^na. 
Mooloo  Kurla  parcha-ra.     Willyoo  lana 
Mathapootana  murara  Thidua-ra  Mindieindie 
Kurtaworie-worietMea-a. 

Translation. 
With  a  boomerang  we  gather  all  the  iguanas  from  the 
flats  and  plains,  and  drive  them  to  the  sandholes,  then  sur- 
round them,  that  all  the  male  and  female  iguanas  may  come 
together  and  increase. 

Should  there  be  a  few  more  iguanas  after  the  ceremony 
than  before,  the  natives  boast  of  having  produced  them,  but 
if  they  are  as  scarce  as  previously  they  have  their  customary 
excuse  that  some  other  tribe  took  away  their  power. 

SUPEESTITIONS   ON   THE   IgUANA. 

The  iguana  is  supposed  to  be  a  conductor  of  lightning, 
and  during  a  thunderstorm  all  these  reptiles  are  buried  in 
the  sand.  And  should  any  native  become  grey  or  have  much 
hair  on  its  breast  when  young,  it  is  supposed  to  be  caused 
by  eating  them  when  children. 

Superstition  on  Trees. 

There  are  places  covered  by  trees  held  very  sacred,  the 
larger  ones  being  supposed  to  be  the  remains  of  their  fathers 
metamorphosed. 

The  natives  never  hew  them  ;  and  should  the  settlers 
require  to  cut  them  down,  they  earnestly  protest  against  it, 
asserting  they  would  have  no  luck,  and  themselves  might  be 
punished  for  not  protecting  their  ancestors. 

Eemedt  foe  Accident  or  Eidichle. 
Should  a  child  meet  with  any  accident,  all  its  relatives 
immediately  get  struck  on  the  head  with  a  stick  or  boomerang 
until  the  blood  flows  down  their  faces ;  such  surgical  opera- 
tion being  presumed  to  ease  the  child's  pain. 


70  THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE:    ■ 

In  like  manner,  should  any  man  or  woman,  by  doing 
anytMng  awkwardly,  provoke  laughter,  he  or  she  requests 
one  of  the  men  or  women  to  hit  him  or  her  on  the  head  till 
the  blood  trickles  down  the  face,  when  the  person  thus 
relieved  commences  laughing,  and  appears  to  enjoy  the 
joke  as  keenly  as  the  rest. 

Indesceibable  Customs. 
That  of  causing  a  pleptiful  supply  of  wild  dogs,  that  of 
creating  a  plenty  of  snakes,  that  of  giving  strength  to  young 
men,  and  some  other  customs,  are  altogether  so  obscene  and 
disgusting,  I  must,  even  at  the  risk  of  leaving  my  subject 
incomplete,  pass  over  by  only  thus  briefly  referring  to  them. 

BooKATOO. — (Expedition  for  Red  Ochre.) 

Every  winter,  in  July  or  August,  a  council  of  all  the  old 
men  is  held,  relative  to  the  starting  of  an  expedition  for  red 
ochre,  to  a  place  called  Burratchunna  Creek  (west  of  the 
Blinman  township),  where  there  is  a  large  mine  of  it. 

Old  and  young  men  are  selected,  a  day  fixed,  and  a  leader 
appointed  to  take  command;  all  being  kept  secret  from  the 
women,  in  fear  they  would  persuade  their  husbands  not  to 
leave. 

On  the  day  the  party  must  start,  the  old  men  rise  with 
the  sun,  and  grasping  their  weapons  and  singing  promptly 
depart  without  leave  taking  or  farewell  to  their  wives  and 
children. 

The  women,  then  conscious  of  the  men's  intentions, 
commence  screaming,  screeching,  yelling,  hooting,  hissing, 
and  making  all  kinds  of  hideous  and  uncouth  sounds, 
calling  on  their  husbands,  sons,  brothers,  and  friends  to 
remain,  and  not  to  be  led  into  a  strange  and  hostile  country ; 
they,  unheeding,  proceeding  on  their  way  for  about  five 
hundred  yards,  for  the  purpose  of  arranging  with  the  old 
men  who  are  left  behind  to  build  wurleys  (Bookatoo 
Oorannie)  for  the  reception  of  the  party  when  it  returns. 
The  site   being  selected,   and  instructions  given  to  build 


MOUNT    FREELING    TO    PIRIGUNDI   LAKE.  71 

substantial  huts,  farewell  is  taken,  the  expedition  singing 
a  rather  mournful  ditty,  encouraging  the  young  lads  to 
keep  up  their  spirits ;  and  indeed  some  of  them  require 
encouragement,  knowing  that  besides  having  to  travel  over 
three  hundred  mUes  through  strange  country,  many  a 
hungry  belly  they  wiU  have  before  reaching  their  destina- 
tion, independent  of  the  load  of  ochre  they  will  have  to 
carry  back. 

The  party  travels  about  twenty  miles  a  day,  and  on 
arrival  at  the  mine  each  member  of  it  digs  out  his  own 
ochre,  mixes  it  with  water,  making  it  into  loaves  of  about 
20  lbs  weight,  which  are  dried.* 

Each  man  carries  an  average  weight  of  70  lbs.  of  ochre, 
invariably  on  the  head,t  and  has  to  procure  his  own  food; 
the  party  seldom  resting  a  day  while  on  the  journey,  which 
lasts  usually  from  six  or  eight  weeks,  until  within  one 
day's  stage  of  their  camp — the  Bookatoo  Oorannie. 

On  the  return  route,  they  barter  with  the  tribes  they 
pass,  giving  weapons  for  old  clothes. 

Leaving  for  a  while  the  returning  party  within  one  stage 
of  the  Bookatoo  Oorannie,  I  will  state  what  has  been  done 
in  their  absence  by  those  who  had  to  prepare  those  wurleys, 
(which  built)  a  space  of  about  one  hundred  yards  around 
them  is  cleared  and  swept. 

During  these  preparations,  every  morning  the  women 
are  ordered  away  to  a  short  distance,  and  not  allowed  to 
return  until  sunset,  and  during  their  absence  they  collect 
seed,  which  is  stored  against  the  return  of  the  expedition. 

The  men  of  the  camp  keep  up  a  continuous  singing 
during  the  whole  day  and  night,  making,  from  the  native 
cotton-bush,  sugarloaf-shaped  bags,  about  eighteen  inches 
in  length,  and  large  enough  at  the  orifice  to  admit  the 
head;  these  being  intended  for  the  Bookatoo  men  on  their 
return. 

*  Just  after  collecting  the  ochre,  having  all  the  hair  of  their  faces 
plucked  out  (not  cut  or  burnt  off). 

t  The  men  carry  their  loads  on  their  heads, 


72  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

During  the  making  of  the  bags  the  following  song  is 
sung,  of  which  herewith  I  give  the  original,  with  a  free 
translation : — 

Mulka-a-a-a — wora-a-a, 

Yoong-arra-a-a  Oondoo-o-o, 

Ya  PUlie-e-e-e  Mulka-a-a-a  angienie 

Kooriekirraf-a;-a-ya-a/-a-ya. 
Translation. 

Put  colors  in  the  bags, 

Close  it  all  round, 

And  make  the  netted  bag 

All  the  colors  of  the  rainbow. 
The  women  are  supposed  never  to  have  heard  this  song, 
which  is  kept  secret  from  them,  and  they  fear  that  they 
would  be  strangled  by  the  men  should  they  ever  overhear  it. 
I  now  return  to  the  ochre  party,  who,  having  for  fear  of 
hostile  tribes  made  their  way  home  only  resting  at  night, 
are  now  within  two  hundred  yards  of  the  camp  prepared 
for  them. 

They  drop  on  their  hands  and  knees,  so  as  not  to  awaken 
its  inhabitants,  who  they  desire  to  take  by  surprise,  which 
they  do  when  within  a  few  yards  distance  by  loud  yelling 
and  clapping  their  hands,  and  dancing  two  or  three  times 
round  the  Bookatoo  Oorannie,  after  which  they  retire  a 
little  way. 

The  men  of  the  camp  then  rush  out  to  ascertain  whether, 
all  of  the  party  have  arrived  safe — women  crying,  children 
screaming,  dogs  fighting,  altogether  make  up  a  discord 
language  is  unequal  to  describe.  Now  the  sugarloaf  bags 
are  placed  on  the  heads  of  the  adventurers,  the  women 
prepare  food  for  them,  and  dancing  is  kept  up  during  the 
whole  of  the  night  until  sunrise,  when  the  ceremony  is 
over,  and  until  when  the  women  are  not  allowed  to  speak 
to  their  husbands  or  relatives. 

Afterwards,  days  are  spent  by  the  members  of  the 
expedition  in  recounting  anecdotes  and  incidents  of  their 
travel. 


mount  prbeling  to  pirigundi  lake.  73 

Diseases. 

Wittcha. — This  disease  is,  I  think,  the  itch.  The 
symptoms  are  innumerable  small  pimples  all  over  the  body, 
causing  considerable  irritation,  only  to  be  temporarily 
allayed  by  rubbing  the  parts  affected  with  a  sharp  instru- 
ment or  stone,  the  hand  alone  being  insufi&cient  to  afford 
relief. 

It  is  very  contagious,  spreading  from  one  person 
throughout  the  camp,  and  is  probably  caused  by  general 
want  of  cleanliness,  and  allowing  mangy  dogs  to  lie  with 
them.     They  are  subject  to  this  disease  once  a  year. 

Mirra. — A  disease  which  every  native  has  once  in  his 
life,  sometimes  at  three  years  of  age,  but  mor'e  frequently  at 
fourteen  or  thereabouts.  The  symptoms  are  large  blind 
boils  under  the  arms,  in  the  groin,  on  the  breasts  or 
thighs,  varying  in  size  from  a  hen's  egg  to  that  of  an 
emu's  egg.  It  endures  for  months,  and  in  some  instances 
for  years,  before  finally  eradicated. 

During  its  presence  the  patient  is  generally  so  enfeebled 
as  to  be  unable  to  procure  food,  and,  in  fact,  is  totally 
helpless. 

It  is  not  contagious,  and  is,  I  surmise,  peculiar  to  the 
natives,  whose  only  remedy  is  the  application  of  hot  ashes 
to  the  parts  affected. 

Mooramoora. — Unquestionably  small-pox,  to  which  the 
natives  were  subject  evidently  before  coming  into  contact 
with  Europeans,  as  many  old  men  and  women  are  pock- 
marked in  the  face  and  body. 

They  state  that  a  great  number  have  been  carried  off 
by  this  disease,  and  I  have  been  shown,  on  the  top  of  a 
sandhill,  seventy-four  graves,  which  are  said  to  be  those  of 
men,  women,  and  children,  carried  off  by  this  fell  disorder. 

The  Doctoe — (Koonkie). 
The  Koonkie  is  a  native,  who  has  seen  the  devil  when 
a  child  (the  devil  is  called  Kootchie),  and  is  supposed  to 
have  received  power  from  him  to  heal  all  sick. 


74  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

The  way  in  which  a  man  or  woman  becomes  a  doctor  is, 
that  if  when  young  they  have  had  the  nightmare,  or  an 
unpleasant  dream,  and  relate  this  to  the  camp,  the  inmates 
come  to  the  conclusion  that  he  or  she  has  seen  the  devil. 

The  males  never  practise  until  after  circumcision,  and,  in 
fact,  are  not  deemed  proficient  till  out  of  their  teens. 

Whenever  a  person  falls  ill,  the  Koonkie  is  requested  to 
examine  and  cure  him. 

The  Koonkie  walks  up  to  the  invalid,  feels  the  parts 
affected,  and  then  commences  rubbing  them  until  he  fancies 
he  has  got  hold  of  something,  when  he  sucks  the  parts  for  a 
minute  or  two^,  and  then  goes  out  of  the  camp  a  few  yards. 

He  now  picks  up  a  piece  of  wood,  about  one  or  two  inches 
long,  and  returns  to  the  camp,  where,  procuring  a  red  hot 
coal,  he  rubs  it  in  his  hands  to  make  them  hot,  and  then 
feels  the  disordered  parts  again,  and  after  a  little  manoeu- 
vring produces  the  stick  which  he  had  concealed  in  his  hand, 
as  if  extracted  from  the  patient's  body,  to  the  great  surprise 
of  all  the  natives,  who  conclude  that  this  was  the  cause  of 
the  complaint. 

The  Koonkie  is  requested  to  try  again,  when  he  goes  out 
a  second  time  in  a  very  solemn  manner  (the  natives  all  look- 
ing at  him  with  wonder),  blows  twice  or  thrice,  returns,  goes 
through  the  same  performance  as  before,  and  then  produces 
a  long  piece  of  twine,  or  a  piece  of  charcoal,  of  course  from 
the  part  affected. 

This  imposter  won't  confess  to  his  trickery,  and,  indeed, 
from  constant  practice,  at  last  deludes  himself  into  a  belief 
of  his  skilful  surgery,  which  all  the  other  natives  have  im- 
plicit faith  in.  And,  indeed,  the  force  of  imagination  is  so 
strong  in  some  cases,  that  I  have  seen  a  native  quite  ill,  and 
actually  cry  for  the  Koonkie,  who,  after  his  humbugging, 
appeared  quite  recovered. 

Should  the  Koonkie  fail  in  his  effort  to  relieve  the  sick, 
he  is  prepared  with  a  ready  excuse — some  Koonkie  of  another 
tribe,  possessing  more  skill,  has  stopped  his  power. 


MOUNT    FREELING    TO    PIRIGUNDI   LAKE.  75 

When  a  KoonMe  is  ill  he  calls  in  the  aid  of  another 
Koonkie  to  cure  him. 

As  I  have  said  elsewhere,  no  person  is  presumed  to 
become  ill  naturally.  The  Kootchie  (devil),  or  some  native, 
has  bewitched  him. 

Cure  of  Disease  or  Wotinds. 

Sores,  cuts,  bruises,  pain,  and  disease  of  all  kinds,  no 
matter  how  arising,  are  treated  in  one  of  two  modes — if  slight, 
by  the  application  of  dirt  to  the  part  affected ;  if  severe,  by 
that  of  hot  ashes. 

In  cases  of  any  kind  of  sting,  leaves  of  bushes,  heated  at 
the  fire,  are  applied  to  the  part  stung,  as  hot  as  the  patient 
can  bear  it,  and  the  smart  almost  immediately  disappears. 

PART  III. 

Catalogue  of  Animals,  fc. — Eats  and  their  Congeners;  Rep- 
tiles; Birds;  Fish;  Vegetables;  Insects;  Manufacturing 
Products;  Weapons;  and  Personal  Adornments. 

Rats  add  theie  Congbneks.     (All  eaten  by  them.) 


Kaunoonka   - 

-  Bush  wallaby. 

Wurtarrie 

-  Kangaroo-rat. 

Capietha 

-  Native  rabbit. 

Miaroo  - 

-  Rat. 

Poontha 

-  Mouse. 

Arutchie 

-  Native  ferret. 

Cowirrie 

-  Rat  (I  don't  know  the  species). 

ThillamlUarie 

-  A  species  of  ferret. 

Pulyara 

-  Long-snouted  rat. 

Koolchie 

-  Species  of  rat. 

Koonappoo    - 

-  Species  of  mouse. 

Kulkuna 

-  Species  of  wallaby  (very  swift). 

Kooraltha 

-  Spotted  ferret. 

Kulunda 

-  White  and  black  rat  (similar  to  the  house  rat), 

Tickawara     - 

-  Native  cat. 

Reptiles.     (Those  not  eaten  marked  thus  *.) 
Kunnie  -        -        -  Jew  lizard. 

Kopirrie        -        -     •   -  Iguana. 

Patharamooroo      -        -  Black  iguana  (I  have  only  seen  three;  they  are  very 
scarce). 


76 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


Choopa  - 
Kudieworoo  - 
Wakurrie 
*  Womaloora  - 
*Thitthurie  - 
Moonkamoonkarilla 

Oolaumi 

*Kulohandarra 


Woma -        -         .        - 

Thoona- 
Wondaroo     - 

Woonkoo 

Wirrawirrala 

Wipparoo 

Marrakilla    - 

Mithindie      - 

Koolielawirrawirra 

Mulkunkoora 
Thandandiewindiewindie 

Knrawulieyackayackuna 

Kulathirrie  - 
Thidnamura  - 
Pinchiepinohiedara 


A  slender  lizard,  about  3  in.  long. 

Red-backed  lizard,  about  3  in.  long. 

Flat-headed  lizard,  about  3  in.  long. 

Smooth-skinned  lizard,  about  5  in.  long. 

Small  rough-skinned  lizard,  about  4  in.  long. 

Small  black  lizard,  with  short  taU;  generally  found 
under  the  bark  of  trees. 

Lizard,  transparent  skin,  spotted  yellow  and  black, 
about  5  in.  long. 

Species  of  lizard,  flat  head,  scaly  back,  about  4  in. 
long;  lives  under  the  ground,  and  only  appears 
above  after  heavy  rains.  The  natives  describe 
it  as  venomous,  and  affirm  its  bite  is  certaia 
death,  wherefore  they  are  very  frightened  of  it, 
and  even  avoid  killing  it  from  fear  of  its  poison- 
ing their  weapons. 

Carpet  snake,  from  5  to  12  ft.  long,  large  body;  its 
bite  not  venomous. 

Grey  snake,  generally  about  5  ft.  long;  venomous. 
Green  and  yellow  snake,  very  thick  body,  about 

5  ft.  long,  quite  harmless,  and  has  a  sleepy  ap- 
pearance. 
Light  brown  and  grey  snake,  from  4  to  7  ft.  long; 

venomous,  and  very  vicious. 
Large  brown  snake,  with  yellow  belly,  from  6  to 

10  ft.  long;  very  venomous. 
Long  thin  snake,  black,  shaded  with  other  dark 

colours,  about  7  ft.  long;  very  venomous,  its  bite 

causing  instant  death,  so  the  natives  are  very 

cautious  in  killing  it. 
Large  brown  snake,  about  7  ft.  long,  has  a  large 

head ;  is  very  venomous  and  vicious. 
White  and  yellow  spotted  snake,  small  thin  body, 

about  3  ft.  long ;  harmless. 
Small  yellow  and  black  spotted  snake,  about  3  ft. 

long ;    harmless. 
Black  and  green  spotted  snake,  5  ft.  long;  venomous. 
Small  black  snake,  small  mouth,  about  5  ft.  6  in.; 

venomous. 
Plat-headed  snake,  green  back,  yellow  spots  on 

belly,  about  4  ft.  long ;  venomous. 
Frog. 
Toad. 
Bat. 


MOUNT    FREELING   TO    PIRIGUNDI    LAKE. 


77 


Kunienundruna    - 

Thirriethirrie 

Thoaroopathandrunie 

Milkieworie  - 

Pittiekilkadie 

Kirrkie- 

Kookoongka  - 

Windtha 

Wurchie-WTirchie  - 

KillawoloowoUoorka 

Moonyie 

Killunkilla    - 

Kooranyawillawilla 

Poolunka 

Cathathara    - 

Willaroo 

Moodlubra    - 

Mumpie 

Woparoo 

Koorookookoo 

Mulliepirrpaoonga 

Choonda 

Thindriethindrie  - 

Thiewillagie  - 

Mulyamulyayapunie 

Poothoopoothooka 

Koorabaukoola 


Ooroo    - 

Culiemulyandurie  - 
Moolpa  - 
Chooieohooie- 
Dickadickulyerra  - 
Mootoomootoo 
Thanpathanpa 


Tharalkoo     ■ 
Thowla 
Kockadooroo 
Chipala- 
Koodnapina  - 
Thookabie     - 
Doolpadoolpaioo 
KUkie  - 


BiEDS.     (All  eaten  by  them.) 

-  The  largest  hawk  excepting  eaglehawk. 

-  Small  speckled  hawk. 

-  White  hawk. 

-  Large  grey  hawk. 

-  Speckled  hawk. 

-  Whistling  hawk  (very  swift). 

-  Kite. 

-  Grey  owl. 

-  White  owl. 

-  Dark-brown  owl. 

-  Mopawk. 

-  Red-breasted  cockatoo. 

-  Cockatoo  parrot. 

-  Parrot. 

-  Shell  parrot. 

-  Curlew. 

-  Pigeon. 

-  Bronzewing  pigeon. 

-  Flock  pigeon. 

-  Dove. 

-  Quail. 

-  Red-breasted  robin. 

-  Shepherd's  companion  (a  species  of  wagtail). 

-  Small  species  of  lark. 

-  Swallow. 

-  Sparrow. 

-  Magpie. 

Waders. 

-  Nankeen-colored  crane. 

-  Black  and  white  crane. 

-  White  crane. 

-  Snipe. 

-  Species  of  snipe. 

-  Species  of  snipe. 

-  Slate-colored  snipe. 

Water  Fowl. 

-  Teal. 

-  Spoonbill  duck. 

-  Mountain  duck. 

-  Whistling  duck. 

-  Brown  duck,  with  red  beak. 

-  Diver. 

-  Black  diver. 

-  Water  hen. 


78 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   EACE  : 


Muroomuroo- 
Wathawirrie- 
Muloora 
Boorkoopiya  - 
Kirrpiyirrka  - 


Black  water  hen. 
Species  of  water  hen. 
Cormorant. 

Long-beaked  cormorant. 
Gull. 


Fish  and  other  Freshwater  Habitants 
Are  few  and  unimportant,  being  caught  in  the  waterholes  and  lakelets, 

which  can  only  be  called  creeks  or  rivers  when  the  floods  come  down, 

the  last  of  which  occurred  in  1864. 
Paroo    -         -        -        -  A  small  bony  flat  fish. 
Multhoomulthoo   -         -  A  fish  weighing  from  3  to  SJ  lbs. 
Moodlakoopa         -        -  A  fish  averaging  4  lbs. 
Koorie  -        -        -        -  Mussel. 


Thiltharie     - 

Murunkura  - 

Kooniekoonierilla  - 

Kuniekoondie 

Pitchula 

Pindrie 

Purdie  - 

Pittaboobaritchana 


Insects. 

-  Centipede  (sometimes  7  in.  long — its  bite  is  venom- 

ous). 

-  Tarantula. 

-  Black  spider. 

-  Scorpion. 

-  Species  of  spider. 

-  Grasshopper  or  locust. 

-  Grub,  caterpillar.* 

-  Sandfly. 


Vegetables,  Roots,  Herbs,  Fbtjit,  Seed,  etc.    (Eaten  by  the 


Yowa    - 

Winkara 

Munyaroo 

Kunaurra 

Ardoo   - 


Cobboboo 
Wodaroo 


Natives.) 

-  Rather  larger  than  a  pea,  found  3  in.  deep  in  the 

ground. 

-  A  very  starchy  root,  about  5  in.  long. 

-  A  plant  much  eaten. 

-  The  seed  of  the  Munyaroo,  used  when  ground  into 

meal  between  two  stones. 

-  (Often  described  in  newspapers  and  by  writers  as 

Nardoo.)  A  very  hard  seed,  a  flat  oval  of  about, 
the  size  of  a  split  pea;  it  is  crushed  or  pounded, 
and  the  husk  winnowed.  In  bad  seasons  this  is 
the  mainstay  of  the  natives'  sustenance,  but  it  Is 
the  worst  food  possible,  possessing  very  little 
nourishment,  and  being  difficult  to  digest. 

-  A  nut  found  on  the  box-tree,  on  breaking  which 

it  discloses  a  grub ;  this  is  probably  a  gall. 

-  A  thin,  long  root,  obtainable  only  where  the  soil  is 

rich  and  covered  with  turf.  This  is  one  of  the 
best  vegetables  the  natives  possess,  sweet  and 
mealy. 


MOUNT    FREELING    TO    PIRIGUNDI   LAKE. 


79 


Coonchirrie  -        -        -  The  seed  from  a  species  of  acacia,  ground  and 

made  into  small  loavea. 
Patharapowa         -        -  The  seed  of  the  box-tree,  ground  and  made  into 

loaves. 

Caulyoo  -  -  -  The  seed  of  the  prickly  acacia,  pounded  and  made 
into  loaves. 

Wodlaooroo  -  -  -  "Very  fine  seed  taken  from  the  silver  grass,  grow- 
ing in  the  creeks. 

Wirrathandra        -        -  Seed  of  an  acacia. 

Mulkathaudra       -        -  Seed  of  the  mulga  tree. 

Yoongundie  -        -  Black  fine  seed,    taken  from  a  plant  similar  to 

clover. 

-  Native  cotton-bush.  When  the  leaves  sprout  and 
become  quite  green  the  natives  gather  and  cook 
them,  and  at  seed  time  they  pluck  and  eat  the 
pods. 

-  Indigenous  clover;  when  young,  cooked  by  the 
natives,  and  eaten  in  large  quantities. 

-  A  small  watery  plant. 

-  The  native  fig. 

-  The  native  gooseberry. 

-  The  native  blackberry. 

-  The  native  pear. 

-  The  native  orange. 


Mootoha 


Kuloomba     ■ 

Willapie 
Yoolantie 
Bookabooda  ■ 
Mundawora 
Thoopara 


Vegetable  Productions  Used  in  Manufacturing. 

Mindrie  -  -  -  A  large  root,  from  the  outside  of  which  is  obtained 
a  kind  of  resin,  which,  when  prepared  at  the 
fire  and  afterwards  allowed  to  dry,  becomes 
very  hard  and  tough,  called  "kundrie,"  and  is 
used  in  fastening  a  flint  to  a  short  stick  called 
"  kundriemookoo. " 

Mootcha  -  -  -  The  stems  of  this  bush  (the  pods  and  leaves  of 
which  afford  food)  when  dry  are  pounded  into 
a  fine  fibre,  then  teased  and  spun,  after  which  it 
is  made  into  bags,  which  are  very  nicely  done, 
and  occupy  many  days  in  their  production. 


Weapons  and  Implements. 

Murawirrie  -  -  -  Two-handed  boomerang,  from  6  to  14  ft.  long  and 
4  in.  broad. 

Kundriemookoo  -  ■  Of  semicircular  shape,  2  ft.  6  in.  long,  to  one  end 
of  which  is  attached  by  resin  a  flint,  forming  a 
kind  of  axe  or  tool  used  in  making  weapons. 


80  THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

Wona  -  -  -  -  A  short  thick  stick,  about  3  ft.  long,  used  by 
women  who  do  not  carry  the  shield,  spear,  or 
boomerang. 

Yootohoowonda  -  -  A  piece  of  flint  about  3  in.  long,  with  an  edge  like 
a  razor,  and  at  the  blunt  end  covered  with  resin; 
this  is  concealed  in  the  palm  of  the  hand  when 
fighting,  and  is  capable  of  inflicting  a  wound 
like  one  made  with  a  butcher's  knife. 

Pirrauma  -  -  -  A  shield,  oval-shaped,  of  solid  wood,  from  1  ft.  to 
3  ft.  long,  and  from  6  in.  to  1  ft.  wide. 

Personal  Ornaments. 

Kultrakultra  -  -  Necklace  made  from  reeds  strung  on  woven  hair, 
and  suspended  round  the  neck. 

Yinka  -  -  -  -  A  string  of  human  hair,  ordinarily  300  yards  in 
length,  and  wound  round  the  waist.  This  orna- 
ment is  greatly  prized,  owing  to  the  difficulty  of 
procuring  the  material  of  which  it  is  made. 

Mundamunda  -  -  A  string  made  from  the  native  cotton-tree,  about 
two  or  three  hundred  yards  long;  this  is  worn 
round  the  waist,  and  adorned  by  different 
colored  strings  wound  round  at  right  angles. 
These  are  worn  by  the  women,  and  are  very 
neatly  made. 

Kootcha  -  -  -  Bunch  of  hawk's,  crow's,  or  eagle's  feathers,  neatly 
tied  with  the  sinews  of  the  emu  or  wallaby,  and 
cured  in  hot  ashes.  This  is  worn  either  when 
fighting  or  dancing,  and  also  used  as  a  fan. 

Wurtawurta-  -  -  A  bunch  of  the  black  feathers  of  the  emu,  tied 
together  with  the  sinews  of  the  same  bird;  worn 
in  the  yinka  (girdle)  near  the  waist. 

Chanpoo  -  -  -  A  band  of  about  6  in.  long  by  2  in.  broad,  made  from 
the  stems  of  the  cotton-bush,  painted  white,  and 
worn  round  the  forehead. 

Koorie  -  -  -  -  A  large  mussel  shell  pierced  with  a  hole,  and  at- 
tached to  the  end  of  the  beard  or  suspended 
from  the  neck;  also  used  in  circumcision. 

Oonamunda  -  -  -  About  10  ft.  of  string,  made  from  the  native  cotton- 
bush,  and  worn  round  the  arm. 

Oorapathera  -  -  -  A  bunch  of  leaves  tied  at  the  feet,  and  worn  when 
dancing,  causing  a  peculiar  noise. 

Unpa  -  A  bunch  of  tassels,  made  from  the  fur  of  rata  and 

wallaby,  worn  by  the  natives  to  cover  their 
private  parts.  They  are  in  length  6  in.  to  3  ft. 
long. 


MOUNT   PREELING   TO    PIRIGUNDI    LAKE.  81 

Thippa ...  -  Used  for  the  same  purpose  as  Unpa.  A  bunch  of 
tassels  made  from  tails  of  the  native  rabbit, 
and,  when  washed  in  damp  sand,  is  very  pretty, 
being  white  as  the  driven  snow.  It  takes  about 
fifty  tails  to  make  an  ordinary  Thippa,  but  I 
have  seen  some  consisting  of  350. 

Aroo  .  .  -  -  The  large  feathers  from  the  tail  of  the  emu,  used 
only  as  a  fan. 

Wurda  Wurda  -  -  A  circlet  or  coronet  of  emu  feathers,  worn  only  by 
the  old  men. 

PiUie  .  -  -  .  Netted  bag,  made  from  the  stems  of  the  cotton- 
bush  and  rushes,  with  meshes  similar  to  our 
fishing  net. 

Wondaroo  -  -  -A  closely-netted  bag,  made  from  the  fibre  of  the 
cotton-bush. 

Pirra    -  -        -  A  trough-like  water  vessel. 

Mintie  .  -  -  -  Fishing  net,  made  from  rushes,  usually  60  ft.  long 
by  3  ft.  wide. 

PART  IV. 

The  Dieyerie  Dialect ;  Key  to  Pronunciation ;  Examples  of 
the  Constmction  of  the  Language;  System  of  Notation; 
Astronomical  Terms;  List  of  Names  distinguishing  Age 
or  Relationship ;  The  Ten  Commandments;  Parts  of 
the  Human  Frame;   Vocabulary. 

Tlie  Dieyerie  dialect,  although,  of  limited  construction, 
yet  has  certain  rules  not  oftener  departed  from  than  the 
languages  of  a  more  civilized  people.  Each  word  invariably 
terminates  with  a  vowel ;  and  so  accustomed  are  the  'Dieyerie 
to  this  form  that,  in  acquiring  foreign  words  terminating  in 
a  consonant,  they  always  add  vowels,  as  thus : — Bullock 
becomes  bulakoo  ;  hat,  hata ;  dog,  doga ;  and  so  on. 

Besides  the  spoken  language,  they  have  a  copious  one  of 
signs — all  animals,  native  man  or  woman,  the  heavens,  earth, 
walking,  riding,  jumping,  flying,  swimming,  eating,  drinking, 
and  hundreds  of  other  objects  or  actions  have  each  their 
particular  sign,  so  that  a  conversation  may  be  sustained 
without  the  utterance  of  a  single  word. 

This  dumb  language,  of  which  I  possess  a  thorough  know- 
ledge, cannot,  however,  be  described  in  words.     A  special 


82 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


feature  in  their  language  is  that  of  distinguishing  each  other 
in  their  relationship,  by  which  their  names  become  trans- 
muted in  a  variety  of  ways — at  certain  ages,  on  their  being 
married,  and  after  undergoing  certain  ceremonies — examples 
of  which  are  here  given. 

Their  system  of  notation,  which  is  described  further  on,  is 
excessively  restricted,  as  is  also  their  knowledge  of  astron- 
omy, with  which  they  have,  nevertheless,  an  acquaintance. 

The  Dieyerie  language  extends  far  beyond  the  limit  of 
their  own  possessions,  being  understood,  though  not  spoken, 
by  the  surrounding  tribes. 

The  alphabet  used  by  me  in  the  vocabulary  consists  of 
eighteen  letters  only,  the  Dieyerie  dialect  possessing  no 
equivalent  for  our  F,  J,  Q,  S,  V,  X,  Z,  while  K  answers  in 
every  respect  for  0,  excepting  where  it  precedes  the  letter  H, 


Key  to  Pbonunoiation". 


A,  as  in  Hand,  hat,  fat,  band. 

B,  ,,  Bauble,  bible,  bride. 
D,  ,,  Deed,  did,  deadly. 
B,  ,,  Treat,  tact,  tart. 

G,  ,,  Gag,  gurgle  (never  as  giant, 

page,  rage). 

H,  „  Hay,  heavy,  hearty. 

J,  ,,  Light,  bright.  ' 

K,  ,,  Kernel,  keep,  kick,  key. 

L,  ,,  Lilt,  laurel. 

M,  ,,  Mama,  marmalade. 

N,  ,,  Nothing,  none,  noon. 

0,  ,,  Ormolu,  ostracize,  olive. 


P,  as  in  Pope,  puppet,  pipe. 
R,     „     Rare,  rich,  rather. 
T,     „     Teat,  tint,  threat. 
U,    „     Cur,  fur. 
W,  ,,     Wake,  walk,  weak. 
Y,    ,,     Youth,  yonder. 

Au,  as  in  Caught,  taught. 
Ch  (tsch).  Child,  church,  chatter, 
le,  as  in  Yield,  thief,  brief. 
Oo,     ,,     Moon,  soon,  balloon. 
Ou,     ,,     Cow,  now,  how,  brow. 
Th,     „     Teeth,  truth,  this,  that. 


A  List  of  Words 

Principally,  and  in  some  cases  only,  showing  the  construction  of  the 
language  used  with  others,  and  then  usually  terminating  them.  Ex- 
amples follow — 

Alie — Us.  Aumpoo — Almost. 

Alyie— Pew.  Auni— Will,  shall. 

Ami— To. 

Ana^ing.  Backa— Same  as. 

Anie— Me,  my.  Bootoo— With. 

Arrie— Same  as.  Buckuna— Also. 

Athie— Do  it.  Butha— Not. 


MOUNT   FREELING    TO    PIRIGUNDI    LAKE. 


83 


Champuna — Always. 

Elie— To,  of. 

Goo — To  yours,  of  yours. 

Janna — We. 
Jannanie — Ours. 

Kaunohie — Certain,  sure. 

Launi — Will,  shall. 

Marow — Do  it  (imperative). 
Moonthalie — Ourselves. 
Moonthoo — Most. 
Moolaroo — Great,  very. 
MuUauna — Together,  each  other. 
Mundroola — Only  two. 
Murla — More. 
Murra — Fresh,  new. 
Mutcha — Enough. 
Mi— To. 

Nandroya — She. 
Naniea — Her. 
Nankanie — Hers. 
Ninua — The,  thee,  that,  it. 
Ninniea — This. 
Nie — ^My,  mine. 
Noaliea — He. 
Nooloo — Him, 
Noonkanie — His. 
Nowieya — There. 

Ori-rDid,  has,  have. 

Parohuna — All. 

Pilkie — Not  relating  to. 


Pilkildra — Something  else. 
Pina — Great,  very. 
Pothoo — Only. 
Pulpa — Others. 
Punie — ^None,  no  one. 

Thanar-They. 
Thananie — Theirs. 
Thaniya — Them,  those. 
Tharkuna — Incline. 
Thulka — Relating  to. 
Thuruna — Together. 

Uldra— We. 
Una — ing,  ed. 
Undroo — Together. 

Wadarie — ^Where,  which. 

Wakawaka       i 

Wakamoothoo  J 

War  ana — Who. 

Whi— What. 

Windrie — Only . 

Wirrie — Of  them,  to  them. 

Wodow — ^What,  how. 

Wonthie — Had. 

Wulya — Soon. 

Wulyaloo — Soon  after. 

Wumie — Whose. 

Wurra — Of  them,  to  them, 

Wurroonga — Whom . 

Yankiea — Many. 
Yinkanie — Theirs,  yours. 
Yondroo — Thou. 
Yoora — Ye,  few. 


A — Koornoo. 

All — Parchuna. 

Also — Bukuna. 

Almost — Aumpoo  bumpoo. 

Always — Champuna. 

Certain — Kaunohie. 

Enough — Mutcha. 
Each  other — Mulluna. 


Few — Alyie,  yoora. 
Fresh — Murra. 
Has  or  have — Ori. 
Had — Wonthie. 
He— Nooliea. 
Him — ^Nooloo. 
His — Noonkanie. 
Her — Naniea. 
Hers — Nankanie. 
How — Wodow. 


F  2 


84 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


Incline — Tharkuna. 
It — Ninna. 

Least — Wakawaka,  wakamoothoo. 

Me — Anie. 
Mine,  my — Nie. 
Many — Yankiea. 
More — Murla. 

None,  no  one — Punie. 

Not— Butha. 

New — Murra. 

Not  relating  to — Pilkie. 

Only — Pothoo,  wiri. 

Only  two — Mundroola. 

Others — Pulpa. 

Of— Elie,  thulka.  . 

Of  them — Wirrie,  wurra. 

Ours — Jannanie. 

Ourselves — Moonthalie. 

Relating  to — Undroo. 

She — ^Nundroya. 
Sure — Kaunchie. 
Soon — ^Wulya. 
Soon  after — Wulyaloo. 
Same  as — Arrie,  backa. 


Self— Moontha. 
Something  else — Pilkildra. 

The — Ninna. 

Thee — ^Ninna. 

Theirs — Thananie. 

Them,  those — Thaniya,  Goondroo. 

They— Thana. 

That — Ninna. 

This — Ninna,  ninniea. 

Their — Yinkanie. 

To — Elie,  thulka,  goo,  ami,  mi. 

To  them — ^Wirie  wurra. 

Together — Mullauna,  thurana. 

There — ^Nowieya. 

Us- Alie. 

Very — Marpoo,  moolaroo,  piaa. 

With— Boothoo. 
We — Jannana,  uldra. 
Will — Launi  or  Auni. 
Where,  which — Wadarie. 
Who — Warana. 
Whose — Wurnie. 
Whom — ^Wuronga. 
What — Whi,  wodow. 

Ye — ^Yoora. 
Yours — Yinkanie. 


Examples. 
(-Moonthalie,  ourselves.    Moontha,  self — Alie,  us. 
Alie,  us      -        -  -|  Mooalie,  hungry,     Moa,  hunger — Alie,  us. 
I  Mookalie,  sleepy.     Mooka,  sleep — AUe,  us. 
rTannanie,  ours.     Tanna,  we — Anie,  me. 
Anie,  me,  my     -  -!  Apinie,  my  father.     Appirie,  father — ^Nie,  my. 

V  Uldranie,  of  ua.     Uldra,  we — Nie,  us. 
Bootoo,  with — Kintaloobootoo,  with  a  dog.     Kintalo,  dog — Boothoo, 

with. 
Butha,  not — Yoothabuta,  not  lucky.     Yootha,  luck — Butha,  not. 
Bumpoo,   almost — Bumpoonundra,  almost  a  blow.      Nundra,  blow — 
Bumpoo,  almost. 

r  Baukoelie,  of  nothing. .  Baukoo,  nothing — Elie,  of, 
Elie,  of      -        -  -!  Bootchooelie,  of  the  blind.     Bootchoo,  blind— Elie, 

I         of  the. 
Goo,  of  or  to— Yinkanigoo,   of  or  to  yours.     Yinkani,  yours — Goo,  of 
or  to. 


MOUNT    FRBELING    TO    PIRIGUNDI    LAKE.  85 

(Kooriekauncliie,    thief    for    certain.       Koorielie, 
stealing. 
Yadinakauuohie,  liar  for  certain.     Yadiena,  lying. 
Yapakaunchie,  fear  for  certain.     Yapa,  fear. 
Koomoo,  one — Pothookoornoo,  only  one — Koomoo,  one.     Pothoo,  only. 

r  Oomoomurla,  better.     Omoo,  good — Murla,  more. 
Murla,  more      -  -j  Wordoomurla,  shorter.    -  Wordoo,    short — Murla, 

V         more. 
Moothoo,  most — Wordoomoothoo,     moat    short.       Wordoo,    short — 

Moothoo,  most. 
MuUana,   together,   each   other — DamamuUana,   cutting  each  other. 
Damami,  to  cut — MuUana,  eaah  other. 

( Karoomurra,  hair  beginning  to  get  grey.      Karoo, 

Murra        fresh  grey-Murra,  new. 

'  '    <  Apamurra,  fresh  water.    Apa,  water — Murra,  fresh. 

]  Noamurra,  married  couple.      Noa,  husband  or  wife 
[         — Murra,  new,  i.  e. ,  new  relationship. 
Poothoo,  only — Pothookoornoo,  only  one — Pothoo,  only.  Koornoo,  one. 

/-  Yoothapina,  great  luck.     Yootha,  luck. 
Pina,  great,  very  -]  Moapina,  very  hungry.     Moa,  hunger. 

VNooroopina,  very  quick,     Nooroo,  quick. 
Thulka,  relating  to — Kumuthulka,  relating  to  person  of  a  Blaokfellow. 
Kurna,  person  of  Blackfellow — Thulka,  relating  to. 

/•Mopathuruna,  collect  together.     Mopa,  collect. 
Thuruna,  together-!  Kumpathuruna,  collect  together.     Kumpa,  collect. 
I  Ookunathuruna,  joined  together.    Ookuna,  joined. 
.  c  Kookootharkuua,  unlevel,  down  hill. 

Tharkuna,  mclm- J  pooratharkuna,  bending  the  body  forward, 
mg  uneven  -    (_  Munatharkuna,  gaping.     Muna,  mouth. 

IApaundro,  relating  to  water.    Apa,  water. 
Pirrundroo,  relating  to  trough,     Pirra,  trough. 
Kurnaundroo,  relating  to  person  of  Blaokfellow. 
Kurna,  a  Blackfellow. 


Had  loved— Yoorawonthie. 
Will  or  shall  love — Yooralauni. 
Love  each  other — YoorimuUuna. 
Love  ye — Yooramarow. 


Love — Yoori. 

To  love — Yoorami. 

Loving — ^Yoorana. 

Loved — Yooranoari. 

Did,  has,  or  have  loved — Yooranaori 

To  Love,  Yoorami.     Loving,  Yoorana.    Loved,  Yooranaori. 
I  am  loving — Athooyoorana. 
Thou  art  loving — Yondrooyoorana. 
He  is  loving — Noolieayoorana. 
We  are  loving — TJldrayoorana. 
You  are  loving — Yinieyoorana. 
They  are  loving — Thanayoorana. 


86 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


I  did  or  have  loved— Athooyooranaori. 

Thou  didst  or  have  loved — Yondrooyooranaori. 

He  did  or  has  loved — ^Noolieayooranaori. 

We  did  or  have  loved — Uldrayooranaori. 
You  did  or  have  loved — Yinieyooranaori. 
They  did  or  have  loved — Thanayooranaori. 

I  had  loved — Athooyooranaori. 

Thou  hadst  loved— Yondrooyooranawonthie. 

He  had  loved — Noolieayooranawonthie. 

We  had  loved — Uldrayooranawonthie. 
You  had  loved — Yinieyooranawonthie. 
They  had  loved — Thanayooranawonthie. 

I  shall  or  will  love — Athooyaralaunl. 
Thou  ahalt  or  will  love — Yondrooyaralauni. 
He  shall  or  will  love — Noolieayaralauni. 

We  shall  or  will  love — Uldrayaralauni. 
You  shall  or  will  love — Yinieyooralauui. 
They  shall  or  will  love — Thanayaralauni. 

Names  Given  according  to  Age  and  Relationship. 


Kurawulie — Boy  under  9  years  old. 
Mockaworo — Boy  over  9  and  under 

12  years  old. 
Thootchawara — Boy  over  12  years 

old  after  circumcision. 
Matharie — Man. 
Koopa — Girl  until  married. 
Munkara — Girl  on  marriage. 
Kudlakoo — Woman  of  middle  age. 
Noa — Husband  or  wife. 
Adada — Grandfather. 
Athanie — Son  or  daughter,  so  called 

by  mother. 
Athamoora  —  Son  or  daughter,   so 

called  by  father. 


Noamurra — Man  and  wife. 
Booyooloo — Near  relative. 
Kaka — Uncle. 
Kunninnie — Grandchild  or 

mother. 
Pirraooroo — Paramour. 
Piyara — Mother-in-law. 
Pulara  —  Woman  when  appointed 


Thidnara — ^Nephew. 
Thuroo — Father-in-law. 
Widlamurra — ^Women. 
Wowitcha — ^Distant  relative. 


Parts  of  the 

Auma — Breasts. 
Caupoora — Waist. 
Cauloo — Liver. 
Coopoodrompoo — Wrist. 
Imulla — Swallow. 
Koodnabiddie — Intestines. 
Kundrieooloo — Collar-bone. 
Moonambirrie — Chest. 
Muttaduckoo — Ankle, 


Human  Frame. 

Milkiecootchara — Eyebrows. 
Murramookoo — Fingers. 
.Murrapirrie — Finger-nails. 
Murraundrie — Thumb. 
Murrawootchoo — Forefinger. 
Milperie — Forehead. 
Munanilyie — Gums . 
Munakirra — Jawbone. 
Miemie — Lips. 


MOUNT   FREELING    TO    PIRIGUNDI    LAKE. 


87 


Oona — Arms. 
Oolooo — Cheeks. 
Oora — Legs. 
Puliethilcha — Groin. 
Pittie — Fundament. 
Pittiemookoo — Seat. 
Punchiethandra — Knees. 
Poondrapoondra — Kidneys. 
Poongnga — Lights. 
Pida — Navel. 
Punkathirrie — Side. 
PUlperrie — Shoulders. 
Thookoo — Back. 
ThUchaundrie — Calf  of  legs. 
Thinthabiddie— Elbow. 


Thidnaraookoo — Toes. 

Thidnawurta — Heel. 

Thidnaundrie — Large  toe. 

Thidnaulkie — Between  the  toes. 

Thidnathookoo — Insteps. 

Thidnapirrie — Nails  of  the  finger. 

Thara^Thigh. 

Thilcha— Sinews. 

Thudacuna — Pulse. 

Thitha — Joints. 

Unkachanda — Chin. 

Urra — Heart. 

Wolcha — Hips. 

Yerkala — Neck. 

Yoorieyoorie — Veins. 


System  op  Notation. 
The  only  words  representing  numerals  possessed  by  the  natives  are: — 
Coomoo — One.  1  Paracoola — Three. 

Mundroo— Two.  I 

Should  they  desire  to  express  any  greater  number,  it  is  done  by  adding 
together  the  words  above,  for  instance  : — 

4.  Mundro-la-mundro-la. 

5.  Mundroo -mundroo-ooornoo,  that  is  twice  2  and  1. 

6.  Mundroo-la-mundroo-la-mundroo-la,  that  is  thrice  2. 

And  so  on  till — 
10.  After  which,  to  20,  the  term  murrathidna,  from  murra  (hands) 
and  thidna  (feet),  is  used,  and  the  fingers  and  toes  brought  into  play. 

Their  arithmetic  is  then  exhausted,  and  any  larger  number  than  20  is 
signified  in  the  dumb  language,  conveying  the  idea  of  a  mob — an  innumer- 
able quantity. 

Astronomy. 
The  Dieyeries  have  some  slight  acquaintance  with  the  heavenly  bodies, 
and  also  with  the  cardinal  points.     Not  being  informed  in  that  science 
myself,  I  can  only  quote  a  few  instances : — 


Amathooroocooroo — Evening  star. 

Kyirrie — Milky  Way. 

Koolakoopuna — A  bright  star  seen 
in  the  northern  hemi- 
sphere in  the  winter 
months. 

Kurawurathidna — A  cluster  of  stars 
representing  the  claw  of 
an  eaglehawk,  seen  in  the 
western  hemisphere  dur- 
ing the  winter  months. 


Apapirrawolthawolthana  —  Two 
stars  seen  in  the  southern 
hemisphere  in  the  winter. 

Ditchiepittiekillkuna — Meteor. 

Kooriekirra — Rainbow. 

Ditchiecoornaworkoo  —  The  sun'sr 
meridian,  also  north  on 
its  declension. 

Wathararkuna  —  The  south,  the 
quarter  from  which  the 
wind  is  most  prevalent. 

Ditchiedoonkuna — Sunrise. 

Dilchiewirruna—  Sunset. 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


PILLIETHILLCHA — THE  AURORA  ATJSTKALIS. 

Whenever  this  phenomenon  occurs  the  natives  become  very  terrified, 
believing  it  to  be  a  warning  from  the  devil  (Kootchie)  to  keep  a  strict  watch, 
aa  the  Pinya  (armed  party)  is  killing  some  one;  also  a  caution  to  avoid  wrong 
doing,  lest  the  Pinya  comes  to  them  when  least  expected.  The  inmates 
of  the  camp  then  huddle  together,  when  one  or  two  step  out  and  perform  a 
ceremony  to  charm  the  Kootchie. 

Selections  from  the  Ten  Commandments. 
lat.  Athona  yoora  Goda. 
2nd.  Watta  yoondroo  aunchanapitta,  paroo,  ya  ya  pittapilkildra  windrie 

Goda  yondroo  aunchana. 
3rd.  Watta  Goda  yoondroo  oaukooelie  dikana. 

4th.  Apirrie,  ya  andrie,  parabara  oondrana  thana  thipie  aumanunthoo. 
5th.  Watta  yoondroo  narrie  nundrala. 
6th.  Watta  yoondroo  pulakaunchie. 
7th.  Watta  yoondroo  kooriekaunchie. 

8th.  Watta  yoondroo  kuma  komanelie,  caukooelie  ulohulchamuna. 
9th.  Watta  yoondroo  bootoo   thoola  milkirrana  ya,  noa  thoola  watta 

yoondroo  milkirrana  baukooaumanuntho. 

■     Vocabulabt. 


Aohea — Ask. 

Achana — Asking. 

Achami — To  ask. 

Achanaori — Has  asked. 

Achanawonthie — Had  asked. 

Adada — Grandfather. 

Adamie — Behind. 

Akuna — To  flow  (as  water  flowing 
or  running). 

Akoonga — To  me,  of  me. 

Alie— Us. 

Alyie — Pew. 

Alkooelie — Nice. 

Alkoomie — Very  nice. 

Alkoo — Persons  visiting  a  neigh- 
bouring tribe  to  barter. 

Alkoopina — Delicious. 

Ami— To. 

Awa — In  reality. 

Anana — Inclination. 

Anie — Me. 


Antie — Meat,  flesh,  animal  food. 

Antiea — The  meat. 

Antiemura — Of  the  meat. 

Apanie — The  water. 

Apalie — Of  the  water, 

Apanundroo — Relating  to  water. 

Apulya — Watery. 

Apinsie — My  father. 

Apoo — Comprehend. 

Apoona — Comprehending. 

Apooapoo* — Dumb. 

Apoouna — To  bathe,  bathing. 

Apachunka — Damp,  moist,  wet. 

Apooriea — SUence. 

Apooruna — Silenced. 

Arrie — Similar. 

Athanie — Son  or  daughter  (so  called 

by  mother). 
Athamoora — Son   or   daughter  (bo 

called  by  father). 
Athata — Younger  brother  or  sister. 


•  During  nine  years'  acquaintance  with  the  Dieyerie  and  neighboming  tribes  I  have  en- 
countered only  one  woman  and  one  man  deaf  and  dumb,  and  have  conversed  with  them  by 
use  of  native  signs. 


MOUNT   PREELING    TO    PIRIGUNDI    LAKE. 


89 


VOCAEnLABY- 

Aumami — To  ait  down. 
Aumuna— Sitting  down,  residing. 
Aumirithiiia — Remain. 
Auminthieami — To  remain. 
Aumintliiemarow  —  Remain      (im- 
peratively). 
Aumulka — Keep. 
Aumulkima — Keeping, 
Aunchana — Caressing. 
Aumpoo — Almost. 
Aumie — Flock   (of  sheep  or  birds, 

mob  of  cattle,  &o.). 
AunchiemuUana  —  Consideration  of 

peace  offered. 
Backa — Husk  or  outer  shell;    also 
used  as  a  terminal  imply- 
ing "the  same." 
Birrie — Danger. 

Birruna — ^Endangering,  dangerous. 
Binina — Exchange  places,  take  tum- 

and-tum  about. 
Boarkalie — Conscience. 
Boolkooruna — Home-sickness,  desire 
to  return  to  friends  and 
relatives. 
Bookaundrinie — Scrub,    shrubbery, 

more  bushes  than  trees. 
Booka — Vegetable  food. 
Boolyaroo — Soft  clay,  mud. 
Booyooloo — Near  relative. 
Boolyia — Those  two,  that  two. 
Boompoo — Bud,  immature. 
Boompoonundra — To  strike  ineflfec- 
tually,    to   hit  with  no 
force.  (FromNundra — to 
strike,  and  Boompoo.) 
Booloopathuruna— Requiring  change 

of  scene. 
Booloo — White. 
Boonoonoo — Itching. 
Boonka — Grow. 
Boonkuna — Growing. 


-continned. 

Boonkanaori — Has  grown. 

Boonkanawonthie — Had  grown. 

Boonkanalauni — Will  grow. 

Boorka — Wade. 

Boorkunaparana — Wading  through 

or  crossing  water. 
Booroolkooyirrpamuluna — Two  per- 
sons    crouching     down, 
hiding  to  avert  danger. 
Bootchoo — Blind. 
Bootchooelie — Of  the  blind. 
Bootchoondroo  —  Relating    to    the 

blind. 
Bootharoo — Shower  of  rain. 
Boongala — Shade. 
Boongalie — Of  the  house  or  hut. 
Boonga— Wurley,  house,  hut. 
Bootoo — Property,     chattels;    also 
used      as      a      terminal 
"with." 
Bootooundroo — Relating  to  property 

or  chattels. 
Baukoona — Digging. 
Baukoo — Nothing. 
Baukooelie^ — Of  nothing,    with    no 

purpose. 
Bukina — Skinning  any  animal  with- 
out aid  of  instrument. 
Bukinaori — Has  skinned. 
Bukinawonthie — Had  skinned. 
Bukinalauni — Will  skin. 
Bukuna — ^Also.       Yoondroobukuna 
( Yoondroo^  You ) — You 


on   the 


Bunkanie — Side, 
Bunkie — Pride. 
Bunkiethoorana —  Sleeping 

side. 

Bunkiebunkuua — Proud. 
Bunyabunyina — A  trotting  pace. 
Champuna — Always. 
Chandachanduna  —  Mimicking    for 

the  purpose  of  joking. 


90 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


VOCABtTLAEY- 

Chandachandathie — Apt  to  mimic. 

Chakakuna — Doubting. 

ChakairrpamuUuna — Doubting  each 
other. 

Charpoo — White  band  worn,  across 
the  forehead. 

Chika — Wrong,  awkward. 

Chikala — Quite  wrong. 

Chikaundroo — Relating  to  wrong. 

Chilpie — A  knot. 

Chilpieundroo — To  tie  a  knot. 

Chinberrie — Scars  raised  on  the 
body. 

Chindrina— Glossy,  smooth  surface. 

Chindriechindriethuruna  —  Very 
glossy,  very  smooth. 

Chirruna — Breaking  of  the  skin  by 
some  accident. 

Chirkara — Sharp,  keen  edge,  not 
blunt. 

Chirrinchirrie — Knocking  out  of 
teeth. 

Choondaroo*  —  Bed-ridden,  para- 
lyzed. 

Choo — An  exclamation  to  draw  at- 
tention. 

Chowchow — Awkward. 

Choopadoo — To  play:  when  children 
wish  to  play  they  use 
this  word. 

Chuboochuboo— A  ball  (played  with 
by  children). 

Dalkoo — Clear,  transparent. 

Damami — To  cut. 

Damina — Cutting. 

Damamarow — Cut  (imperatively). 

Damathuruna — Cut  together. 

DamamuUmia — Cutting  each  other. 

Danina — Bidding  farewell. 

Daninaori — Has  bidden  farewell. 


Daninawonthie — Had  bidden  fare- 
well. 

Daninalaunie — ^WUlbid  farewell. 

Danthoo — Soft. 

Dapa — A  sore,  a  wound. 

Darpami— To  sweep. 

Darpuna — Sweeping,  clearing  a 
space. 

Datpumarow  —  Sweep  (impera- 
tively). 

Daralie — Bad  season  for  food. 

Datharoo — Wait. 

Dauchoomuna — With  care,  handle 
or  carry  with  care. 

Dieami^To  strike,  to  hit. 

Dieuna — Striking. 

Dienaori— Has  stricken. 

Dienawonthie — Had  stricken. 

Diealauna — Will  strike. 

Dieamuna — Gaping. 

Diemarow — Strike  (imperatively). 

Diknna — Naming  a  chUd. 

Dikmarow — Name  a  child  (imperar 
tively). 

Dikami — To  name  a  child. 

Dilka — Thorn,  burr,  prickle. 

Dilkera — Edge,  shore. 

Dilkerawirrtie — Along  the  edge,  ex- 
treme shore. 

Dookurami — To  extract,  loosen,  un- 
fasten. 

Dookuna — Extracting,  loosening, 
unfastening. 

Doolkooro — Large  hole  or  gully. 

Dooukami — To  rise. 

Doonkuna — Rising. 

Doorootharkuna — Round  shoul- 
dered, to  bend  the  body 
forward. 

Doomoodomoora — Round,  anything 
round. 


*  I  have  seen  alive  three  perfect  skeletons— mere  skin  and  bone  up  to  the  neck  and 
taoe  which  were  comparatively  fleshy. 


MOUNT   PREELING    TO    PIRIGUNDI   LAKE. 


91 


Vocabulary 
Doolkamurunai — Gorged,  sick. 
Dowa — Interfere,  stop  a  quarrel. 
Dowuna — Interfering,  suppressing. 
Doongiema — Cripple,  a  lame  person. 
Doostouna — Echo. 
Dukami — To  pierce. 
Dukuna — Piercing. 
Dukamarow — Pierce  (imperatively). 
Dukathuruna — Pierce  together,  we 

are  piercing. 
Dulkana — Attracting  the  sun's  rays. 
Dulkinathurina — Attracting  heat. 
Dunkina — Meeting. 
Dungina — Breaking  cover  to  start 


Duruna — A  scratching  noise. 

Durieirrpuna — A  scratching  noise. 

DuUarie — Ice  (seldom  seen  in 
Dieyerie  Land). 

lana — We. 

lananie — Ours. 

ImuUa — The  swallow. 

Inaloo — Below,  beneath. 

Itcha — Frequently. 

Kaka — Uncle. 

Kakoo — Yellow,  yellow  ochre. 

Kakarurruna — Belching. 

Karchuna — Turning,  revolving. 

Karchamulkuna — Turning  over. 

Kaparow — Come  (imperatively). 

Kararalie — Excessive  heat. 

Kaparachilpie — A  wart,  horny  ex- 
crescence on  the  flesh. 

Karoo — Grey. 

Karoomura — Greyish,  inclining  to 
grey. 

Karpami — To  sew,  mend. 

Karpuna — Sewing. 

Karpamarow — Sew  (imperatively). 

Karka — Call. 

Karkami — To  call. 

Karkuna — Calling. 


—continued. 

Karkamarow — Call  (imperatively). 
Karkathuruna  —  Calling     together 

(we  are  calling). 
Karkamulluna — Calling  each  other. 
Kathie — Wearing  apparel, 
Kaulkoo — Rushes. 
Kaunchie — Certain,    sure ;    sudden 

appearance. 
Kaungoo — Perspiration. 
Kautoo — A  breakwind. 
Kauloomuruna — Greedy. 
Kikubyeruna — Slipping. 
Killuna — Dancing. 
Kilchuna — Skinning. 
Kilchami— To  skin. 
Kilchamarow — Skin  (imperatively). 
Kilpa — Cool. 
Kilpalie — Cold.     Literal  translation 

— Cool  us. 
Kilpaoomoo — Very  cold. 
Kilpanie — Winter;  also,  I'm  cold. 
Kilkie — ^Water  hen. 
Kilthie — Soup,  juice. 
Kima — A  swelling. 
Kimarrie — Is  swelHng. 
Kimuruna — Has  swollen. 
Kinka — Laugh. 
Kinkuna — Laughing. 
Kinkaboolkaroo — Smiling. 
Kinna — Climbing. 
Kirrie — Clear-headed,  sensible.  Also 

used  to  order  the  way  to 

be  "cleared"  to  allow  of 

passing. 
Kirrunuruna — Teeth  set  on  edge  by 

hearing  grating  noise. 
Kookoo — Yes,    yes;    also,    hollow 

vessel. 
Koodakoodarie — Very         crooked, 

irregular. 
Kookuna — News,  intelligence. 
Kookathuruna — Telling  the  news. 


92 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


VOCABTTIiAEY- 

Kookootharkuna — Unlevel,      dowB 

hill. 
Kookootharka — Topsy-turvy. 
Kookoorurrunna — Noise     of    birds 

rising  or  alighting. 
Koolkami — To  protect. 
Koolkuna — Protecting. 
Koolkamrow — Protect         (impera- 
tively). 
Koolkathuruna — Under  protection, 

protecting  together. 
Koolie — Odour,  scent. 
Koolkoorie — Game  of  hide  and  seek, 

played  by  children. 
Koolkamuna — Jumping,  springing. 
Koolkamunawirrica  —  To         jump 

down. 
Koolpina — Searching  for  tracks. 
Koolpie — An  operation  {vide  text). 
KoomanUe — Own  friend. 
Koomuna — ^A  dance  performed  by 

women,  when  they  move 

their  legs  very  rapidly. 
Kooooelie — Knowing  nothing  of  it. 
Kooooanie — I  know  nothing  of  it. 
Koongarra — Rustling    or    whirring 

noise    caused    by    birds 

rising. 
Koonthiua — Sprinkling. 
Koondrakondroo — Coughing,  a  cold. 
Koonyillie — Debris  of  leaves  used 

by    swans    in    building 

nests. 
Koonkuna — Walking  lame. 
Koonabootharoo — Whirlwind. 
Koonkie — Native  doctor, 
Koondagie — Storm,      heavy     black 

clouds. 
Koonkana — A  grunting  noise. 
Koontiekoontie — Crooked. 
Koopoo — Forelegs. 
Koopirrina — Sore  from  any  cause. 
Kopulyeruna — Diarrhcea. 


—continued. 
Koopia — Calling  a  child,  as  "Come, 

child." 
Koopawura — Calling  children. 
Koopawuria — Calling  children 

(authoritatively). 
Koorie — Mussel  shell. 
Koorieunda — Opening  in  wurley  to 

allow  escape  of  smoke. 
Kooriekirra — Rainbow. 
Kooriekuruna— Escaped,  ran  away. 
Koorookooroomulkuna— To       hide 

anything,  to  keep  secret. 
Koormooworkoo-— Horizontal, 

across. 
Koorana — ^Laying,     placing;     also 

bringing  forth  young. 
Kooranaori — Has  laid. 
Kooranawonthie — Had  laid. 
Kooralauni — Will  lay. 
Koorathuruna — Parrying,  shielding. 
Kooriethuruna — Forgotten,  loss  of 

memory. 
Kooragie — Certainly. 
Koorielie — Stealing. 
Kooriekaunchie — Thief  for  certain. 
Kootcharabooroo — Deaf. 
Koothina — Out  of  sight,  disappear- 
ance. 
Kootcha — ^Leaf,  leaves. 
Kootohie — Devil,  evil  spirit. 
Kootchieelie — Devil,  evil  spirit. 
Kaupirrieundroo — Relating   to  the 

iguana. 
Kowkow — Spunging,  to  spunge  on 

any  person. 
Kowakabuna — Calling  to  account. 
Kubbou — Ejaculation  to  warn  from 

danger. 
Kudlakoo — Middle-aged  woman. 
Kulakula — Disgusted. 
Kuldriecharkuna — ^Bending         the 

body  backwards, 


MOUNT    FREELING    TO    PIRIGUNDI   LAKE. 


93 


VOCABULABY- 

Kuldrie — Brackish,  bitter. 

Kulkawura — Afternoon. 

KuUula — Retaliation. 

Kulkana — Waiting. 

Kulkami — To  wait. 

Kulawuna — Gathering  up. 

Kulkulie — Slightly,  slowly,  gently. 

Kulie — That's  enough,  I  have  said 
it,  that's  sufficient. 

Kuma — Keep. 

Kumuna — Keeping. 

Kummie — Sister-in-law. 

Kumpuna — Gathering. 

Kumpathuruna  —  Gathering  to- 
gether. 

Kumpamarow  —  Gather  (impera- 
tively). 

Kunninie  —  Grandchild  or  grand- 
mother. 

Kundrie  —  Resin;  also,  a  native 
weapon. 

Knnthundroo — Relating  to  grass. 

Kunthakoola — Green. 

Kungirruna — Playful,  merry. 

Kundrimookoo — A  native  weapon. 

Kunthakunthuna — Shaking       any- 
thing. 
Kurdie — Brother-in-law. 
Kumaundroo — Relating  to  a  native. 

Kurdiemurkara — A  supposititious 
large  fish  at  the  bottom 
of  the  lakes  and  deep 
waters. 

Kurrakurrairrpuna — Peeling  pain, 
sense  of  pain. 

Kurloomura — Two  of  the  same  age 
circumcised  at  same  time. 

Kurlina — Obliterating. 

Kurta — Sound. 

Kurtie — Raw. 

Kurumba — Blaze  of  fire,  flame. 

Kurrurrie — Directly. 


-contimied. 

Kurieami — To  pursue. 

Kuruna — Pursuing. 

Kurrar— Vermin  in  animals. 

Kurruna — Feeling. 

Kurrakurrana — Feeling  with  the 
hands,  groping  La  the 
dark. 

Kura — Probably,  in  all  probability. 

Kurrawelie — Boy  before  circum- 
cised. 

Kutta — Lice,  vermin. 

Kutchakutchana  —  Paining,  con- 
tinued pain. 

Kuttanylpa — Lice,  nits. 

Marieauka — Raising  or  lifting  up. 

Mathiena — Of  course. 

Malthie— Cool. 

Malthiela — Liclining  to  be  cool. 

Manathoonka — Morning. 

Marpoo — Many. 

Mathar— Bite. 

Mathuna — Biting. 

Mathanaori — Has  bitten. 

Mathanwonthie — Had  bitten. 

Mathanalauni — Will  bite. 

MathamuUuna — BitiDg  each  other. 

Mi — Commence,  begin ;  also  To,  at- 
tached to  a  verb. 

Miaroo — Rat. 

Midukuna — Driving. 

Mikarie — Deep. 

Milkitchaparawurna  —  Light- 
headed. 

Milla — Race,  current. 

Millima — Racing; 

Milliemuluna — Racing  each  other. 

Milkie — Not  strange. 

Milkiela — Acquainted  with,  seen 
before. 

Milkirruna — Coveting,  desiring. 

Milkiechenmuna — Opening  the  eyes, 
opened  eyes. 


94 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACK; 


Vocabulary- 
Milpera — Company. 
Millierieununanie — Dissolved. 
Milya — ^Any  kind  of  food  eaten  by  a 

native  for  the  first  time. 
Milyaroo — Dark,  dusk. 
Mina^-What  is. 
Minapitta — What  is  it. 
Minka — Deep  hole,  cave,  burrow. 
Minanie — What  else. 
Mindarie — A  ceremony. 
Mintie— Net. 
Mindriea — Run. 
Mindrina — Running. 
Mindrielow — Run  (by  command). 
Mirrie — ^Above,  the  top. 
Mirrka — Small  black  ants. 
Mirrpa — lignite. 
Mirrpami — To  ignite. 
Mirrpuna — Igniting. 
Mitha — Earth,  ground,  dirt. 
Mithakillyana — Loamy  soil. 
Miyerra — Begin  it,  commence  it. 
Minandroo — For  what  reason. 
Minarranie — For  what  reason,  why 

not. 
Mithathootina— Cover    over    with 

dirt. 
Moa — ^Hunger. 
Moalie — Hungry  (hunger  us). 
Moanie — I  am  hungry  (hunger  me). 
Moapina — Very  hungry. 
Moodlathirruna — Frowning,  looking 

cross. 
Moodlakoopa  —  A     fish    weighing 

about  4  lbs. 
Mooduna — Finishing. 
Moodanaori — Has  finished, 
Moodawonthie — Had  finished. 
Moodalaunie — Will  finish. 
Moodlawilpa — Hole  in  the  nose. 
Mongathandraparawwina  —  Crazy, 


—contimied. 

Moolaroo — Quantity,  great  many. 

Moolthabuna — Soaking  in  water. 

Moola — Quiet,  tractable,  harmless. 

Mooka — Sleep. 

Mookalie — Sleepy  (sleep  us). 

Mookooparuna — Sleeping. 

Mookoothoorana — Lying  asleep. 

Mooncha — Sick. 

Moonohuruna — Sickness. 

Moonohaparana — Lying  ill. 

MoonchoeUe — The  flies. 

Moonchoondra — Flies. 

Moongara — Spirit,  soul  (I  cannot  de- 
scribe this  word  other- 
wise). 

Moongathandramiduna — Sick  head- 
ache. 

Moonkuna — Embracing. 

Moonkanaori — Has  embraced. 

Moonkanawonthie — Had  embraced. 

Moonkalauni — Will  embrace. 

Moonarrie — Precipice,  bark. 

Moontha— Self. 

Moonthalie — Myself. 

Moonthabutha — Illiberal. 

Moonthapirra — Very  liberal. 

Moongaworroo — The  head  smeared 
with  white  clay  (certi- 
fying grief  for  the  dead). 

Mongamuna — Striking  on  the  head. 

Moonmananie — Punishment  of  elder 
brother  for  younger's 
crimes. 

Moonyirrie— A  circle,  current  in  a 
stream. 

Mopa— Collect. 

Mopami — To  collect. 

Mopamarow  —  Collect         (impera- 
tively). 

Mopuna — Collecting. 

Mopathurunat— Collecting  together 
congregating. 


MOUNT   FREBLING    TO    PIEIGUNDI   LAKE. 


96 


"VOCABULABY 

Mooroouna^Scratohing  or  rubbing 

the  body. 
Mooromooroo — Disabled,  deformed. 
Mootboo— Certainly,  without  doubt. 
Mooya— Dry. 
Mooyeruna — Drying. 
Mudlanchie — Not  good,  unpleasant. 
MuUuna — Alike. 
Multhoomulthoo— A  fiah  averaging 

3  lbs. 
Mumuna— Begging  anything. 
Munkalie — Careful. 
Munkara — ^Young  woman. 
Mungarina — Shy. 

Mungarinanie — I  am  modest,  mo- 
dest me. 
Mundracowellie — Jealous. 
Munumuruna — Talkative,  gabbling. 
Munacoothuruna — Tired  of  talking. 
Mundroola — Only  two. 
Mundramindina — To  draw  in  the 

belly. 
Munamuroomuroo — A  black   mark 
round  the  mouth,  dis- 
tinguishing those  who 
have      eaten     human 
flesh. 
Muuatharkuna — Gaping. 
Munyerruna — Parched  lips. 
Munyoo — Good,    pleasant     to   the 

taste. 
Mundathuruna — Lazying. 
Mundathurathie — Lazy,     want     of 

energy. 
Munthaka — Unmarried. 
Muniea — Catch,  secure. 
Munina — Caught. 
Munieami — To  catch,  to  secure. 
Muniemarow — Catch,  secure  (impe- 
rative). 
Munkuna — Scattering,  dispersing. 
Mundrunchoo — Pregnant. 


Murdie — Heavy. 

Murdawola — The  under  stone,  used 

in  grinding  seed. 
Murdcooparoo — The  upper  stone,  do. 
Murdoo — Taste. 
Muracherpuna — Groping  with   the 

hands  in  the  dark. 
Muroo — Black. 
Murulyie — Red. 
Murookootoo — Black  ochre. 
Murkara — A  large  fish. 
Murchamurchuna — Whimpering. 
Murla — Again,  true,  not  false,  best 

(superlative). 
Murlaloo — ^Without  doubt. 
Murchina — Noisy. 
Murrawirrie — Two-handed  sword. 
Murra — Fresh,  new. 
Murrawillpillpuruna — Numbed 

hand. 
Murndiekilla — ^Waves. 
Mumdiekillundroo — Relating  to 

the  waves. 
Murdapooroo — Hailstones . 
Mutcha — ^Enough,  sufficient. 
Mutchoomutohoo — Orphan . 
Nanieya — She. 
Nandrooya — Her. 

Nanieda — She  is  here  (after  inquiry). 
Nanka — Just  down  there. 
Nankuldra — Repeat. 
Narrie — Corpse. 

Narrienie — The  dead,  my  dead  ? 
Niuna — Seeing. 
Nile — Seen. 
Niehie — Seen. 
Nianaori — Has  seen. 
Nianawonthie — Had  seen. 
Nianauni — Will  see. 
NiamuUnna — Seeing  each  other. 
Niamarow — See,  look,  behold  (im- 
perative). 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


VoCABtTLAHT- 

Nieamurra — Brothers. 

Nieaundroo — Relating  to. 

Nillanilla — Mirage. 

Nina — It. 

Ninia — Tliis. 

Niniya — That,  there, 

Nindrie — Body  of  anything. 

Ninthalie — Ashamed. 

Ninthapina — ^Very  much  ashamed. 

Ninthabutha — Not  ashamed. 

Ninthaooroo — Shameless. 

Ninyillpuna — Turning  inside  out. 

Noa — ^Wife  or  husband. 

Noamurra — Wife  and  husband. 

Noandroo — Relating  to  wife  or  hus- 
band. 

Nokooloonokooloo — Continually  re- 
peating, reiterating. 

Nooliea — Strangle. 

Noolina — Strangling. 

Noolinaori — Has  strangled. 

Noolinawonthie — Had  strangled. 

Noolihaunie — Will  strangle. 

NooliuamuUana  —  Strangling   each 
other. 

Noongkoongoo — To  him. 

Noongkunie — His,  belonging  to  him. 

Noora — Tail. 

Nooroo — ^Quick. 

Nooroocauko — Not  quick,  slow. 

Nooroopina — Very  quick. 

Nooroonooroo — Be  quick,  hasten. 

Nowieya — There. 

Numpami — To  bury  or  cover. 

Numpuna — Burying  or  covering. 

Numpathuruna — Burried,  covered. 

Numpanaori — Has  buried    or 
covered. 

Numpamarow — Bury    or    cover    it 
(imperative). 

NumpamuUuna — Covering  each 
other. 

Numpunawonthie — Had  buried. 


Will  strike. 


■ — ccmUmmd. 

Numpalauni— Will  bury. 

Nurieami — To  order  away. 

Nuruna — Ordering  away. 

Nunga — Pour. 

Nunguna — Pouring. 

Nungathuruna — Pouring  out. 

Nungamarow — Pour  out  (impera- 
tively). 

Nunginaori — Has  poured. 

Nunginawonthie — Had  poured. 

Nungalaunie — Will  pour. 

Nundra — Strike,  hit. 

Nundraori — Has  stricken. 

Nundrathie — 

Nundralauni — 

NundramuUuna — Striking   each 
other. 

Nunka — Press. 

Nunkami — To  press. 

Nunkuna — Pressing.  . 

Nunkathuruna — Pressing  it. 

NunkamaTow — Press    it    (impera- 
tively). 

NunkamuUuna — Pressing  each 
other. 

Olakuna — ^Watching. 

Oodlaka — Watehguard. 

Oodlakuthuruna — Watching    or 
guarding  together. 

Ookuna — Mixing,  joining. 

Ookunathuruna— Mixing  or  joiumg 
together. 

Ookiwuruna — Sick,  retching. 

Ooldroo — Small  mouth,  small  hole. 

Oolauloha — Bubbles. 

Ooliekirra — New,  bright,  clean. 

Oolkaitcha — Betraying,  a  person 
unable  to  keep  a  secret. 

Oolkootharkuna — The  elder  bro- 
ther's assistance  asked 
by  the  younger  in 
fighting. 


MOUNT   FRBBLING    TO    PIRIGUNDI   LAKE. 


97 


y  00  AsvLARr—'eontimied. 


Oolyie — Gum. 

Oomoomurla — Better  than  good,  su- 
perior. 
Oomoomoothoo — The  best  of  all. 
Oona — ^Arms,  wings. 
Oonoo — Laid. 
Oonarrie — Eight-handed. 
Oonchamuna — Recognized. 
Oonchami — ^To  recognize. 
Oonduna — Thinking. 
Oonthana — Moving  the  body  to  and 
fro    when    singing    (a 
customary  usage  with 
the  tribe). 
Oondrami — To  think. 
Oondra — Think. 
Oondrathuruna^Thinking    to- 
gether, considering. 
OnawElpillpirruna — The  arm   be- 
numbed. 
Ooroo  —Often. 

Oorooooroo — Hard,  tough,  strong. 
Ooroocathina — Lying  at  full  length, 
Oorthie — Branches. 
Ootamanurie — Hat,  covering  for  the 

head. 
Opera — In  front,  ahead. 
Oothoooothoothuruna — Stretching 
the  arms  together  over 
the  head. 
.  Ooyamuna — Remembering. 
Ooyella — To  pity,    commiserate, 

compassionate. 
Ooyellala — Pitying. 
Para — Hair  of  the  head. 
Parayelchyeloharoo — The    hair 

straightened    on    end 
from  the  forehead. 
Parakurlie — Large  head  of  hair. 
Paramooroo — Thickly-matted  hair. 
Parana — Crossing  over. 
Parabara — With  force  and  strength. 
VOL.   u. 


Parohana — All. 

Parkooloo — Three. 

Paroo — A  small  bony  flat  fish. 

Paraparawumie — ^Foolish. 

Paruna — Stopping  at  a  certain  place. 

Parunaori — Has  stopped. 

Parunawonthie — Had  stopped. 

Parulauni — Will  stop. 

Pathuna — Tired. 

Pathapathana — I  am  tired. 

Pathara — A  box-tree. 

Patharacoorle — Young  tree,  sapling. 

Paulkoo — Flesh. 

Piduna — Pounding,  crushing. 

Pilla — Charcoal. 

Pildrapildra — Struck  by  lightning. 

Pillie— Bag. 

Pilkildra — Something  else. 

Pilkiela — Another. 

Pilkie — Not  relating  to. 

Pilliethillcha — The  Aurora  Aus- 
tralia. 

Pillpillieunkuna — To  flatten  any- 
thing. 

Pina — Large,  great. 

Pinaenna — Increasing  in  stature, 
growing. 

Pinpanaori — Has  shared. 

Pinpanawonthie — Had  shared. 

Pinpalauni — Will  share. 

Pinpuna — Sharing. 

Pindrie — Grasshopper. 

Pindrathie — Thin  as  a  grasshopper. 

Pinya — An  armed  party. 

Pinyanie — My  armed  party. 

Pinyalie — Our  armed  party. 

Pinyalloo — Of  the  armed  party. 

Pirramundroo — Shields. 

Pirramoonkoo — -A  ricochet. 

Pirrakuna — Groping  in  any  enclosed 
place  with  the  hands 
for  anything. 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE  : 


yOCABTJLABY- 

Pirrie — Gap,  groove. 

Pirraooroo — Paramour     (each    man 

has  from  two  to  six). 
Pirrundroo — The  trough. 
Pitta — Stick,  piece  of  wood. 
Pittundroo— Relating  to  the  stick. 
Pittadinthie — A  piece  of  wood  that 

has  been  used  or  cut. 
Pittacopara — Roots  of  trees 
Pittabooharichuna — Sandfly. 
Pittie — Fundament. 
Pittiethawa — Harping  on  one  sub- 
ject. 
Pinthie — Nickname. 
Piya — Birds. 
Piyaundro — The  birds. 
Piyacooduna — Noise  caused  by  birds 

settling    on     land    or 

water. 
Piyawola — ^^The  nest. 
Piyawolundroo — Relating     to     the 

nest. 
Piyara — Mother-in-law. 
Poolkami — To  blow. 
Poolkunar— Blowing. 
Poolkamarow — Blow  (imperatively). 
Pooldroopooldroounkuna  —  Meal 

ground  from  seeds. 
Pooloouna — Breathing. 
Poolpauma  —  Mid-day  meal  when 

hunting    or  gathering 


Pontoo — Blunt. 

Pontoola — Blunt,  an  instrument  not 
sharp. 

Pothoo — Only. 

Pothookoornoo — Only  one. 

Poonthina — Taking  different  roads. 

Poopuna^Awordofcontempt.  (Any 
person  lagging  behind 
or  straggling  out  of  a 
party  is  told  poopuna, 
to  keep  his  place.) 


—continvAci. 

Pooraka — Dry  waterhole,  claypan 
dried  up. 

Poorina — Fallen,  to  fall. 

Powa — Fine  seed. 

Pukuna — Exploding,  bursting. 

Pukieathie — Apt  to  explode  or  burst 

Pukala — Frost. 

Pulkami— To  go. 

Pulkuna — Going. 

Pulkamarow — Go  (imperatively). 

Pulaooriea^Imploring,  beseeching. 

Puluna — Withering,  drying  up  of 
water,  dying  out. 

Pulunaori— Has  died  out. 

Pulunawonthie — Had  died  out. 

Pulunaunie — Will  die  out. 

Pulparoo — Surface. 

Pulpa — Others. 

Pulara — Women  are  so  called  when 
appointed  to  perform 
any  special  mission, 
such  as  assembling  the 
tribes. 

Punga — A  small  fly,  hardly  discer- 
nible, but  capable  of 
inflicting  a  sting  as 
painful  as  that  of  the 
wasp. 

Punie — No,  none. 

Pundra — Cooked,  not  raw. 

Punkara — Level. 

Punthama — To  smell. 

Punthamuna — Smelling. 

Punchietharkuna — Kneeling. 

Purdakunaori — Has  brought. 

Purdakunawonthie — Had  brought. 

Purdakalauni — Will  bring. 

Purdakunna — Bringing,  carrying. 

Purdie — Grub,  caterpillar. 

Purda— Hold. 

Purduna— Holding. 

Purdamarow — Hold  (imperative). 


MOUNT    FREELINa    TO    PIEIGUNDI    LAKE. 


Vocabulary- 
PurdamuUuna — Holding  each  other. 
Purdami — To  hold. 
Purdanaorie — Hag  held. 
Purdawonthie — Had  held. 

PurdamuUuna — Holding  each  other. 

Purathura — Smooth,  flat,  a  bowling 
green. 

Purie — Under  the  surface. 

Pururie — Beneath  the  surface,  under- 
neath. 

Purriewillpa — Sky. 

Purriewillpanie — Heavens. 

Puthina — Early. 

Thalkoo— Straight. 

Thalpacooroo — Hard  of  hearing. 

Thalpina — Warm,  not  cold. 

Thandrana — Pouring. 

Thaugemana — With  force. 

Thana — They,  them. 

Thaniya — Those. 

Thanyoo — Dried  fruit. 

Thanyoondra — The  dried  fruit. 

Thanpooruna — Caving  in. 

Tharka — Stand. 

Tharkuna — Standing. 

Tharkami — To  stand. 

Tharkiebuna — To  stand  anything  on 
end. 

Tharalkoo — Ducks. 

Thatha — A  crack  in  wood,  stone,  or 
other  matter. 

Thatie— The  middle. 

Thaubulyoo — Rotten  egg. 

Thaumpara — Pelican. 

Thikamuna — Spinning. 

Thiewie — Flowers. 

Thieaoolraroo — Saw. 

Thidnayoonkurrie — Cramp    in    the 
toes. 

Thilchaurruna — Impatient. 

Thidnara — Nephew. 

Thilpa — Tease,  provoke. 


—continued. 

Thilpuna — Provoking. 

Thilpathurruna  —  Provoking     each 

other. 
Thilluna — To  bubble  up,  effervesce. 
Thinthami — To  lose,  to  spill. 
Thinthana — Losing,  spilling. 
Thinthinanaori — Has  lost  or  spilled, 
Thinthanawonthie  —  Had    lost    or 

spilt. 
Thinthi— Lost. 
Thinkabboroo — Dawn. 
Thipie — ^Alive. 

Thipieoondra — Regard  for  life. 
Thippirruna — To  give  life. 
Thirrie— Fight. 
Thirrina — ^Fighting. 
ThirriemuUana — Fighting  with  each 

other. 
Thirkama — A  song  sung  at  the  cir- 
cumcision, and  sacredly 
kept  secret  from  the 
women. 
Thitti— Ticklish. 
Thokundruna — -Throwing  down. 
Thookami — To  carry  on  the  back. 
Thookuna — Carrying  on  the  back. 
Thookanaori — Has  carried   on  the 

back. 
Thookanawonthie — Had  carried  on 

the  back. 
Thookalauni — Will    carry    on    the 

back. 
Thookamarow — Carry  on  the  back 

(imperatively). 
Thookamulluna  —  Carrying     each 

other  on  the  back. 
Thoola — Stranger;  also,  flint. 
Thooldrina — Playing. 
Thooda — Noon. 

Thoonka — Unpleasant  smell,  stench. 
Thoonkuruna — Stinking. 
Thoonchirruna — Sneezing. 


GZ 


100 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE  ; 


VOCABtTLABT- 

Thoondakunathoorana — Sleeping  on 
the  back. 

Thoondakuna — Anything  lying  on 
its  back. 

Thoopoo — Steam. 

Thooroodurana — Lighting  a  fire. 

Thooroomunya — Firestick . 

Thooroothiewillka — Sparks  of  fire 
emitted  from  flint  or 
stone. 

Thooroothooroo — Very  hot. 

Throoringie — Marrow. 

Thoorpuna — Twisting  string  orrope. 

Thootchoo — Reptiles,  insects. 

Thootchooudroo — Relating  to  rep- 
tiles or  insects. 

Thootchaworoo — A  lad  after  circum- 
cision. 

Thoodaroo — ^Fog,  mist. 

Thudaka — To  vibrate,  shove,  or 
push. 

Thudakuna — Vibrating,  pulsation, 
beating. 

Thula — ^Name. 

Thularabooldrina — The  clouds  gath- 
ering before  breaking. 

Thularakooduna — Raining. 

Thularapolkoo — Clouds. 

Thularakinie — Lightning. 

Thuliekirra — To  put  the  tongue  out 
of  the  mouth  to  denote 
that  the  person  who 
does  so  is  only  jesting. 

Thumpuna — ^Walking  softly  on  tip- 
toe to  surprise. 

Thumpathumpuna — Walking  steal- 
thily so  as  not  to  dis- 
turb prey. 

Thunkurina — Going  over. 

Thunka — Juice. 

Thurdie— Thirst. 
Thuroo — Father-in-law. 
Thurakami— To  swim. 


•contmued. 

Thurakuna — Swimming. 

Thuraka — Swim. 

Thuruna — Flying. 

Tiana — Bating. 

Tiala^Eat. 

Tianaori — Has  eaten. 

Tianawonthie — Had  eaten. 

Tialauni — Will  eat. 

Tiamarow — Eat  (imperatively). 

Titituna — Masticating. 

Tithatitha — Pockmark. 

Ukurrie — Ours. 

Ulka — Spittle,  saliva. 

Ulkundroo — Spittle. 

Uldra — ^We,  us. 

Uldranie — Of  us. 

Ulchutchamuna — To  threaten. 

Unakoo — Don't  know. 

Unkana — ^Making,  doing. 

Undrakoomoo — One  of  the  flock  or 
party. 

Unpa — Tassel  made  from  fur  of  rats, 
and  worn  to  hide  the 
privy  parts. 

Unpundroo — Tassel. 

Undrawolpuna — Covered,  not  in 
view. 

Ulla— Well. 

Utta — ^An  exclamation. 

Urrapurna — Startled,  sudden  fright. 

Urramurana — Gay. 

Urrathuriea — Attend,  regard  what 
I  say. 

Urrathurruna — Paying  attention. 

Urrina — Listening. 

Urraurraunkana — Breathing  hard. 

Urrawordoo — Gasping. 

Urawa — Salt. 

Urraurruna — A  caution  to  be  careful 
of  the  young,  to  avert 
dangerfrom  them  while 
out  hunting  or  on  ex- 
peditions. 


MOUNT   FREBLING    TO    PIBIGUNDI   LAKE. 


101 


VOCABULAIIT- 

Urriena — To  descend. 
Urriemutha — Floods. 
Urriemuthundroo — Relative  to 

floods. 
Wadarie — ^Where. 
Waka — Small,  not  much. 
Wakawaka — Very  small,  mite. 
Waranie — Refusal. 
Warapa — ^Inform. 
Warapami — To  inform. 
Warapuna— Informing. 
Warapunaori — ^Has  informed. 
Warapunawonthie — Had  informed. 
Warapalauni — ^WiU  inform. 
Wata— Don't. 
Wattawanie — Island. 
Watharaundroo — Relating    to    the 
wind. 

Waukriebuna — Breaking. 

Waukanaori — Has  broken. 

Whi— What. 

Wiala — Cook. 

Wiami — To  cook. 

Wiuna — Cooking. 

Wiunaori — Has  cooked. 

Wiunawonthie — Had  cooked. 

Wiulauni — Will  cook. 

Wianie — ^Nonsense. 

Widlamura — Women. 

Wilapathuruna— Any  thing  in  motion 
at  a  distance,  as,  for  in- 
stance, branches  of  trees. 

Wierurna — Leaving  the  camp  for  a 
day's  hunt. 

WieUkami — To  take  charge  of  the 
child  when  hunting. 

Wieilkcuna — ^Taking  charge  of  the 
children  when  hunting. 

Wilyaroo — A  ceremony. 

Willpuna — Whistling. 

Willpa— Hole. 

Willpawillpa — Full  of  holes. 


-contirmed. 

Willpalooloo  —  White  hole;  also 

stupid. 
Wimuna — Placing  under  cover,  put- 
ting in. 
Wima — Put  in. 
Wimma — Song. 
Wimmawonkuna — Singing. 
Wimamarow — Put  in  (imperatively). 
Windami — To  count. 
Wiudimuna — Counting. 
Windrie — Only. 
Winthar-When. 
Winthurie — Whence. 
Winya — ^Wither. 
Winyeminar— Withered. 
Wippa — Gully. 

Wippiyirrie — Gutter,  watercourse. 
Wirrelyema — Level  ground. 
Wirrileama — Leading  a  weak  person 

gently. 
Wirriea — Under  cover. 
Wirrunaori — Has  gone  under  cover. 
Wirrunawonthie — Had  gone  under 

cover. 
Wirralauni — Will  go  under  cover 
Wirruna — Setting  of  the  sun  and 

moon. 
Wirrka — Fissures. 
Wirrkanie — Flats  with  many  fissures, 

flooded. 
Wirrtie — Song. 

Wilchieua — ^Trembling  from  fear. 
Wittcha^Itch. 
Withie — Wound. 

Wittwittuna — The  roaring  of  thun- 
der. 
Wittawittanathurina —  Continued 

roar  of  thunder  without 
intermission. 
Wodarrie — ^Where. 
Wodow — What,  how. 
Wodaunchoo — How  many, 


102 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE  :  • 


Vocabulary- 
Wodanie — What  is  it  like  ? 
Wodaroo — What  do  you  say  ? 

Wokburna — Arriving. 

Wokari — ^Arrived. 

Wokumaori — Has  arrived. 

Wokumawonthie — Had  arrived. 

Wolpuna — To  cover. 

Wolpadukuna — Covering  over. 

Wolaguna — ^Walking  leisurely. 

Wolthami — To  carry. 

Wolthamaori — Has  carried. 

Wolthamawonthie — Had  carried, 

Wolthamalauni — Will  carry. 

Wolthuna — Carrying. 

Wooloobukanathoorana — Sleeping 
on  the  face. 

Wooloo — Terrific  pace,  very  swift. 

Walka — Oflfspring,  the  young  of  any 
animal. 

Wolthoo — ^Not  firm,  shaky,  rickety. 

Wolkapurrie — Two  perpendicular 
marks  in  red  ochre  on  the 
stomach  to  distinguish 
those  who  have  been  on 
the  red  ochre  expedition. 

Woliewoliebuna — Person  who  pre- 
vents a  quarrel. 

Woliewoliebundroo — Relating  to  a 
peacemaker. 

Wompinie — In  the  shade,  sheltered 
from  the  sun. 

Wonka — Sing. 

Wonkana — Singing. 

Wonkunaori — Has  sung. 

Wonkunawonthie — Had  sung. 

WonkamuUana — Singing  together. 

Wonkulauni — Will  sing. 

Wondrami — To  show. 

Wondruna — Showing. 

Wondrunaori — Has  shown. 

Wondrunawonthie — Had  shown. 

Wondralauni — Will  show. 


-continued. 

Wondramarow — Show  (imperative). 

Wondrala — Show. 

Wondaroo — Shower,    indication  of 

rain ;  also  closely-knitted 

bag. 
Wonina — Tracking. 
Woninaori — Has  tracked. 
Woninawonthie — Had  tracked. 
Woninalauni — WiU  track. 
WoninamuUana — Tracking  each 

other. 
Wonchami — To  try,  to  taste. 
Wonchuna — Trying,  tasting. 
Wonchathuruna — ^Has    tried,     has 

tasted. 
Wonabunyie — The  small   bone   of 

emu's  or  kangaroo's  leg. 
Wonthawonthaloo — Travelling. 
Wonthawirrieyinkuna  —  Travelling 

to  a  certain  place. 
Wonthilcurie — Round  the  other  side. 
Woonthatharka — A  calling  place. 
Wonthina — Search. 
Wonthinaori — Has  searched. 
Wonthinawonthie — Had  searched. 
Wonthilauni — Will  search. 
Wonthithuruna — Searched  in  vain. 
Wopuna — Gone. 
Wopulkuna — Going. 
Wopunaori — Has  gone. 
Wopunawonthie — Had  gone. 
Wopulauni — ^Will  go. 
Wopala — ^Are  going. 
Worietha — ^Long  way  off,  distant. 
Worami — To  throw. 
Woruna — Throwing. 
Woranaori— Has  thrown. 
Woranawonthie — Had  thrown. 
Woramarow — Throw(imperatively). 
Woralauni — ^Will  throw. 
Woratharuna — Stumbling. 
Woorookarana — Barking. 


MOUNT   FREELING    TO    PIRIGUNDI  LAKE. 


103 


VOCABULAKY- 

Worooworookuna — Rickety,  shaky, 

not  firm. 
Workoo — The  other  way. 
Woorookathieimdroo —  Relating  to 

emus. 
Worookoornoo — The  reverse  end. 
Woraworana — To  desert. 
Worapami— To  tell. 
Worapuna — Telling. 
Worapunaori — ^Was  told. 
Worapunawonthie — Had  told. 
Worapulauni — Will  tell. 
Worapathuruna — TelUng  together. 
Wordoo — Short. 

Wordoopirrapirra — Short  and  thick. 
Wordoowauka — Very  short. 
Woraunchoo — Left-handed. 
Woroola — -Well. 
Woroo — Time  past. 
Woroomurla — Long  time  past. 
Woroomoothoo  —  Very  long  time 

past. 
Wootchoo — Long  and  thick. 
Wotthiemookoo — The  grave. 
Wotthina — Building. 
Wotthinaori — Has  built. 
Wotthinawonthie — Had  built. 
Wotthalauni— Will  build. 
Wolthila— Built. 
Wowitoha — ^Distant  relative. 
Wulpieunkuna — Plaiting. 
Wuldragunya — Summer. 
Wuldragunyaundroo — Relating  to 

summer. 
Wulkularie — Sorry. 
Wulkulienuna — Sorrow. 
Wulkina — In  pain. 
Wulkinaori — Has  suffered  pain. 
Wulkinawonthie  —  Had    suffered 

pain. 
Wuldragunyandroo — Relating    to 


-c<mtinued. 

Wuldrulie — ^Warm. 

Wulya — Soon. 

Wulyaloo — Hereafter. 

Wuldrawirrtie — ^Yesterday. 

Wuraoong^Whom. 

Wurta — The  butt,  the  trunk,  the 
large  end. 

Wurthanow — Where  is  it  ? 

Wurthuninkie  —  Prom   where, 
whence. 

Wurdathulka — To  where,  whither. 

Wurunguna — To  be  distant,  to  show 
contempt,  disowned,  dis- 
carded. 

Wurrpuna — A  cantering  pace. 

Wurnie — Whose. 

Wurnieundroo — To  whom  does  it 
belong  ? 

Wurriewarina — Exhausted,  knocked 
up. 

WurUe — Who  will,  who  did. 

Wurungunalawopia  —  Have    dis- 
owned, have  discarded. 

Wurana — Who. 

Ya-And. 

Yae — Desist. 

Yakulkami — To  question. 

Yakulmarow — To  question  (impera- 
tively). 

Yakulkuna — Questioning. 

Yakulkunaori — Has  questioned. 

Yakulkunawonthie  —  Had    ques- 
tioned. 

Yakulkunauni — ^Will  question. 

Yakulka — Question, 

Yadina — Lie. 

Yadinaori — Has  lied. 

Yadinawonthie — Had  lied. 

Yadinabunna — Will  lie. 

Yadinakaunchie — Liar  for  certain. 

Yaniekaitnha — A  bone. 


104 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


VOCABULABY- 

Yaniethuma  —  To    place     a    Stick 

through  the  arms  across 

the  back  (native  mode  of 

lounging). 

Yandrowda — Now,  at  present,  about 

this  time. 
Yapa — Fear. 
Yapalie — Fright. 
Yapalieunana — Frightened. 
Yapakaunohie — Extreme  fear. 
Yapaooroo — Not  afraid. 
Yara — ^Thia  side,  nearest. 
Yarapara — That's  right. 
Yarooka — Like  this. 
Yarooldra — The  same. 
Yatouna — Satiate. 
YathamuUana  —  Quarrelling    to- 
gether. 
Yathami — To  speak. 
Yathunaori — Has  spoken. 
Yathunawonthie — Had  spoken. 
Yathulauni— Will  speak. 
Yathamarow — Speak  (imperatively). 
Yathala — Speak. 
Yathi — Have  spoken. 
Yathuna — Speaking. 
Yaupunie — ^Afraid. 
Yedlakoo — ^Very  far  ofif,  long  dis- 
tance. 
Yellaloo — Together. 
Yelkyelkaroo  —  Extreme      excite- 
ment; hysterics  prevail- 
ing chiefly  amongst  the 
women,      and      mainly 
caused  by  jealousy;  once 
experienced,  its  return  is 
frequent. 
Yegga — Native  orange. 
Yenmuna — I  wait  your  return. 
Yeppiua — Burning. 
Yeppinaori — Has  burned. 
Yeppinawonthie — Had  burned. 


-continued. 

Yeppulauni — ^Will  bum. 
Yera — The  other  side,  farthest  away. 
Yerawayerra — ^Away  from  you,  ab- 
sent. 
Yika— Milk. 
Yikanunthoo — To  milk. 
Yikuna — Milking. 
Yikunaori — Has  milked. 
Yikunawonthie — Had  milked. 
Yikalauni — Will  milk. 
Yikyillarie — Hysterics  after  exces- 
sive laughter. 
Yinkuna — Giving. 
Yinkunaori — Has  given. 
Yinkunawonthie — Had  given. 
Yihkulauni — Will  give. 
YinkumuUuna — Giving  each  other. 
Yinkathurrie — Gave. 
Yinkiea — Give  me. 
Yinka — Girdle. 

Yillthurala — Convalescence,   recov- 
ery from  sickness. 

Yinkaungoo — Of  you. 

Yinkaungooondroo  —  Relating    to 
you. 

Yindrami — To  cry. 

Yindruna— Crying. 

Yindrunaori — Has  cried. 

Yindrunawonthe — Had  cried. 

Yindrulauni — Will  cry. 

Yindramarow— Cry  (imperative). 

Yindrathuruna— Crying  together. 

Yinie — You. 

Yinkathuruna— To  succumb,  to  yield. 

Yinetha — ^You  did  it. 

Yinpa — Send. 

Yinpami — To  send. 

Yinpuna— Sending. 

Yinpunaori — Has  sent. 

Yinpunawonthie — Had  sent. 

Yinpulauni — Will  send. 

Yinpamarow— Send  (imperative), 


MOUNT   FREELING    TO    PIRIGUNDI    LAKE. 


105 


VOCABULABY- 

YmpamuUuna — Sending  each  other, 

Yinthina — Dozy,  sleepy. 

Yirrinya — Thin,  poor. 

Yirrirrabula — To  instruct,  to  com- 
mission. 

Yirrirrbuna  —  Instructed,    commis- 
sioned. 

Yirrchiea — Awake. 

Yirrchuna — Awakening. 

Yirrchienaori — Has  awakened. 

Yirrchiebunawonthie — Had  awake- 
ned. 

Yirrchiebulauni — Will  awaken. 

Yirrchiebuna — To  awaken. 

Yookardie — Smoke. 

Yookardieoondroo  —  Relating     to 
smoke. 

Yookabitchie — Spade,  any  kind  of 
scoop. 

Yoolkami — To  swallow. 

Yoolkuna — Swallowing. 

Yoolkiinaori — Has  swallowed. 

Yoolkunawouthle — Had  swallowed. 

Yoolkunauni — Will  swallow. 

Yooa — Debating. 

Yoondrathana — Across  country. 
Yoola — You  two. 
Yoondroo — Yourself. 
Yoondrooina — You  did. 


Yoonka — Sulky,  sullen,  obstinate. 

Yoonkuruna — Obstinacy. 

Yoorkamuna — Roasting. 

Yoora — Few. 

Yoorala — Love. 

Yoorana — Loving. 

Yooranaori — Has  loved. 

Yooranawonthie — ^Had  loved. 

Yooralauni — Will  love. 

Yoorootcha — Horns. 

Yootha — Luck. 

Yoothamurra — Great  luck. 

Yoothapina — Very  great  luck. 

Yoothabutha — ^No  luck. 

Yootchoo  —  Signifies  a  string  put 
round  the  neck  of  a  per- 
son leaving  to  barter  with 
neighbouring  tribes. 

Yootchoondroo — Relating  to  Yoot 
choo. 

Youdanie — About  here. 

Youuieka — About  this  distance. 

Yowla — Breath. 

Yowara — Language. 

Yowerayinkuna — ^Dictating,  literally 
your  talk. 

Yowerie — The  outer  fat  attached  to 
the  skin. 

Yuntha — A  piece  of  wood. 


106 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  55.— VOCABULARY. 


By  Mk.  Samuel  Gason. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  chookaroo. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum 

-  pildra. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  kurna  mundroo 

Tame  dog    - 
Wild  dog    - 

-  kintalo. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  kurna  parkoola 

Emu    - 

-  woroocathie. 

One     - 

-  koornoo. 

Black  duck- 

-.  chippala. 

Two    - 

-  mundroo. 

Wood  duok- 

-  koodnapina. 

Three  - 

-  parkoola. 

Pelican 

-  thaumpara. 

Four    - 

-  mundroo-mun- 

Laughing  jackass   (none  exist). 

droo. 

Native  companion  booralkoo. 
White  cockatoo  -  kudrungoo. 

Father 

-  apirrie. 

Crow  - 

-  kowulka. 

Mother 

-  andrie. 

Swan  - 

-  kootie. 

Sister-Elder 

-  kakoo. 

Egg     -        - 

-  kuppie. 

,,       Younger 

-  athata. 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  thidna. 

Brother-Elder 

-  niehie. 

Fish    - 

-  paroo,  &c.   (each 

„          Youijger  athata. 

sort    particular 

■ 

name). 

A  young  man 

-  thurrie. 

Lobster 

- 

An  old  man 

-  pinaroo. 

Crayfish 

■  kuniekundi. 

An  old  woman 

-  wildapina. 

Mosquito     - 

-  kooutie. 

A  baby 

-  koopa. 

Ely     - 

-  moonchoo. 

A  White  man 

-  witepella. 

Snake  - 

-  woma,  &c. 

The  Blacks  - 

-  kurnawara. 

Children      - 

-  koopawura. 

A  Blackfellow 

-  kurna. 

Head  - 

mongathandra. 

A  Black  woman 

-  widla. 

Eye     - 

-  milkie. 

Nose   - 

-  moodla. 

Ear     - 

-  cootchara, 

MOUNT   FREELING    TO    PIRIGUNDI    LAKE. 


107 


No.  55. — Vocabulary — continued. 

Boomerang  - 
HiU  - 
Wood  - 
Stone  - 
Camp  - 
Yes  - 
No  - 
I 

You    - 
Bark  - 
Good  - 
Bad     - 
Sweet  - 
Food  - 
Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat     -        - 
Sleep  - 
Drink  - 
Walk  - 
See     - 
Sit       - 
Yesterday  - 
To-day 
To-morrow  - 
Where    are 
Blacks?     , 
I  don't  know 
Plenty 
Big      -        - 

Little  - 
Dead  - 
By-and-by  - 
Come  on 
Milk    -      .  - 
Eaglehawk 
Wild  turkey 
Wife  -     ,  - 


Mouth 

-  muna. 

Teeth  - 

-  munathandra. 

Hair  of  the  heao 

-  para. 

Beard  - 

-  unka. 

Thunder      - 

-  thularayindrie. 

Grass  - 

-  kuntha. 

Tongue 

-  thulie. 

Stomach 

-  mundra  koodna- 

bidie. 

Breasts 

-  auma. 

Thigh 

-  thara. 

Foot   - 

-  thidna. 

Bone   - 

-  mookoo. 

Blood  - 

-  koomarie. 

Skin    - 

-  dula. 

Fat     - 

-  murnie. 

Bowels 

-  koodnaundrie. 

Excrement  - 

-  koodna. 

War-spear  •■ 

-  kulthie. 

Reed-spear  - 

- 

Wommera  - 

- 

Shield 

-  pirauma. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  kundriemookoo. 

Canoe  - 

-  pirra. 

Sun     - 

-  ditchie. 

Moon  - 

-  pirra. 

Star    - 

-  ditchiethandra. 

Light  - 

-  buralohie. 

Dark  - 

-  pulkara. 

Cold    -       - 

-  kilpalie. 

Heat   - 

■  wuldrulie. 

Day     - 

-  kurrurie. 

Night  -       - 

-  pulkara. 

Fire     - 

~  thooroo. 

Water 

-  apa. 

Smoke 

-  ukardie. 

Ground 

-  mitha. 

Wind- 

-  wathara. 

Rain   - 

-  tulara. 

God     -        - 

-  mooramoora. 

Ghosts 

- 

-  kirra. 

-  thooroo. 

-  murda. 

-  oora. 

-  kow,  kookoo. 

-  ahi. 

-  althoo. 

-  yinie. 

-  pitchie. 

-  oomoo. 

-  mudlaunchie. 

-  aloooelie. 

-  booka. 

-  mooalie. 

-  murdiealie. 

-  tiami. 

-  mookalie. 

-  thapana. 

-  dukadukuha. 

-  nieuna. 
.-  armuna. 

-  wuldra-wirrtie. 

-  kurrurie. 

-  thunkabunna, 
the  kurna  wadarie  ? 

-  kooanie.    . 

-  narpoo. 

-  marpoo,  moola- 
roo,  pina. 

-  waka,  wauka. 

-  narrie, 

-  wulya. 

-  kapara. 

-  yika. 

-  curawura. 

-  kulathoora. 

-  noa.. 


108 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  56.— KOPPEEAMANA. 


By  Mb.  F.  E.  Jacobs. 


Kangaroo    - 

chookaroo. 

Hand  - 

-  marra. 

Opossum 

pildra. 

2  Blacks      - 

- 

Tame  dog    - 

puruiua. 

3  Blacks      - 

_ 

Wild  dog    - 

keutella. 

One     - 

-  kuhiu. 

Fmu    - 

worrukatti. 

Black  duck  - 

maru-maru. 

Two    - 

-  mondru,  poolga. 

Wood  duok  - 

Three  - 

-  paruklulu,  kulnu 

Pelican 

tampangara. 

mondru. 

Laughing  jackass 

Four    - 

-  mondru- mondru. 

Native  companion  puralku. 

Father 

-  ngabri. 

White  cockatoo  - 

keirdrangu. 

Mother 

-  ngandri. 

Crow  - 

kawolka. 

Sister-Elder 

. 

Swan  - 

kurti. 

„      Younger 

- 

Egg     -        -        - 

kabbi. 

Brother-Elder 

-  neai. 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

tidnamalka. 

„         Younger  negi  (?). 

Eish    - 

morri. 

A  young  man 

-  tarri. 

Lobster 

kurnkuderri. 

Crayfish 

An  old  man 

-  pirnarru. 

Mosquito     - 

kunti. 

An  old  woman 

-  wilda  pima. 

Fly       .          - 

muncho,  girmun. 

A  baby 

-  kupa-wakku. 

Snake  - 

tutjo. 

A  White  man 

■ 

The  Blacks  - 

karna. 

Children 

-  kupa. 

A  Blaokfellow 

karna. 

Head  - 

-  mangatandra. 

A  Black  woman  - 

widla. 

Eye     - 

-  milki. 

Nose   - 

mudla. 

Ear      - 

-  talpa,  kutjera 

KOPPERAMANA. 


109 


No.    56. — KOPPERAMASA — < 


Mouth 

morna. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

-  mornatandra. 

Hill     - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head  parra.                      ] 

Wood 

-  pita. 

Beard  - 

-  namka. 

Stone  - 

-  marda. 

Thunder      - 

-  pildri-pildri. 

Camp  - 

-  ngura. 

Grass  - 

-  ka,Tita. 

Yes      - 

-  kow. 

Tongue 

-  tarli. 

No      -       - 

-  banni. 

Stomach 

-  kmmapirdi. 

I 

-  nganna. 

Breasts 

-  ngammamurra. 

You     - 

-  yundru,  yidni. 

Thigh  - 

-  tarra. 

Bark    - 

-  pitji. 

Foot    - 

-  tidna. 

Good  - 

-  mumu. 

Bone    - 

-  moko. 

Bad     - 

-  madlanji. 

Blood  - 

-  gummari. 

Sweet  - 

-  mardu. 

Skin    - 

-  darla. 

Food    - 

-  boka. 

Fat      ■ 

-  mami. 

Hungry 

-  moualli. 

Bowels 

-  poualara. 

Thirsty 

-  tardielli. 

Excrement  - 

-  kunna. 

Eat      - 

-  tai-i-na. 

War-spear   - 

-  kalti. 

Sleep   - 

-  mokaturarena. 

Eeed-spear  - 

- 

Drink  - 

-  tabbema.     - 

Wimmera     or 

kuckuru. 

Walk  - 

-  wappema. 

throwing-stick 

See       - 

-  nai-i-na. 

Shield  - 

-  pirramarra. 

Sit       - 

-  nammana. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  karlara. 

Yesterday   - 

-  woldra-wirti. 

Canoe 

- 

To-day 

-  karrari. 

Sun      - 
Moon  - 
Star     - 
Light  - 
Dark   - 
Cold    - 

-  ditji. 

-  pirra,  kurta. 

-  ditji-wokka. 

-  pared]  i. 

-  ngalpura. 

-  kilpa. 

To-morrow  - 

Where    are 
Blacks  ? 
I  don't  know 

-  tinkangulu, 

momatunka. 
the    kama  worda 
yerri? 

-  ngaimago. 

Heat   - 

-  woldrapima. 

Plenty 

-  marrapu. 

Day     - 

-  ditji. 

Big       - 

-  pirna. 

Night  - 

-  tinka. 

Little  - 

-  wokka. 

Fire     - 

-  turo. 

Dead    - 

-  narri. 

Water 

-  ngappa. 

By-and-by   - 

-  wolya. 

Smoke 

Ground 
Wind  -        - 

-  yukari,  turo- 

tupu. 

-  mita. 

-  wottara. 

Come  on 
Milk    - 

-  kapperou, 
kappou. 

Rain    - 

-  tarlara. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God     - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

Ghosts 

Wife    - 

110 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE : 


No.  57.— STRANGWAY  SPRINGS. 


By  John  Wabrbn,  Esq. 


Kangaroo     - 

koongaroo. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum 

2  Blacks      - 

Tame  dog    - 

mudla. 

3  Blacks      - 

Wild  dog     - 

One  .  - 

-  oyoo. 

Emu    - 

warrewatte. 

Two    - 

-  kara-kolon. 

Black  duck  - 

Three  - 

Wood  duck  - 

Four    - 

-  kara-kolon-kara- 

Pelican 

Laughing  jackass 

kolon. 

Native  companion 

Father 

- 

White  cockatoo  ■ 

Mother 

- 

Crow   - 

Sister-Elder 

- 

Swan  - 

, ,      Younger 

Egg     - 

bapoo. 

Brother-Elder 

- 

Track  of  a  foot     - 

womba. 

,,          Younger 

Fish     - 

paroo. 

A  young  man 

-  eawanga. 

Lobster 

An  old  man 

-  warroo. 

Crayfish 

An  old  woman 

Mosquito 

teepa. 

Fly     -        -        - 

A  baby 

-  koba-koba. 

Snake  - 

wabma. 

A  White  man 

- 

The  Blacks  - 

Children 

- 

A  Blackfellow 

nulla. 

Head  - 

-  kardiappoo. 

A  Black  woman  - 

ikkala. 

Eye     - 

-  eungiaria. 

Nose    - 

mootla. 

Ear     - 

- 

strangway  springs. 


Ill 


No.  57. — Stkangwat  Speings — continued. 


Mouth 

manga. 

Boomerang  - 

-■ 

Teeth  - 

Hill     - 

-  ardere. 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  yarre. 

Wood  - 

Beard  - 

- 

Stone  - 

- 

Thunder      - 

-  myanguta. 

Camp  - 

- 

Grass  - 

- 

Yes     -        - 

-  akie. 

Tongue 

- 

No       - 

-  atoo,  aroo. 

Stomach      ■■ 

- 

I          -        - 

-  atoo. 

Breasts 

- 

You     - 

-  anpai 

Thigh - 

- 

Bark    - 

- 

Foot   - 

-  tedna. 

Good  - 

-  oorokoo. 

Bone   - 

- 

Bad     - 

-  mudlanti. 

Blood  -       - 

- 

Sweet  - 

- 

Skin    - 

- 

Food   - 

- 

Fat      - 

- 

Hungry 

- 

Bowels 

- 

Thirsty 

Excrement  - 

-  koodna. 

Eat      - 

War- spear  - 

- 

Sleep  - 

-  koodnuUa. 

Reed-spear  - 

Drink - 

Throwing-stick 

- 

Walk  - 

Shield - 

- 

See 

Tomahawk  - 

. 

Canoe  - 

Sit      - 

-  pangalu. 

Sun     - 

-  mooyoo. 

Yesterday  - 

Moon  ■ 

-  parala. 

To-day 

Star    - 

-  kardihula. 

To-morrow  - 

Light  - 

- 

Where  are  the 

Dark   - 

- 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    - 

-  mudle. 

I  don't  know 

. 

Heat  - 

Plenty 

-  naaka. 

Day     - 

Big      -        - 

-  burra. 

Night - 

-  wanga. 

Little  - 

Fire    - 

Dead   - 

-  nurandu. 

Water 

-  koota. 

Smoke 

By-and-by  - 

■ 

Ground 

_ 

Come  on 

- 

Wind  - 

-  wombara. 

Milk   - 

- 

Rain    - 

-  elinga. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God     - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

. 

Wife   - 

112 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  57.— SiEAifawAY  Spumas, —Additional 
Lake  - 
Lightning    - 


Asleep         -  -  undurata. 

Arm    -        -  -  bambooarie. 

Claypan  water  -  wereka. 

Creek  -        -  -  karla. 

Cloud  -  -  upella. 

Dawn  -        -  -  wongonbra. 

Pace    -        -  -  mana. 

Fruit  of  pig's  face  peuda. 

Give  (me)  water  -  koota  narriqunda 

Good-bye    -  -  era. 

Girl     -        -  -  angara. 

Gum-tree    -  -  apea. 

Green  -    .    -  -  mara. 

Go  away      -  yookanara. 

Horse  -        -  -  nanto. 


Midday 

A   lunar    month; 
lit. :  one  moon 

Salt     - 

Spring  water 

Sandhill      - 

Stony  plain 

Young  woman     - 

Where  ? 

Boy     - 

Nonsense     - 

Rat     - 


Words. 
ekala. 
inendi. 
warridanga. 

[  karalongayoo. 

moolire. 

uarrawa. 

moodloo. 

toodlere. 

adluka. 

wetera,  inka? 

kootere. 

padne I 

myara. 


No.  58.— UMBEETANA. 

By  N.  E.  Phillipson,  Esq. 

The  following  vocabulary  and  facts  connected  with  the 
Umbertana  tribe  I  received  from  Mr.  N.  E.  PhHlipson,  who 
sent  them  to  me  at  the  request  of  Sir  Thomas  Elder. 

In  the  Umbertana  tribe  the  boys  are  circumcised  at  from 
thirteen  to  fifteen  years  of  age,  after  which  they  are  called 
Bernippa.  A  few  months  later  they  undergo  the  terrible  rite, 
when  they  are  styled  Kobba.  Later  on  they  are  scarred  on 
the  chest,  and  have  the  muscle  of  the  left  arm  tightly  bound 
up  with  a  cord  made  of  human  hair,  when  they  are  called 
Wilyeroo.  We  have  seen  that  this  custom  prevails  on  the 
De  Grey  River. 

Women,  when  given  in  marriage,  are  merely  sent  by  their 
father  or  brother  to  the  camp  of  the  husband  elect. 

The  food  of  the  tribe  consists  principally  of  kangaroo, 
emu,  wallaby,  grubs  of  the  gum-tree,  snakes,  and  opossums; 


UMBERTANA. 


113 


also  of  the  seeds  of  the  silver-wattle  and  of  bower-grass, 
which  are  crushed  between  stones  and  made  into  flour. 

Few  tribes  seem  to  subject  their  young  men  to  so  many 
barbarities  as  the  Umbertana. 


Unole  - 
Aunt   ■ 


Cousin 
Elder  son 


No.  58. — Umbertana. — Additional  Wobds. 

-  ummema.  Younger  sou        -  warreya. 

-  wadnee  nammee       Elder  daughter    -  arranye. 

(little  mother —      Younger  daughter  warreeka. 

see    Kortabina      Demon         -        -  yubaldoo-baldoo. 

vocabulary).  Venus-        -        -  wertaoordlee. 

-  bapapa.  Club    ■        -        -  mokooko. 

-  biddeya.  Two-handed  club  mongoree. 


Andalda. 

Aldaberry. 

Notilda. 


Names  oe  Men. 


Murrawalda  (broken 

hand). 
Eednanda 


Names  oe  a  Family. 


Notilda  (the  father). 
Wilpunda  (the  mother). 
Yalduktinda  (a  son). 


Wonoka  *  (a  daughter). 
Morruya  (a  son). 


VOL.    II. 


*  Name  of  a  place. 
H 


114 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  58.— UMBERTANA. 


Kangaroo    - 

oordloo. 

Hand  - 

murra. 

Opossum 
Tame  dog    - 
Wild  dog     - 
Emu    - 

bilda. 
wilka. 
kintala. 
warrache,  waroo- 

katee. 

2  Blacks      - 

3  Blacks      - 
One     - 
Two    - 

arlpillina  eura 
-  woolparinnaeura 

oomarta. 
■  arlpillina. 

Black  duck  - 

barndoo. 

Three  - 

woolparinna, 

Wood  duck- 

Four    - 

oobmomurra. 

Pelican 

Laughing  jackass 
Native  companior 
White  cockatoo 

I 

warrandoo. 

Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

bapee. 

nammee. 

yacka. 

Crow  - 

wolko,  koro  wolko. 

„      younger 

Swan  - 

oortee. 

Brother-Elder 

-  nonga. 

Egg     -         - 
Track  of  a  foot     - 
Fish     - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 

kuppee. 

wertaappa. 

paroo. 

„       Younger 
A  young  man 
An  old  man 
An  old  woman 

yungarree. 

boolka. 

billooota. 

Mosquito     - 

oondee,  coontee. 

A  baby 

■  eedlapa. 

Fly     -       - 

Snake  - 
The  Blacks 
A  Blaekfellow 

yappoo,  muncho. 

wabna. 

eura. 

kurna,  eura. 

A  White  man 
Children 
Head  - 

oodnya. 

yackarty. 

babertla,ookerty. 

A  Black  woman  - 

artoo. 

Eye     - 

meena. 

Nose    - 

moodla. 

Bar     - 

uree. 

tJMBERTANA. 

110 

No.  58. — Umbertana — contin'md. 

Mouth- 

yalla. 

Boomerang  - 

waldna. 

Teeth  - 

eera. 

Hill     - 

Hair  of  the  head 

aackerly. 

Wood  - 

nutohoo. 

Beard  - 

nemga. 

Stone  - 

aydnia. 

Thunder      - 

■  emdoo. 

Gamp  - 

amgoo. 

Grass  - 

-  yuta. 

Yes      - 

nagoo. 

Tongue 

-  yarlee. 

No       - 

merdla. 

Stomach 

-  werla. 

I                  - 

-  ngyee. 

Breasts 

-  namma. 

You     - 

-  neena. 

Thigh  - 
Foot    - 

-  moorta. 

-  edna. 

Bark    - 
Good   - 

-  beetetee. 

-  warndoo. 

Bone   - 

-  werlpo. 

Bad     - 

-  beednee. 

Blood  - 

-  aartee. 

Sweet  - 

-  amgaweeta 

Skin    - 

-  weeyee. 

Food    - 

-  maiyee. 

Fat      - 

-  memee. 

Hungry 

-  eenbeminda. 

Bowels 

-  memdakka. 

Thirsty 

-  yambekoo. 

Excrement  - 

-  koodna. 

Eat      - 

-  nalquiatoo. 

War-spear   - 

-  winda. 

Sleep  - 

-  meya  wandie. 

Eeed-spear  - 
Throwing-stiok 
Shield- 
Tomahawk  - 
Canoe  - 
Sun     - 

-  weeanderloo. 

-  teeparra. 

-  eundoo. 

Drink - 
Walk  -"      - 
See      - 
Sit       - 
Yesterday  - 

-  yalpartoo. 

-  mokaiye. 

-  nakoandaima. 

-  eikiyee. 

-  dalungya. 

Moon  - 

-  peearra. 

To-day 

■  yaatta. 

Star     - 

-  boordlee. 

To-morrow  - 

-  wiltaardla. 

Light  - 

-  bichie. 

Where    are   tht 

weeya  idla  eura  ? 

Dark   - 

-  weelcha. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    - 

-  artakoo. 

I  don't  know 

-  ne  weeya. 

Heat   - 

-  werdla. 

Plenty 

-  weenerdla.     . 

Day     - 
Night  - 
Fire     - 
Water - 
Smoke 
Ground 

-  yatta. 

-  weelcha. 

-  erdla. 
■  owie. 

-  oomdo. 

-  yerta. 

Big      - 
Little  - 
Dead   - 
By-and-by  - 
Come  on 

-  mannawerta. 

-  biednappa. 

-  baadlookoo. 

-  arry. 

-  abbeeya. 

Wind  - 

-  waree. 

Milk    - 

- 

Eain    - 

-  owie. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God     - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

Ghosts 

-  moordoodnoo. 

Wife    - 

. 

H  2 


116 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  59.— TURA  OR  EURA  TRIBE,  MOUNT  SEELE. 
By  Chaules  Wills,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

oodloo. 

Opossum 

bilta. 

Tame  dog    - 

wilka. 

Wild  dog     - 

Emu    - 

warrachie 

Black  duck  - 

murrara. 

Wood  duck 

bamdo. 

Pelican 

Laughing  jackass 

Native  companion 

White  cockatoo  - 

weurando. 

Crow  - 

walkala. 

Swan  - 

Egg     -        -        - 

pepe. 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

yappa. 

Fish     - 

Lobster 

Crayfish 

Mosquito 

oonte. 

Fly        . 

Snake  - 

wobna. 

The  Blacks  - 

eura. 

A  Blackfellow 

eura. 

A  Black  woman 

artunia. 

Nose    - 

moodla. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  eura  idtpillina. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  eura  oolpracoa. 

One      - 

-  obmooto. 

Two     - 

-  idtpillina. 

Three  - 

-  oolpracoa. 

Four    - 

-  yandymurra. 

Father 

-  pappy- 

Mother 

-  namica. 

Sister-Elder 

-  yacka. 

„      Younger 

- 

Brother-Elder 

-  woongna. 

,,          Younger 

A  young  man 

- 

An  old  man- 

-  bulkamero. 

An  old  woman 

-  bincuta. 

A  baby 

-  edlappa. 

A  White  man 

-  oogtna. 

Children 

-  yackarty  munga 

Head  - 

-  buppartloo. 

Eye     - 

-  mina. 

Ear     - 

-  eure. 

MOUNT   SERLE. 


117 


No.  59.- 

-TtTRA   OB  EUKA  TrIBE,   MoTJNT   SebLE 

-  continued. 

Mouth 

-  yikya. 

Boomerang  - 

Teeth  - 

-  eara. 

HiU     - 

Hair  of  the  head  -  buppartloo-             | 

Wood  - 

wittie. 

watche. 

Stone  - 

-  adgna. 

Beard  - 

-  amka. 

Thunder      - 

-  ando. 

Camp  - 

amgo. 

Yes     - 

-  nucko. 

Grass  - 

-  uta. 

No       - 

murdla. 

Tongue 

-  yerlee. 

Stomach 

-  wuurla. 

I 

-  ni. 

Breasts 

-  numma. 

You    - 

-  ninna. 

Thigh - 

-  moota. 

Bark   . 

-  Mdthati. 

Foot   - 

-  edna. 

Good  - 

-  wamdo. 

Bone  - 

-  walpo. 

Bad     - 

-  bedenacka. 

Blood  - 

-  artee. 

Sweet  - 

-  angowitha. 

Skin    - 

-  pea-ee. 

Food   - 

-  miei. 

Fat      - 

-  mernee. 

Hungry 

-  arnbunda. 

Bowels 

-  merndacca. 

Thirsty 

-  owiemooroo. 

Excrement  - 

-  oodna. 

Eat      - 

-  nalconda. 

War-spear  - 

-  wurlata. 

Sleep  - 

-  meer. 

Reed-spear  - 

. 

Wommera  - 

-  woonrara. 

Drink - 

-  yappanda. 

Shield 

-  peepara. 

Walk  - 

-  ookanda. 

Tomahawk  - 

. 

See      - 

-  mikanda. 

Canoe  - 

- 

Sit      - 

-  ekinda. 

Sun     - 

-  undoo. 

Yesterday  - 

-  alanga. 

Moon  - 

-  bera. 

To-day 

-  yethaundoo. 

Star     - 

-  hoodla. 

To-morrow  - 

-  wiljharadla. 

Light  - 

-  mopanninga. 

Where  are  the 

wereadla  eura  ? 

Dark   - 

-  wilcha. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    - 

-  hottanda. 

I  don't  know 

-  utana. 

Heat   - 

-  walta. 

Plenty 

-  naruta. 

Day     - 

-  undoo. 

Big      - 

-  narraka. 

Night  - 

-  wilja. 

Fire     - 

-  ardla. 

Little  - 

-  bidenappa. 

Water 

-  owie. 

Dead  - 

-  eudaltha. 

Smoke 

-  ardlaeppo. 

By-and-by  - 

-  aratche. 

Ground 

-  yearta. 

Come  on 

-  abbaunin. 

Wind- 

-  waddee. 

Milk    - 

- 

Rain   - 

-  owie. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God     - 

- 

WUd  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife  - 

, 

118  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  60.— BELTANA. 

By  Mb.  J.  W.  Kingsmill  and  Mr.  S.  Gason. 

I  HAVE  received  vocabularies  of  tlie  languages  of  two 
tribes  wMch  dweU  in  the  Beltana  country.  The  first  was 
forwarded  to  me  by  Mr.  J.  W.  KingsmiU,  under  the  direction 
of  Sir  Thomas  Elder ;  the  second  by  Mr.  Samuel  Gason,  who 
writes  of  the  Unyamootha  tribe,  and  it  will  be  noticed  that 
the  two  have  many  words  in  common,  or  but  slightly  differ- 
ing. Indeed,  had  it  not  been  that  they  disagree  in  their 
equivalents  of  a  Blackfellom  and  their  negative  adverbs  (two 
words  which  must  never  be  overlooked  when  considering  the 
relationships  of  our  tribes),  it  might  almost  have  been 
argued  that  their  differences  were  those  of  spelling,  supple- 
mented by  a  few  mistakes.  Mr.  Kingsmill,  who  tells  me 
that  the  language  of  which  he  has  sent  me  a  specimen  is 
called  Kooyiannie,  says: — "The  extent  of  country  inhabited 
by  the  Kooyiannie  Blacks  is  about  100  miles  long  by  50 
wide,  Beltana  being  situated  in  the  south-eastern  portion  of 
it.  The  names  of  the  neighbouring  tribes  are  Koonarie  on 
the  north,  a  much  more  numerous  tribe  than  this;  the 
Burngala,  on  the  south,  now  nearly  extinct ;  the  Keidna- 
mutha  on  the  east,  a  fierce  and  warlike  tribe;  and  the 
Koocatho  on  the  west,  of  which  very  little  is  known.  The 
Kooyiannie,  or  Beltana  Blacks,  number  now  about  50." 

Mr.  Kingsmill  also  gives  the  following  additional  words, 
using  kn  for  the  common  ng,  to  express  the  nasal  sound: — 


Uncle 

-    knamuma, 

Aunt 

-    knowoora. 

Cousin    - 

-    wincha. 

Eldest  son 

-     berdiana. 

Other  sons 

-     moonia. 

Eldest  daughter 

-     moonaka. 

Other  daughters 

-    kooranya, 

BELTANA.  .      119 

The  tribe  concerning  which  Mr.  Gason  writes  is  called 
Vnyamootha,  possibly  the  Keidnamutha  of  Mr.  KingsmUl. 
The  country  of  this  tribe,  Mr.  Gason  says,  was  first  occupied 
by  the  "Whites  in  1857 ;   that  the  tribe,  which  numbered 
about  150  souls  when  my  informant  went  to  live  at  Beltana 
in  1865,  is  now  (1883)  reduced  to  50  persons,  consumption 
and  drunkenness  being  the  cause  of  the  decrease.     For 
clothes,  this  tribe  had  rugs  of  waUaby  skins,  and  for  orna- 
ments feathers  worn  in  the  hair  and  necklaces  made  of  the 
stems  of  grass,  cut  into  short  lengths  and  threaded.     Besides 
clubs,  and  spears  which  were  always  thrown  by  hand,  they 
had  also  the  boomerang.    To  end  the  moans  of  relatives 
who  were  dying,  they  used  when  the  Whites  first  arrived 
amongst  them  to  MU  them,  the  fat  and  choice  portions  of 
the  flesh  being  cooked  and  eaten.    Polygamy  still  prevails, 
and  marriages  both  within  and  without  the  tribe.     Females 
become  wives  at  fourteen.    Formerly  the  first-born  child 
used  to   be  destroyed.     The  neck,  chest,   and  arms    are 
scarified  in  the  usual  way,  and  circumcision  prevails.    This 
tribe  call  the  young  men  Willyaroo,  as  amongst  the  Umber- 
tana  tribe.     Mr.  Gason  says  that  the  tribes  which  bound  the 
Unyamootha  are  the  Wipie  to  the  south,  the  Yaldikowera 
to  the  north,  and  the  Yarrikuna  to  the  east.    Running  sores 
are  sucked  by  the  Minarie,  or  doctor,  and  then  bound  up 
with  hot  earth  or  ashes. 


120 


THE  AUSTRALIAN  RACE: 


No.  60.— VOCABULARY  Or  THE  KOOYIANNIE  LANGUAGE. 


By  Mk.    J.    W.    KiNGSMILL. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  yarnda. 

Hand  - 

murra. 

Opossum 

bilda. 

2  Blacks      - 

mundru  thura. 

Tame  dog    - 
Wild  dog    - 
Emu    - 

•  wilker. 
wilker. 
-  worrachie. 

3  Blacks      - 
One     - 

culpara  thura. 
coobmana. 

Black  duck  - 

-  mingalla. 

Two    - 

mundru. 

Wood  duck 

-  yanganaroota- 

Three  - 

culpara. 

poone. 

Pour   - 

mundru-mundru. 

Pelican        -        -  thampara. 
Laughing  jaqkass  (none). 
Native  companion  (none). 
White  cockatoo  -  ivarrauthoo. 

Pather 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

papie. 

comie,  knumle. 

Crow   - 

-  waucurla. 

,,     Younger   - 

yacka. 

Swan  - 

-  cootie. 

Brother-Elder     - 

Egg     -        - 
Track  of  a  foot 
Fish     - 

-  peipe. 

-  thidna, 

-  (none  in  the  dis- 

trict). 

,,         Younger 
A  young  man 
An  old  man 

oonga. 
miroo. 
yowery. 

Lobster 

. 

An  old  woman 

pinaroo. 

Crayfish 

- 

A  baby 

-  thethree-marca- 

Mosquito     - 

-  coolie-coolie. 

gie. 

Fly        . 

-  thumpara. 

A  White  man 

■  coodnoo. 

Snake  - 
The  Blacks  - 

-  wobma,         win- 

cherta. 

-  thura. 

Children 
Head  - 

-  urdlana. 

-  baperdelie,   mie 

A  Blackfellow 

-  thura. 

roo. 

A  Black  woman 

-  kurdrie. 

Eye     - 

-  mena. 

Nose    - 

-  mudla. 

Ear      - 

'  euri. 

BELTANA. 

l.<Ci. 

No.  60.— KooYumas— continued. 

Mouth 

■  thea. 

Boomerang  - 

-  (none). 

Teeth  - 

-  era. 

Hill     - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head  -  awatohie. 

Wood  - 

-  curdla. 

Beard  - 

-  umga. 

Stone  - 

-  keidna. 

Thunder      - 

-  camdoo. 

Camp  - 

-  camacoo. 

Grass  - 

-  thuthara. 

Yes     - 

-  kow. 

Tongue 

-  tharlie. 

No       - 

-  murdlo. 

Stomach 

-  curlpa. 

I 

-  kni. 

Breasts 

-  knana. 

You    - 

-  neina. 

Thigh 
Foot    - 

-  canthie. 

-  thidna. 

Bark  -       - 

-  coorkie-leinga. 

Good  - 

-  mimeitha. 

Bone  - 

-  warlpoo. 

Blood  - 

-  currimohie. 

Bad     -        - 

-  munga. 

Skin    - 

-  pie. 

Sweet 

-  kurnyanienya. 

Fat      - 

-  mumee. 

Food  -        - 

-  mie. 

Bowels 

-  nampie. 

Hungry 

-  kambaninya. 

Excrement 

-  coodna. 

Thirsty 

-  thareninya. 

War-spear 

-  wardlata. 

Eat     - 

-  wealcooninya. 

Reed-spear 

-  kidohie. 

Sleep  - 

-  miya. 

Wommera 

- 

Drink  -        - 

-  thapunga  cowie 

Shield - 

-  muala,  waroo. 

Walk  - 

-  oocunga. 

Tomahawk 

-  borne,  yackoo. 

See      -        - 

-  naccoo-coo. 

Canoe - 

-  (none). 

Sit 

-  ecacoo. 

Sun     - 

-  thumdoo. 

Moon  - 
Star     - 

-  pera. 

-  purdlie. 

Yesterday  - 
To-day 

-  waldarlaca. 

-  yeth. 

To-morrow  - 

-  wUcha-wilca. 

Light  - 

-  peitohie. 

Dark   - 

-  wiltcha. 

Where    are 

the  wadna  thura? 

Cold    - 

-  malu. 

Blacks  ? 

Heat   - 

-  knurmarra. 

I  don't  know 

-  murdla. 

Day     - 

-  peitchie. 

Plenty 

-  knurlana. 

Night  ■ 

-  wiltcha. 

Big     -        - 

-  knurla. 

Fire     - 

-  curdla. 

Little  - 

-  wane-wane. 

Water 

-  cowie. 

Dead  - 

-  pardluna. 

Smoke 

-  thoopoo. 

By-and-by  - 

-  carie. 

Ground 

-  yarra. 

Come  on 

•  oowieaj  abbia. 

Wind- 

-  warrie. 

Milk   - 

- 

Rain    - 

-  cowie. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God     - 

-  acheroo  (maker). 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

-  ooochie. 

Wife  - 

_ 

122 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  60.— UNYAMOOTHA  TRIBE. 


By  Mk.  S.  Gason. 


Kangaroo    - 
Opossum 

ooloo. 
bilda. 

Tame  dog    - 

wilka. 

Wild  dog    - 

wilka. 

Emu    - 

warretchie. 

Black  duck  - 

marara. 

Wood  duck 

(none). 

PeUoan 

(none). 

Laughing  jackass  (none). 
Native'oompanion  (none). 
White  cockatoo  -  (none). 

Crow  - 

wawkala. 

Swan  - 

(none). 

Egg     -        . 
Track  of  a  foot 

pie-pie. 
idna. 

Eish    - 

(none). 

Lobster 

(none). 

Crayfish 
Mosquito 

(none), 
oolilie. 

Fly      - 
Snake  - 

yapoo. 
-  woma. 

The  Blacks  - 
A  Blackfellow 

-  yooroonguna. 

-  yoora. 

A  Black  woman 
Nose    - 

-  yooratoo. 
■  moodla. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  yierlina  yoora. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  oolpurina  yoora 

One     - 

-  oomerta. 

Two    - 

-  yierUna. 

Three  - 

-  oolpuriua. 

Four   - 

-  yandiemurra. 

Father 

-  papie. 

Mother 

-  amie. 

Sister-Elder 

-  anyinie. 

„      Younger 

-  papa. 

Brother-Elder 

-  oowellie. 

,,          Younger  noonga. 

A  young  man 

-  yangarie. 

An  old  man 

-  poolka. 

An  old  woman 

-  yowirrie. 

A  baby 

-  idlapa. 

A  White  man 

-  oonyoo. 

Children     - 

-  arraurda. 

Head  - 

-  paparla. 

Eye     - 

-  minna. 

Ear     - 

-  yoorie, 

BELTANA. 

i 

No.  60. — Untamootha  Tbibe — continued. 

Mouth 

-  yiya. 

Boomerang  - 

-  wanna. 

Teeth  - 

"  iera. 

Hill     -       - 

-  yooourrie. 

Hair  of  the  head  -  papalawotohle,       | 

Wood  - 

-  urla. 

Beard  - 

-  uuka. 

Stone  - 

-  udringa(?) 

Thunder      - 

-  oondoo. 

Camp  - 

-  unkoo. 

Grass  - 

-  yoothera. 

Yes     -        - 

-  na. 

Tongue 

-  yarlie. 

No      - 

-  ootuna. 

Stomach 

-  alpa. 

Breasts 

-  ookooroo. 

I 

-  iyie. 

Thigh - 

-  moota. 

You    - 

-  nina. 

Foot   - 

-  yedna. 

Bark   - 

-  pithadie. 

Bone  - 

-  walpoo. 

Good  - 

-  munieurra. 

Blood  -        - 

-  nrtie. 

Bad     - 

-  nunga. 

Skin    - 

-  bie. 

Sweet  - 

-  arngaminda. 

Fat     - 
Bowels 

-  mumie. 

-  mundaca. 

Food  - 

-  naigie. 

Excrement  - 

-  oodna. 

Hungry 

-  unpaninda. 

War-spear  - 

-  winda. 

Thirsty 

-  yanpiltie. 

Eat     - 

-  alkooda. 

Reed-spear  - 

- 

Sleep  - 

-  milwonito. 

Wommera  - 

•  (none). 

Drink  - 

-  yapandaloo. 

Shield 

-  thippira. 

Walk  -         ■ 

-  ookundowa. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  adgna. 

See  .   - 

-  uockundaloo. 

Canoe  - 

-  (none). 

Sit 

-  ikuudowa. 

Sun     - 
Moon  - 

-  yoondoo. 

-  birra. 

Yesterday  - 

-  alanya. 

To-day 

-  yatha. 

Star    - 

-  booralie. 

To-morrow  - 

-  oopinga. 

Light  - 

-  nilkerie. 

Dark  - 
Cold    -        - 

-  wildga. 

-  altanda. 

Where    are 
Blacks? 

the    yoora  wona  ? 

Heat  - 

-  wolda. 

I  don't  know 

-  wungayindie 

Day     - 

-  batchoo. 

Plenty 

- 

Night  -       - 

-  wildga. 

Big     -        - 

-  orlaca. 

Fire    - 

-  nrla. 

Little  - 

-  pinapa. 

Water 

-  owie. 

Dead  - 

-  yinda. 

Smoke 

-  yoopoo. 

By-and-by  - 

■  arrel. 

Ground 

-  yerta. 

Come  on 

-  obieyar, 

Wind- 

-  warrie. 

Milk  - 

-  ama. 

Raiu   - 

-  owie. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  wildoo. 

God     - 

-  winma. 

WUd  turkey 

-  wala. 

Ghost 

-  winida. 

Wife  -       - 

-  artunoo. 

123 


124 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  61.— WONOKA. 

By  W.  M.  Gkeen,  Esq. 
The  following  vocabulary  was  forwarded  to  me  by  Mr. 
W.  M.  Green,  who  informs  me  that  tbe  language  of  whicli 
it  is  a  specimen  is  that  of  the  Arkaba-tura  tribe,  whose 
country  is  about  70  miles  north  of  Port  Augusta.  These 
people  relate  that  they  sprung  from  a  number  of  individuals 
whose  crimes  had  made  them  outcasts  from  their  several 
tribes ;  that  they  met  at  various  times  at  the  waters,  and 
agreed  to  cast  in  their  lots  together.  Other  hill  tribes  in 
this  locality  are  said  to  have  originated  in  the  same  way. 
It  wiU  be  noticed,  on  comparing  the  first  column  of  the 
vocabularies  belonging  to  the  tribes  in  this  portion  of  the 
continent,  that  they  present  few  differences,  but  that  several 
are  met  with  if  we  turn  to  the  translations  of  young  man, 
old  man,  old  woman,  baby,  &c.  Another  term  which  differs 
occasionally  in  these  dialects  is  woman. 


No.  61.— WONOKA. 

Kangaroo    - 

-  koodla. 

Hand  - 

-  mura. 

Opossum      - 

-  peelda. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  alpilya  tura. 

Tame  dog    - 
WUd  dog    - 
Emu   - 
Black  duck  - 
Wood  duck- 
Pelican 

-  wilka. 

• 

-  warrachie. 

-  ngoorrir. 

-  burndoo. 

3  Blacks      • 
One     - 
Two    - 
Three  - 
Pour   - 

-  oolparrie  tura. 

-  oobmana. 

-  alpilya. 

-  oolparrie. 

-  alpilya- alpilya 

Laughing  jackass 

Father 

-  papie. 

Native  companion 

Mother 

-  ngummie. 

White  cockatoo 

-  woolaki. 

Sister-Elder 

-  yacka. 

Crow  - 
Swan  - 

-  worcala. 

-  cootee. 

„     Younger 
Brother-Elder 

-  yacka. 

-  ngemga. 

Egg     - 

Track  of  a  foot 
Eish    - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 

-  peepee. 

-  erdna  mulka. 
kooyea. 

„       Younger  ngemga. 
A  young  man      -  ngumgarrie. 
An  old  man         -  poolka. 
An  old  woman    -  ngumbatoha. 

Mosquito     - 

-  gooleyrr. 

A  baby 

-  yackardie. 

Fly    - 

Snake  - 
The  Blacks  - 
A  Blackfellow 

-  wobna. 

-  tura. 

-  tura. 

A  White  man 
Children 
Head  - 

-  akartee. 

A  Black  woman 

-  artoo. 

Eye     - 

-  mena. 

Nose   -        - 

-  moodlaormudla. 

Ear     - 

■■  urie. 

WONOKA. 

la! 

No.  61. — WoNOKA — continued. 

Mouth 

-  ye-i-ya. 

Boomerang - 

- 

Teeth  - 

-  eera. 

Hill     -       - 

- 

Hair  of  the  heac 

-  parpardlawichie. 

Wood- 

-  widte. 

Beard  - 

-  ngooraka. 

Stone  - 

-  kadne. 

Thunder     - 

-  kamdoo,  eum- 

Camp  - 

-  kemgoo. 

doo. 

Yes     - 

-  na. 

Grass  - 

-  mooroo. 

No      - 

-  mukka. 

Tongue 

-  yerlie. 

Stomach 

-  pombee. 

I         -       - 

-  ngie. 

Breasts 

-  ngaimna. 

You    -        - 

- 

Thigh 

-  auti. 

Bark   - 

-  bidithi. 

Foot   - 

-  eedna, 

Good  - 

-  meringola. 

Bone  - 

-  walpo. 

Bad     - 

-  bidnyaoa. 

Blood  - 

-  kooroo. 

Sweet  - 

-  mooamurda. 

Skin   - 

-  peyee. 

Food   - 

-  mia,  myee. 

Fat     - 

-  mume. 

Hungry 

-  emba. 

Bowels 

-  ngumbie. 

Thirsty       - 

-  yarbe. 

Excrement  - 

-  koodtiai. 

War-spear  - 

-  weenda. 

Eat     - 

-  arlgouda. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  wadne. 

Sleep  - 

-  meya. 

Wommera  - 

-  oomera. 

Drink 

-  yappurda. 

Shield 

-  eparoo. 

Walk  - 

-  knookurnda. 

Tomahawk  - 

- 

See      - 

-  nacoo. 

Canoe  - 

- 

Sit      - 

-  yeounda. 

Svm     - 

-  yemdoo. 

Yesterday  - 

-  arlimga. 

Moon  - 

-  peera. 

To-day 

-  yata. 

Star    - 

-  poordla. 

To-morrow  - 

-  wichumdoo. 

Light  - 

-  peerka. 

Where    are 

the    wanunga  tura  ? 

Dark  - 

-  weelja. 

Blacks? 

Cold   - 

-  manja. 

I  don't  know 

-  yacoodla. 

Heat  - 

-  warlda. 

Day    - 

Plenty 

-  ngarda-oortoo. 

Night-        - 

-  weelja. 

Big      -       - 

-  yoonga. 

Fire    - 

-  erdla. 

Little  - 

-  prednappa. 

Water 

-  owir. 

Dead  - 

-  endathe. 

Smoke 

-  booyoo. 

By-and-by  - 

-  wambi. 

Ground 

-  yardda. 

Come  on 

-  yenaka. 

Wind-        - 

-  warrie. 

Milk   - 

. 

Rain    - 

-  waparra. 

Baglehawk  - 

- 

God     - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife  - 

. 

126 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  62.— EASTEEN  SHOEE  OF  LAKE  T0EEEN8. 

By  W.  M.  Gbebn,  Esq. 

The  following  vocabulary,  which  differs  but  little  from  the 
last,  was  sent  to  me  by  Mr.  W.  M.  Green,  who  informs  me 
that  the  Kortabina  tribe  dwells  on  the  eastern  shore  of 
Lake  Torrens.  In  it,  mother,  breasts,  and  milk  are  all 
expressed  by  the  single  term  ngummie.  Mr.  Green  gives 
me  the  following  additional  words: — 


Teal    - 

-  marrar. 

Sandhill 

poomba. 

Diver 

-  weoopa. 

Green  - 

kadleka. 

Curlew 
Roek-wallaby 
Kangaroo-rat 
Frog    -        - 

-  weeloo. 
■  karndo. 

-  oolka,  boorachie. 

-  ngema. 

White 
Red     - 
Black  - 

yarldoo. 
yalthnohie. 
peimba  or  blow 
am. 

Blowfly 
Lame  - 
Blind  - 

Morning  star 

-  yappo. 

-  teedna-ourrica. 

-  mena-mela. 

-  wildoo  kyleela  = 

eagles  two. 

-  buckala. 

Trousers 
Evil  night  spirit 
Demon 
Southern  Cross 

cundeepetha. 
wangabbie. 
marrownya. 
■  mamburdi. 

Frost  - 

Jupiter 

■  boordlaketha. 

Young 

-  buppa. 

Uncle  - 

ngoomamoo. 

A  gentle  wind 

-  warree  buppa  = 

Aunt   - 

-  ngapperla. 

witid  young. 

Cousin 

-  mangurti. 

A  dust  storm 

-  poota. 

Boy   of   about 

boldo. 

Lightning    - 

■  wirra-wirra. 

three  years  old 

Crooked 

-  wirra-wirra. 

Boy  of  about  six 

yackerty. 

Rainbow 

■  ooranye. 

years  old 

Clouds 

-  marpenya. 

Female  infant 

kirtigny. 

Cloudless     - 

-  keeree. 

Girl  of  six  years 

ummeta. 

EASTERN   SHORE    OF   LAKE   TORRENS. 


127 


Besides  individual  names  and  appellations  which  depend 
on  age,  parents  in  this  tribe  distinguish  their  children  as 
foUows: — 


1st  son 
2nd  „ 
3rd  „ 
4th  „ 
5th  „ 

Ist  daughter 
2nd       „ 
3rd        „ 
4th        „ 
5th        „ 


warrea. 

moonea. 

beerea. 

ngarlia. 

melia. 
•  moonaroa. 

warngootoo. 

warreka. 
■  kerranye, 

murooka. 


Pine-tree     - 
Large  sort  of  pig's 

laoe 
Where  (are  you) 

going? 
Be  gone 
Go  that  way 
Go  back  again     - 
Isthere(any)water 

in  the  country  ? 


peimba. 
cullimillinoo. 

wantha   ngook- 

anya? 
ngookaka. 
ngooka  warra. 
berratokaka. 
Kowie  yeringa 

wandinga  ? 


128 


THE   AUSTRALIAN  RACE : 


No.  62.— EASTERN  SHORE  OP  LAKE  TORRENS. 


BtW.  M.  Geebn,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

koodla. 

Hand  - 

- 

Opoasmn 

peedla. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  kylpela  tura. 

Tame  dog    - 

wilka. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  coolpara  tura. 

Wild  dog     - 

One     - 

-  koopmana. 

Emu    - 

warrachie. 

Two    - 

-  kylepela. 

Black  duck  - 

tanthunnie. 

Three  - 

-  koolparoo. 

Wood  duck- 

moondon-ngarie. 

Four   - 

-  merndoona-mern- 

Pelican 

weedley. 

Laughing  jackass 

doona. 

Native  companioi 

L 

Father 

-  pappil. 

White  cockatoo  - 

younganna. 

Mother 

-  ngummie. 

Crow  - 

woooalla. 

Sister-Elder 

- 

Swan  - 

oootee. 

,,      Younger 

Egg     -        -        - 

Brother-Elder 

- 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

„        Younger 

Fish    -        - 

A  young  man 

-  meroo. 

Lobster 

An  old  man 

-  poolka. 

Crayfish 

An  old  woman 

-  yowrie. 

Mosquito     ■■ 
Fly     - 

gooley-gooley. 
buppa. 

A  baby 

-  markutck. 

Snake  - 

A  White  man 

-  goodenue. 

The  Blacks  - 

tura. 

Children 

-  ngarlanna. 

A  Blaokfellow     ■ 

tura. 

Head  - 

-  karkata-pepa. 

A  Black  woman  - 

carroo. 

Eye,  - 

-  mena. 

Nose   - 

mootla. 

Bar     - 

-  urie. 

EASTERN   SHORE   OF   LAKE   TORRENS.              12 

No.  62. 

— EASTEKN  SHOliE   OF 

Lake  Tokbens- 

—continued. 

Mouth 

-  thied. 

Boomerang  - 

-  wadna. 

Teeth  - 

-  eera. 

Hill     - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head   parpardla                | 

Wood 

-  kudli. 

wiichie. 

Stone  - 

-  kudyna,  undya 

Beard  - 

-  ngemka. 

Camp  - 

-  kemgoo. 

Thunder     - 

-  kamdoo. 

Yes     - 

-  kowoona. 

Grass  - 

- 

No       - 

-  raurdla. 

Tongue 

-  yarlie. 

I 

-  ngie. 

Stomach      - 

-  pombey. 

You    - 

-  neena. 

Breasts 

-  ngummie. 

Bark  - 

-  coolara. 

Thigh 

-  kundee,  walpo. 

Good  - 

-  merneta. 

Foot    - 

-  teedna. 

Bone  - 

-  warlpoo. 

Bad     - 

- 

Blood  - 

-  certingey. 

Sweet  - 

-  merneta. 

Skin   - 

-  pee,  peltha. 

Food  - 

-  mie. 

Fat     - 

-  murnee. 

Hungry 

-  kernba. 

Bowels 

-  ngumbie. 

Thirsty 

-  therrie. 

Excrement  - 

-  koodna. 

Eat     - 

-  arlgoonda. 

War-spear  - 

-  weenda, 

Sleep  - 

-  wandeta. 

Reed-spear  - 

- 

Drink  - 

-  thuppanda. 

Throwing-sticli 
Shield 

-  meetla. 

-  moodlawaroo. 

Walk  - 

-  ngookunda. 

Tomahawk 

-  boomeroo. 

See     - 

-  mena. 

Canoe 

Sit      •• 

-  teekunda. 

Sun     - 

-  tintoo. 

Yesterday  - 

-  weeljara. 

Moon  - 

-  peera. 

To-day 

-  yerta. 

Star    - 

-  poordley. 

To-morrow  - 

-  weeljar weelja 

Light  - 

-  perka. 

Where    are    the    wantha  tura  ? 

Dark  - 

-  weelja. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    -       - 

-  beeree. 

I  don't  know 

-  whyu. 

Heat  - 

-  wardla. 

Plenty 

-  ngarlana. 

Day    - 

-  biohu. 

Big     - 

-  manawarta. 

Night 

-  weelja. 

Little  - 

-  wundey. 

Fire    - 

-  erdla. 

Water 

-  kowi. 

Dead  - 

-  pardluuda. 

Smoke 

-  booyoo. 

By-and-by 

-  corrie. 

Ground 

-  yardarra. 

Come  on 

-  kow-ii-e. 

Wind  - 

-  warrie. 

Milk  -        - 

-  ngummie. 

Rain    - 

-  kowi. 

Eaglehawk 

-  wildoo. 

God     - 

- 

WUd  turkey 

-  wirdla. 

Ghosts 

-  uuga  matha(?) 

Wife   - 

- 

VOL.    II. 

I 

130 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  63.— GAWLER  RANGE. 


By  Mr.  A.  D.  Sawees. 


Kangaroo    - 

kurdloo. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opoasum 

pilla  or  pillpa 

2  Blacks      - 

-  kilbelly  ura 

Tame  dog    - 

wilka. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  koolberri  ura 

Wild  dog    - 

coortnini. 

Emu    - 

warradi. 

One     - 

-  goo-o-mana. 

Black  duck  - 

maurra. 

Two    - 

-  kilbelly. 

Wood  duck  - 

Three  - 

-  koolberri. 

Pelican        - 

Pour   - 

-  nulla. 

Laughing  jackass 

Father 

-  papi. 

Native  companioi] 
White  cockatoo 

yomgona. 

Mother 

-  ngami. 

Crow  - 

wongara. 

Sister-Elder 

-  yakka. 

Swan  - 

kooti. 

„      Younger 

- 

Egg     -        -        - 

peppi. 

Brother-Elder 

-  yunga. 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

tidni  moonga. 

„          Younger 

Pish     - 

kooya. 

A  young  man 

-  ooltapa. 

Lobster 

An  old  man 

-  meatta. 

Crayfish 

An  old  woman 

-  oodlalli. 

Mosquito     - 

Fly      - 

yoombara, 

kud- 

A  baby 

-  poolyoo. 

lugi. 
wapma. 

A  White  man 

- 

Snake 

Children 

-  kycherri. 

The  Blacks  - 

ura. 

Head  - 

-  kaka. 

A  Blackfellow     - 

ura. 

Eye     - 

-  meeua. 

A  Black  woman  - 

balara. 

Ear     - 

-  euri,  uri,  or 

Nose    - 

moodla. 

yoori. 

GAWLBR   RANGE. 


131 


No.  63.— Gawleb  Ba'sge— continued. 


Mouth 

-ya. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

-  ieera. 

Hill     - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head-  koolda. 

Wood  - 

-  wumdoo. 

Beard - 

-  umka. 

Stone  - 

-  kytmya. 

Thunder     - 

-  koorunna. 

Camp  - 

-  kumgoo. 

wongntta. 

Yes     -       - 

-  uh-uh. 

Grass  -    ,    - 

-  kurra,  buree. 

No      -       - 

-  mukka. 

Tongue 

-  yarn. 

I         -       - 

-  ngiee. 

Stomach 

-  wurma. 

You    - 

-  nginai. 

Breasts 

-  uumma. 

Bark  - 

-  patta. 

Thigh - 

-  weeta. 

Foot    - 

-  tidni. 

Good  - 

-  munjeri. 

Bone  - 

-  wallpoo. 

Bad     - 

-  nunko. 

Blood  - 

-  kurrinji. 

Sweet  - 

-  ithleta. 

Skin    - 

-  pee. 

Food   - 

-  mii. 

Fat     - 

-  murini. 

Hungry 

-  kumpa. 

Bowels 

■  bambi. 

Thirsty 

-  kow-yanbitti. 

Excrement  - 

-  kurrta. 

Eat     - 

-  kurnba. 

War-spear  - 

-  kaia. 

Sleep  - 

-  mia. 

Reed-spear  - 
Wommera  - 

-  midla. 

Drink 

-  kowyappa. 

Shield 

-  yalkoota. 

Walk  - 

-  cokita. 

Tomahawk 

-  kundi. 

See      - 

-  nakoota. 

Canoe  - 

-  yoota. 

Sit      -        - 

-  chikatta. 

Sun     - 

-  uno. 

Yesterday  - 

-  wilcherra. 

Moon  - 

-  biara. 

To  day 

- 

Star    - 

-  boordli. 

To-morrow  -- 

-  muldarroo. 

Light  - 

-  wuUara. 

Where    are 

the   witha  kootyoo 

Dark  - 

-  mullti. 

Blacks  ? 

ura? 

Cold    - 

-  pialla. 

I  don't  know 

-  yakootloo. 

Heat  - 

-  pooliji. 

Plenty 

-  minna. 

Day    - 

Night-       - 

-  yattunyarro. 

-  muUdi. 

Big     -        - 

-  minundoo. 

Fire     - 

-  kurdla. 

Little  - 

-  boolyoo. 

Water 

-  kow. 

Dead  -        - 

-  padloo. 

Smoke 

-  kurdla-booioo. 

By-and-by  - 

-  yanyi. 

Ground 

-  yukarra. 

Come  on 

-  burtni. 

Wind  - 

-  warri. 

Milk   - 

- 

Rain    - 

-  kooruna. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God    .        - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

-  goodnee. 

Wife  - 

_ 

132 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No. 

63.— Gawler  Range.— Additional  Wobds. 

Red  kangaroo 

-  koordloo. 

Eyebrow      - 

-  pikkoo. 

Black  kangaroo 

-  warroo. 

Forehead     - 

-  uma. 

Rock-wallaby 

-  kunoo. 

Cheek-     ,  - 

-  ootoo. 

Pigeon 
Curlew 
Native  cat  - 
Yellow  snake 
Black  snake 
Carpet  snake 
Seven  - 

-  murnbi. 

-  wiloo. 

-  gedna. 

-  wiparoo. 

-  womgo. 

-  waranbini. 

-  merna. 

Nail     - 
Wrist  - 
Elbow - 
Back   - 
Knee  - 
Shoulder     - 

-  perri. 

-  urndoo. 

-  mungoo. 

-  yardtia. 

-  borra. 

-  bilberri. 

Eight  - 

-  minnawutha. 

Neck  - 

-  moorni. 

Nine    - 

-  koortiUyi, 

Summer 

-  pokurra. 

Ten     -        - 

-  koorijuno. 

Winter 

-  goorilli. 

Southern  Cross 

-  woUiberri. 

Uncle  - 

-  ummana 

Nostril 

-  moodla  upa. 

Aunt   - 

-  ummari. 

Lip 

-  ngimi. 

Cousin 

-  winja. 

The  names  of  men  and  women  which  are  also  often  the 
names  of  waterholes  in  the  Gawler  Range : — 

Men :  Milta,  Mooni,  Yimbarro,  Mamilti. 
Women:  Mattoodni,  Koonda,  UpatilU'. 


No.  64.— MAEAOHOWIE. 

By  Harry  L.  Beddomb,  Esq. 

The  following  vocabulary  was  drawn  up  by  Harry  L. 
Beddome,  Esq.,  who  forwarded  it  to  me  through  the  editor 
of  the  South  Australian  Register,  who  had  kindly  pubUshed 
a  letter  of  mine  on  the  subject  of  the  native  languages.    Mr. 


MARACHOWIE. 


133 


Beddome  informs  me  that  he  has  given  the  vowels  gener- 
ally the  value  which  they  bear  in  Italian.  He  adds — "  The 
words  which  I  have  spelt  with  lye  might  be  more  accurately 
rendered  with  gli^  if  pronounced  ci  Vltalienne.  Where  I  have 
spelt  words  with  three  r's,  it  is  to  show  how  very  strongly 
they  are  rolled ;  quite  as  strongly  as  in  parts  of  France," 
Mr.  Beddome  notices  that  all  the  tribes  in  the  neighbourhood 
have  a  word  for  devil.  Many  words  in  this  vocabulary  are 
found  at  Gawler  Eange  and  Port  Lincoln. 


No.  64.— Mabachowie.— Additionai  Woeds. 


My     - 

-  artu. 

Little  boy    - 

-  marailye. 

Uncle  - 

-  kanye. 

Finger-nails 

-  murra-bede. 

Swim- 

-  albutta. 

Wet    - 

munla. 

Bite     - 

-  biteyena. 

Lips    - 

-  nymnyee. 

Cross  - 

-  botcha. 

A  lie   -        - 

-  orra. 

Very  hot 

.  bookara. 

To  tell  a  lie 

-  orra  wonga. 

Very  cold 

-  byala. 

Knee  - 

-  poora. 

A  boil  - 

-  bugroo. 

Creek  - 

-  paree. 

To  die  - 

-  badleto. 

To  kick 

-  palda-thgun 

Parrots 

-  dgeeda. 

Ankle - 

-  pardla. 

Tail     - 

-  dginda. 

Dust   - 

-  poorba. 

Trousers 

-  kantie-balda. 

Meat  - 

-  paroo. 

Armpit 

-  kapura. 

Truth— yes 

-  tookoo.     . 

WaUaby 

-  karndoo. 

Cut     - 

-  tukut. 

Five    - 

-  karpo. 

Kiss    - 

-  tarpanie. 

TokiU 

■  koonda. 

Body  - 

-  ubo. 

Little  girl 

-  katailye. 

To  run 

-  ummutta. 

Lice    - 

-  kooloo. 

To  speak     • 

-  wonga. 

Country 

-  kadma. 

Ant     - 

-  wEepa. 

Son     - 

-  kutche. 

Forehead     - 

-  waa. 

Devil  ■ 

-  munnunnunna. 

Gum-tree     - 

-  wirra. 

SweetheartjFemale  mudla. 

Jealous — angry 

■  woUa. 

)) 

Male    mudye. 

Cloud  - 

-  wera. 

Dry     . 

-  moola. 

Cousin 

-  wingdya. 

Shade  - . 

-•madlee. 

Lie  down    - 

-  wannetie. 

Knuckles 
Hat     - 

-  mookoo. 

Give  (me)    - 

-  yiingo. 

-  moona. 

Whirlwind  - 

-  yeroo. 

134 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE; 


No.  64.— MARACHOWIE. 


■By  H.  L.  Beddomb,  Esq. 


Kangaroo  - 
Opossum 
Tame  dog  - 
Wild  dog  - 
Emu  -  -  - 
Black  duck  - 
Wood  duck- 
Pelioan 

Laughing  jackass 
Native  companion 
White  cockatoo  - 
Crow 
Swan 

Egg  -        - 

Track  of  a  foot    - 
Fish    -        - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito    - 
Ely      -        -        - 
Snake  - 
The  Blacks  - 
A  Blackfellow     - 
A  Black  woman  - 
Nose  - 


coordloo. 

wilga. 
coppa. 
karlye. 


wongala, 
peepee. 


koioloro. 
yumbera. 
juno,  wabna. 

nanga,  ura. 

moodla. 


Hand  - 

-  moorra. 

2  Blacks      - 

3  Blacks      - 

One     - 

-  cooma. 

Two    - 

-  cootera. 

Three  - 

-  murra. 

Four   - 

-  minna  (many). 

Father 

-  mumma,  papee 

Mother 

-  nammie,  weea. 

Sister-Elder 

- 

,,     Younger 

- 

Brother-Elder 

-  murree. 

„          Younger  yunga. 

A  young  man 

- 

An  old  man 

- 

An  old  woman 

- 

A  baby 

- 

A  White  man 

-  coopa. 

Children      - 

- 

Head  - 

-  kaka.     , 

Eye     -        - 

-  meue. 

Ear      - 

-  urii. 

MARACHOWIE. 

13 

No.  64. 

— Mabachowie — contimied. 

Mouth 

- 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

-  eera. 

Hill     - 

-  burnda,  kadna. 

Hair  of  the  head  -  manga. 

Wood  -        - 

-  cudla. 

Beard  - 

-  anga, 

Stone  - 

-  kydwa. 

Thunder      - 

- 

Camp  - 

- 

Grass  - 

-  boolca. 

Yes     -        - 

-  ngamye. 

Tongue 

-  talanye. 

No       - 

-  mukka. 

Stomach 

-  nyeeree. 

I 

- 

Breasts 

-  eebe. 

You     - 

. 

Thigh  - 

-  kantie. 

Bark   - 

- 

Foot    - 

-  yedna. 

Good  - 

-  munyeri. 

Bone   - 

- 

Bad     - 

-  meela,  minga. 

Blood  - 

-  karrinye. 

Sweet  - 

- 

Skin    - 

-  balda. 

Eood   - 

-  mar,  maii. 

Eat     - 
Bowela 
Excrement  - 
War-spear  - 
Eeed-spear  - 
Throwiag-stick 
Shield-        - 

- 

Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat    .- 
Sleep  - 
Drink - 
Walk  - 

-  yangoo. 

-  ookutta,  wimiin 

Tomahawk  - 

- 

iunie. 

Canoe  - 

- 

See      - 

- 

Sun     - 

-  dgindoo. 

Sit       - 

-  eecutta. 

Moon  - 

-  peera. 

Yesterday   - 

- 

Star     -       - 

-  kalka,  poordlee. 

To-day 

-  panye. 

Light  - 

- 

To-morrow  - 

-  maldooroo. 

Dark  - 

- 

Where     are 

the 

Cold    -        - 

- 

Blacks? 

Heat   - 

- 

I  don't  know 

- 

Day     - 

- 

Plenty 

- 

Night  - 

-  muldi. 

Big      -        - 

- 

Eire    - 

-  kalla,  cardla. 

Little  - 

- 

Water 

-  kowie,  kapie. 

Dead   - 

- 

Smoke 

-  pooyoo. 

By-and-by  - 

- 

Ground 

^ 

Come  on 

- 

Wind  -        - 

- 

Milk   - 

- 

Rain    - 

-  kapie. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  wolye. 

God    - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

-  walla. 

Ghosts 

. 

Wife   -        - 

- 

136  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No,  65.— MOUNT  REMAEKABLE. 

By  J.  C.  Valentine,  Esq. 

The  following  vocabulary  and  account  of  tlie  Doora  tribe 
were  forwarded  to  me  by  J.  0.  Valentine,  Esq.,  of  Adelaide, 
who  received  them  from  a  gentleman  well  acquainted  with 
the  tribe.  Unfortunately,  the  manuscript  is  so  indistinct  as 
to  leave  several  words  in  the  vocabulary  doubtful.  Mr. 
Valentine's  informant  begins  by  pointing  out  that  the  lands 
of  the  Doora  were  first  occupied  by  the  Whites  in  1849 
or  thereabouts,  the  area  of  their  country  being  thirty  miles 
by  thirty,  or  900  square  miles,  the  tribe,  it  is  thought, 
numbering  between  fifty  and  one  hundred  souls.  Of  these 
there  are  alive  at  present  (1880)  three  men  and  five 
women,  the  major  portion  of  the  deaths  being  attributed 
to  phthisis. 

The  weapons  and  implements  of  the  Doora  (whose  neigh- 
bours were  the  Bungeha  and  Manuley  tribes)  are  those  we 
commonly  meet  with,  including  the  wommera  and  returning 
boomerang.  "When  the  Whites  first  knew  the  tribe  several 
of  its  members  were  marked  with  small-pox,  which  was  called 
mingi,  of  which  disease  some  of  them  had  died'  twenty 
years  before.  One  of  the  ceremonies  by  which  the  status  of 
young  man  was  reached  was  circumcision.  This  tribe 
scarred  the  chest,  arms,  and  back ;  the  corroboree  was  in  use ; 
the  knocking  out  of  teeth  was  not  practised,  and  marriage 
took  place  within  the  tribe,  but  not  between  near  relations. 


MOUNT   REMARKABLE.  137 

Cousins  were  not  allowed  to  marry.  My  informant  adds 
that  tlie  tribe  believed  in  the  existence  of  God,  but  furnishes 
no  particulars ;  the  word  even  is  not  translated.  To  my 
mind  no  satisfactory  evidence  of  an  original  belief  in  God 
on  the  part  of  our  Blacks  has  yet  been  adduced. 


138 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  65.— MOUNT  REMARKABLE. 


By  J.  C.  Vaientine,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  kudla. 

Opossum      - 

-  bilda. 

Tame  dog   - 

-  gardley. 

Wild  dog    - 

-  quana. 

Emu   - 

-  karrie. 

Black  duck 

-  manou. 

Wood  duck 

-  neirey. 

PeUcau 

-  mamunou. 

Laughing  jackass  picky. 

Native  companion 

White  cockatoo 

-  quodockee. 

Crow  - 

-  walkuUa. 

Swan  - 

- 

Egg     -        - 

-  mooka. 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  thinda. 

Fish    - 

-  queea. 

Lobster 

-  wolkoo. 

Crayfish 

Mosquito     - 

-  nowwiue. 

Ely     -       - 

-  papou. 

Snake  - 

-  worma. 

The  Blacks - 

-  doura. 

A  Blackfellow 

A  Black  woma,Ti 

Nose  - 

-  mudla. 

Hand  - 

-  mirra. 

2  Blacks      - 

- 

3  Blacks      - 

- 

One     - 

-  kouman. 

Two    - 

-  boodUna. 

Three  - 

mungweei 

Four   - 

- 

Father 

-  ludlaw. 

Mother 

-  mungier. 

Sister-Elder 

-  yukka. 

,,      Younger 

-  bimya. 

Brother-Elder 

-  ounga. 

,,        Younger  Mmya. 

A  young  man 

-  beela. 

An  old  man 

-  botta. 

An  old  woman 

-  namature. 

A  baby 

-  wolkalko. 

A  White  man 

-  bingera. 

Children      - 

-  wolkalko. 

Head  - 

-  kokuUi. 

Eye     - 

-  mina. 

Ear     - 

■  uree. 

MOUNT   REMARKABLE. 


139 


No.  65. — Mount  Remaekable — continued. 


Mouth 

-  targa. 

Teeth  - 

-  yeera. 

Hair  of  the  head  -  woolya. 

Beard  - 

-  mulda. 

Thunder      - 

-  kandou. 

Grass  - 

-  toota. 

Tongue 

-  yarlee. 

Stomach 

-  yookoo. 

Breasts 

-  koondoo. 

Thigh-        - 

-  mattee. 

Foot   - 

-  tidna. 

Bone   - 

-  wipoo. 

Blood  - 

-  garoo. 

Skin    - 

-  bertpa.  . 

Fat     - 

-  monee. 

Bowels 

-  murkinya; 

Excrement  -  . 

-  -kudna. 

War- spear  - 

-  winda. 

Reed- spear  - 

-  weeboo-winda 

Throwing- stick 

-  wimee. 

Shield-        - 

-  womera. 

Tomahawk  - 

- 

Canoe  - 

-  youkou. 

Sun     - 

-  tindoo. 

Moon  - 

-  biar. 

Star    - 

-  bundi. 

Light  - 

-  tindoo. 

Dark  - 

-  weeldya. 

Cold    -        - 

-  mineya. 

Heat   - 

-  woldya. 

Day    - 

-  tindou. 

Night  -        - 

-  weeldya. 

Fire     - 

-  kadla. 

Water 

-  kowie. 

Smoke 

-  booyoo. 

Ground 

-  yeltar. 

Wind  - 

-  warrie. 

Rain   -       - 

-  muckra. 

God     -  ■     - 

- 

Ghosts 

-  kunyou. 

Boomerang  - 

-  worna. 

Hill     - 

-  turtoo. 

Wood  - 

- 

Stone  - 

-  kanya. 

Camp  - 

-  wurley. 

Yes      - 

-  nee. 

No      - 

-  minbugoo. 

I-       -       - 

-  nie. 

You    - 

-  neea. 

Bark  -        - 

- 

Good  - 

-  docknee. 

Bad     - 

-  mornetu. 

Sweet  - 

-  meer. 

Food  - 

-  mieh. 

Hungry 

-  tindaget. 

Thirsty 

-  moorlight. 

Bat     - 

-  meerkutcha 

Sleep  - 

- 

Drink - 

-  godliger. 

Walk  -        - 

-  mimtchter. 

See      - 

-  nakutohar. 

Sit      - 

-  ticka. 

Yesterday  - 

-  "bokilou. 

To  day 

-  yatta. 

To-morrow  - 

-  tokilou. 

Where    are 

the 

Blacks  ? 

I  don't  know 

-  nang-y-ama 

Plenty 

- 

Big      -        - 

-  beena. 

Little  - 

-  meekappa. 

Dead  - 

-  tindeitcha. 

By-and-by  - 

-  yangaree. 

Come  on 

-  gubbi. 

Milk   - 

-  namee. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  wildou. 

Wild  turkey 

-  walla. 

Wife   -    .     - 

—  kattou. 

140 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE 


No.  66.— PORT  PIRIE,  FORTY  MILES  EAST  OF. 
By  Me.  S.  Le  Bexjn. 


Kangaroo    - 

Opossum 

Tame  dog    - 

Wild  dog     - 

Emu  -        -  karde. 

Black  duck  -        -  nurry. 

Wood  duck 

Pelican 

Laughing  jackass 

Native  companion    . 

White  cockatoo  - 

Crow  - 

Swan  - 

Egg     - 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

Fish    -        - 

Lobster 

Crayfish 

Mosquito     - 

Fly      -        -        - 

Snake 

The  Blacks  - 

A  Blaokf ellow     - 

A  Black  woman  - 

Nose    -        -        -  mudler. 


Hand  - 

-  murra. 

2  Blacks      - 

- 

3  Blacks      - 

- 

One     - 

-  koomunti 

Two     - 

-  poodlina. 

Three - 

-  munguina 

Four    - 

-  terralina. 

Father 

- 

Mother 

- 

Sister-Elder 

- 

„      Younger 

- 

Brother-Elder 

- 

, ,         Younger 

A  young  man 

-  pernappa. 

An  old  man 

-  bookucka. 

An  old  woman 

-  amaja. 

A  baby 

- 

A  White  man 

-  koonyoo. 

Children 

- 

Head 

-  kockerti. 

Eye      - 

-  minnoo. 

Ear      - 

-  urri. 

PORT   PIRIE,    rORTY   MILES   EAST   OP. 


141 


No.  66. — Port  PmiE — continued. 


Mouth 

Teeth  - 

Hair  of  the  head  - 

Beard  - 

Thunder 

Grass  - 

Tongue 

Stomach 

Breasts 

Thigh  -        -        -  terko. 

Foot    - 

Bone   - 

Blood  - 

Skin    - 

Fat     - 

Bowels 

Excrement  -        -  kudna. 

War-spear  - 

Reed-spear  - 

Throwing-stiok    - 

Shield - 

Tomahawk  - 

Canoe  - 

Sun     - 

Moon  -        -        -  perrie 

Star     - 

Light  - 

Dark  - 

Cold    - 

Heat   - 

Day     - 

Night  - 

Fire     -        -        -  kurreler. 

Water         -        -  kowi. 

Smoke 

Ground 

Wind  - 

Rain    - 

God     - 

Ghosts 


Boomerang  - 

- 

Hill     - 

Wood  - 

- 

Stone  - 

- 

Gamp  - 

- 

Yes      - 

-  nee. 

No      - 

-  murlunty. 

I 

- 

You     - 

- 

Bark   - 

Good  - 

-  thookoori. 

Bad     - 

-  wadlucki. 

Sweet  - 

- 

Food  - 

-  maiyi. 

Hungry 

- 

Thirsty 

- 

Bat      - 

-  arkoonooa. 

Sleep  - 

-  wundiungy 

Drink  - 

Walk  - 

- 

See      - 

- 

Sit 

-  tekunny. 

Yesterday   - 

- 

To-day 

- 

To-morrow  - 

- 

Where  are  the 

Blacks? 

I  don't  know 

- 

Plenty- 

- 

Big      - 

- 

Little  - 

- 

Dead   - 

- 

By-and-by  - 

- 

Come  on 

-  kareung. 

Milk    - 

- 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

Wife   - 

- 

142 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  66. — PoRw  PmiB. — Additional  Words. 
Name  of  the  tribe — Oanowie. 


North  - 

-  kowerta. 

Finger-nails 

-  perringi. 

South  - 

-  patputta. 

Elbow 

-  thingy. 

East    - 

-  morritta. 

Knee   - 

-  mutta. 

West  - 

-  wongitta. 

Meat  - 

-  bardbo. 

Sea      - 

-  bookooroorer. 

Twine  - 

-  thildeer. 

River  - 

-  kurry. 

Kangaroo-rat 

-  bookurra 

Reeds  - 

-  wirto. 

Bandicoot    - 

-  mutty. 

Whiskers     - 

-  yunga. 

Denomination  of  Children. 

Male.  Female. 


1st  born     - 

berrier 

kartunga. 

2nd  „        - 

warrier 

warretoo. 

3rd   „ 

coonooa 

coonertoo. 

4th  „        - 

— 

— 

5th   „       - 

murria 

munertoo. 

6th  „ 

_ 

mnrretoot 

7th  „       - 

milla  - 

,  milletoo. 

In  asking  for  anytMng,  Mr.  Le  Brun  informs  me  that 
the  word  nee  =  yes  is  added  to  the  substantive,  as — 


Bardoo-nee 
Maiyi-hee 


give  me  meat, 
give  me  food. 


YORKE'S    PENINSULA,   SOUTH   AUSTRALIA.  143 


No.    67.— YORKE'S    PENINSULA,     SOUTH 
AUSTRALIA. 

By  the  Rbvd.  Wilhelm  Kuhn  and  W.  Fowler,  Esq. 

Of  the  language  of  the  tribe  which  inhabits  Yorke's 
Peninsula  I  have  received  the  following  specimen  (which 
includes  some  additional  words)  from  the  Revd.  Wilhelm 
Kiihn.  It  has  many  telrms  in  use  at  Mount  Serle,  Beltana, 
and  other  places.  Information  concerning  this  tribe  has 
also  reached  me  from  Mr.  W.  Fowler  to  the  following 
effect : — 

Yorke's  Peninsula  in  South  Australia  (which  must  not 
be  confounded  with  Cape  York  Peninsula  in  the  north)  was 
first  occupied  by  the  Whites  in  1847  or  thereabouts,  but  the 
Blacks  relate  that  it  had  occasionally  been  visited  by  sealers 
prior  to  that  date.  In  1847,  Mr.  Fowler  believes  the  tribe 
numbered  some  600  persons,  but  that  it  was  reduced  to 
about  half  that  number  when  he  first  became  acquainted 
with  the  locality  in  1856.  In  1880,  the  date  of  Mr. 
Fowler's  writing  to  me,  the  tribe  numbered  less  than  100 
souls.  This  falling  off  in  number  he  attributes  chiefly  to 
debauchery,  infanticide,  and  to  venereal  diseases  which 
were  introduced  by  the  Whites.  The  maximum  duration  of 
human  life  in  the  tribe  of  Yorke's  Peninsula,  Mr.  Fowler 
estimates,  from  what  he  has  seen,  at  80  years.  Cloaks 
made  of  opossum  or  kangaroo  skins  are  worn  by  these 
Blacks.  Girls  deck  themselves  with  .  necklaces  made  of 
sea  shells.  Of  course  the  men  formerly  greased  their  skins 
when  they  could  obtain  fat  of  any  sort.  For  knives  they 
employed  shells  and  afterwards  glass ;  for  they  relate  that 
they  used  occasionally  to  find  bottles  on  the  beach  many 
years  before  the  Whites  came  to  reside  in  South  Australia. 
Their  weapons  were  rude  spears,  and  wooden  swords  five 
feet    long    and     slightly    curved;     the    boomerang    and 


144  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

wommera  were  unknown  amongst  them.  Occasionally  they 
baked  their  food  in  temporary  ovens.  Polygamy  was 
practised,  and  girls  became  wives  at  ten  years  of  age. 
iung  diseases  and  enlargement  of  the  liver  are  the 
maladies  most  prevalent  in  this  tribe.  A  few  years  ago 
scarlet-fever  and  measles  were  introduced,  and  killed 
many. 

The  males  of  this  tribe  are  admitted  to  the  privileges  of 
men,  or  made  young  men  as  the  term  is,  by  being  circum- 
cised ;  such  privileges  being  the  right  to  get  a  wife,  if  one 
can  be  obtained,  and  the  removal  of  a  portion  of  the 
restrictions  on  food.  When  the  time  for  the  administration 
of  this  rite  has  come,  the  men  seize  the  uncircumcised 
males  of  the  proper  age,  and  drive  the  women,  after  some 
show  of  resistance,  out  of  the  camp.  The  foreskin  is  then 
severed,  and,  it  is  asserted,  swallowed  by  the  youth's  father. 
This  tribe,  it  is  related,  believe  in  a  future  state,  and  that 
the  dead  go  to  the  west ;  to  the  country  whence  come  the 
cool  winds,  and  in  which  it  is  believed  there  is  always 
abundance  of  fat  fish.  Kangaroo  and  emu  are  speared  and 
also  taken  in  nets.  The  dead  are  frequently  buried  in  old 
wombat  holes. 

Mr.  Fowler  relates  the  following  as  one  of  the  modes 
of  fishing  in  this  tribe,  witnessed  by  himself.  A  good-sized 
fish  being  roasted,  and  tied  up  in  a  bundle  of  rushes,  is 
fastened  round  the  neck  of  a  strong  swimmer,  so  that  it 
hangs  down  his  back.  With  this  he  swims  out  to  sea  a 
mile  or  more,  and  then  returns  to  the  sandy  beach,  the 
roasted  fish  still  hanging  behind  him.  When  near  the 
shore,  the  swimmer  attaches  the  fish  to  a  spear  stuck  in 
the  sand,  where  the  water  is  about  three  feet  deep.  In  the 
meantime  the  men  have  got  ready  their  long  nets,  and 
the  shoal  of  fish,  as  soon  as  it  arrives  on  the  scent  of  this 
drag,  is  surrounded  and  taken,  Mr.  Fowler  says  that  he 
saw  an  enormous  quantity  of  schnapper  secured  in  this  way 
on  one  occasion.  It  is  a  mode  of  fishing  I  have  not  heard 
of  before. 


YORKE'S   PENINSULA,   SOUTH    AUSTRALIA. 


145 


In  the  AMitional  Words,  the  equivalents  for  boots  and 
blind  are  evidently  composite  words,  and  may  be  compared 
with  foot  and  eye  in  the  Common  Vocabulary.  It  may 
be  noticed  that  «?2W?2a  is  foot;  dinnabalta,  boots;  and  balta, 
coat. 


Blowfly 
Horsefly 
Stick   - 

■  duboora. 

-  dumboola. 

-  wowac. 

Horse  - 
Listen  - 
Hat      - 

nantoo. 

yooringooroo. 

caccaboonna. 

Meat  - 
Awake 

-  baroo. 

-  wondini. 

Upper  lip     - 
Under  lip    - 

tabarlpa. 
adbaroo. 

Another 
Bread  ■ 

-  gootchoo. 

-  miei. 

Lazy    - 
Knee   - 

idannie. 
mattoo. 

Branch 

Chest  (male's) 
Bum   - 
Boots  - 

-  wuddly. 

-  buttna. 

-  nairie. 

-  dinnabalta. 

Female  kangaroo 
Moustache  - 
Moonlight    - 
Mouse  - 

worvie. 

-  dabara  yanca. 
birrayirka. 

-  mantoo. 

Bury  - 
BuUd  - 

-  bernitebernite. 

-  tantooroo. 

More    - 
Mist    - 

-  gurridoo. 

-  maluna. 

Bag     - 
Beach  - 

-  marndicoo. 

-  worra. 

Neck    - 
North  - 

-  monooworta. 

-  karrana. 

Blind  - 

Coat    - 

-  minnadampa. 

-  balta. 

Net      - 
Kangaroo  net 

-  winna. 

-  mintie. 

Cry      - 
Cloud  - 
Dance  - 

-  moorkanoo. 

-  maccoo. 

-  currlbunguroo. 

Now    - 
Poor     - 

Exclamations 

■  gerrie. 

-  woUinoo. 

-  yakka  !    gerta! 

146 


THE   AUSTUALIAJSr   RACE: 


No.  67— YOEKE'S  PENINSULA. 


By  the  Revd.  Wilhblm  Kuhn. 


Kangaroo     - 

nantoo. 

Hand  - 

-  mirra. 

Opossum 

bilta. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  bulUe  niporie. 

Tame  dog    - 
Wilddog     - 
Emu    -        -        - 
Black  duck  - 

kadle. 

garrie. 
bulguna  arrie. 

3  Blacks 
One     - 
Two     - 

-  mangoore  niporie 

-  ariekoo, 

-  bum. 

Wood  duck 

woodla  arrie. 

Three  - 

-  mangoore. 

Pelican 

dananka,  wudlie. 

Four    - 

-  gerrie  buUi. 

Laughing  jackass 

Father 

-  tchela. 

Native  companion  diddidilga. 
White  cockatoo  -  agagala. 
Crow  -        -        -  gooa. 
Swan  -        -        -  guldyoo. 

Mother 
Sister-Elder 
„       Younger 

-  tcha. 

-  yackana. 

-  bunya. 

Egg     -        - 

mokka. 

Brother-Elder 

- 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

bultoo. 

,,          Younger  yuna. 

Fish     - 
Lobster 

guya. 
danibutcha. 

A  young  man 
An  old  man 

-  dingarra, 

-  balkagerlie. 

Crayfish 
Mosquito 
Fly      - 
Snake  - 

worronguna. 
-  goonintie. 
dababoo. 
worukoo. 

An  old  woman 

A  baby 

A  White  man 

-  balka  ankie. 

-  vocoacoo. 

-  bindirie  yerlie. 

The  Blacks  - 

niporie. 

Children 

-  guanetti. 

A  Blackfellow 

■  nipoo. 

Head  - 

-  kakka. 

A  Black  woman  ■ 

ankle. 

Eye     - 

-  mmna. 

Nose    - 

mudla. 

Ear      - 

-  daltie. 

YORKE'S   PENINSULA,  SOUTH   AUSTRALIA, 


147 


No.  67.— Yokkb's  'P^mmsTiLA— continued. 


Mouth 

-  dabara. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth - 

-  tea. 

Hill     - 

-  murdalpa. 

Hair  of  the  heac 

-  kakka  wilya. 

Wood  - 

-  woodla. 

Beard  - 

-  yanka. 

Stone  - 

-  bemta 

Thunder      - 

-  garta. 

Camp  - 

-  wodlee. 

Grass  - 

-  dutta. 

Yes     - 

-  nee. 

Tongue 

Stomach 

Breasts 

-  dallange. 

-  wonkie. 

-  ammie. 

No       -        - 
I- 

-  mana. 

-  ti. 

Thigh  - 
Foot    - 

-  gantee. 

-  didna. 

You    •• 
Bark    - 

-  ninni. 

-  garnica. 

Bone   - 

-  worlpoo. 

Good  - 

-  gurrana. 

Blood  - 

-  garroo. 

Bad     - 

-  wollinoo. 

Skin    - 

-  barlba. 

Sweet  - 

-  gurrana,  merto. 

Fat     - 

-  numnfa,  memie. 

Food  - 

-  datyoo. 

Bowels 

-  wolcharie. 

Hungry 

-  datyoorie. 

Excrement  - 

-  goodnarie. 

Thirsty 

-  kabitoha,    bad- 

War-spear  - 

-  durdla  winta. 

waich. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  giea. 

Eat      - 

-  argooroo. 

Wommera  or 

wiaroo. 

Sleep  - 

-  wondinie. 

throwing-stick 

Drink  - 

-  dabbanie. 

Shield 

-  muUabakka. 

Walk  - 

-  bommanie. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  balgarie. 

See      - 

-  nayoung. 

Canoe  - 

-  jnkkoo. 

Sit       - 

-  dikkanie. 

Sun     - 

-  tintoo. 

Yesterday  - 

-  bucciloo. 

Moon  - 

-  birra. 

To-day     •  - 

-  gerrie. 

Star     - 

-  burlie. 

Tomorrow  - 

-  dargerrie. 

Light  - 

-  gallira. 

Where     are 

the    niporie  wonna  ? 

Dark  - 

-  wiloha. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    -       - 

-  mamartoo. 

I  don't  know 

-  woUi  wompana. 

Heat  - 

-  wodoonabbie. 

Plenty 

-  durlooroo,  mirna 

Day     - 

-  gura. 

Big      - 

-  mirna. 

Night  - 

-  mallaboo. 

Little  - 

-  dookoody. 

Fire    - 

-  gurdla. 

Dead  - 

-  barluna. 

Water 

-  kabie. 

By-and-by  - 

-  ganenarlie. 

Smoke 

-  booyoo. 

Come  on 

-  bernie,  bor- 

Ground 

-  gerta. 

natcha. 

Wind  - 

-  worrie. 

Milk  •- 

- 

Rain   - 

-  manya. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God     - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife   - 

- 

K  2 


148 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RAC^ 


No.  68.- ADELAIDE  AND    ITS  NEIGHBOUEHOOD. 

By  Messrs.  Teichelmann  and  Schtjbmann,  and  Mr.  W.  Wtatt. 

The  Adelaide  tribe  having  become  extinct  somewhere 
about  the  year  1850,  and  no  original  information  there- 
fore being  now  obtainable  concerning  its  manners  and 
language,  I  have  taken  the  vocabulary  and  the  few  addi- 
tional words  which  follow  from  two  works  which  agree 
very  fairly  in  their  translations.  The  first  is  entitled 
Outlines  of  a  Grammar  and  Vocabulary,  ^c,  spoken  by 
the  Natives  in  and  for  some  distance  around  Adelaide,  by 
C.  G.  Teichelmann  and  C.  W.  Schurmann.  Adelaide, 
1840.  The  other.  Some  Account  of  the  Manners  and 
Superstitions  of  the  Adelaide  and  Encounter  Bay  Abori- 
ginal Tribes,  with  a  Vocabulary  of  their  Language,  ^c, 
by  Wm.   Wyatt.     Adelaide,  1879. 

The  Adelaide  tribe  practised  circumcision,  and  small-pox 
committed  fearful  ravages  amongst  them  in  1830.  They 
used  to  say  that  it  reached  them  by  way  of  the  Murray, 
having  been  passed  on  from  tribe  to  tribe.  The  Adelaide 
Blacks,  like  the  Bangerang,  when  they  first  saw  boiled 
rice,  called  it  by  their  equivalent  for  maggots.  The 
additional  words  are  these  :— 


Uncle 

-  kouano. 

The  sea 

kopoola     koue 

Aunt 

-  burnowe. 

(salt  water). 

Nephew- 

-  burrian. 

Salt     - 

kopoola. 

Niece 

-  wongare. 

Girl    - 

munkera. 

Cousin 

-  kou-wou. 

Fillet  for  the  heac 

munga. 

North 

-  kouanda. 

Distaff 

munga  Riiuke. 

East 

-  mare, 

Ground 

yerta. 

Black 

-  boolyon. 

Country-man 

yerta  mayoo 

White 

-  burkon. 

(ground  man). 

To  fight 

-  kondan. 

Country-woman 

-  yerta  ummaiche 

ADELAIDE    AND    ITS    NEIGHBOURHOOD. 


149 


Where? 

adle. 

A  cough 

kolte. 

What  - 

anna. 

The    inner '  (lit. 

ummaiche 

To  drink  water  by 

arkoonde  koue. 

woman)  rainbow 

kombo. 

lifting    it    with 

To  fight 

kondan. 

the  hands 

An       imaginary 

koonyoo. 

To  dive 

bokan. 

being 

To  swim 

bookane. 

Animals  females 

koongonda. 

Frost  - 

boorka. 

must  not  eat 

Wrist  ■        -        - 

emdo. 

Flesh  of  animals 

ponoo  koongonda 

Questions    to    a 

kadle     adle 

females       must 

dead  man 

wangan. 

not    eat 

The  heart    - 

kalto. 

Corroboree  - 

koore. 

Sweat  ■ 

kantarta. 

A  young  emu 

koore-koore. 

Evening 

karkalo. 

Tobacco 

koppe. 

Forest  - 

kerta. 

To  vomit 

koppeen. 

Some  of  the  above  phrases  are  very  suggestive,  as, 
Drinking  water  by  lifting  it  with  the  hands;  Questions  to 
a  dead  man ;  An  imaginary  being ;  and  are  referred  to  in 
Vol.  I.  in  the  Chapter  which  treats  of  the  Origin  of  the 
Eace. 


150 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  68.— FROM  TEICHELMANN   AND   SCHURMANN,  AND 
W.   WYATT. 


Kangaroo    - 

nanto,  wauwe. 

Hand  - 

mara. 

Opossum 

pilta. 

2  Blacks      - 

Tame  dog    - 

kadU. 

3  Blacks      - 

Wild  dog    - 

warru-kadli. 

One 

kuma. 

Emu    - 

kari,  korre. 

Black  duck  - 

Two     - 

parlaitye. 

Wood  duck  - 

Three  - 

marukutye. 

Pelicaii 

yeltu. 

Four    - 

yerrabuUa. 

Laughing  jackass 

ngungana. 

Father 

yerUmeya. 

Native  companion 

Mother 

ngang-kitta. 

White  cockatoo 

kurrake. 

Crow   - 

.  kua. 

Sister-Elder 

yakkana. 

Swan  - 

kudlyo  koolyo. 

,,       Younger 

panyappi,  nga- 

Egg     -        - 

muka. 

rauna. 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  tainga. 

Brother-Elder 

yanga. 

Fish     - 

kuya. 

,,          Younger  panyappi. 

Lobster 

kunggurla. 

A  young  man 

-  ngarUda. 

Crayfish 

ngaltaitye. 

An  old  man 

-  burka,  burtonna 

Mosquito     - 

kuntipaitya. 

An  old  woman 

-  paityabulli. 

Fly     - 

A  baby 

-  pindiwadU. 

Snake  - 

metteeka. 

A  White  man 

-  pindi-meyu. 

The  Blacks  - 

meyu,  mayoo. 

Children 

-  wakwakko. 

A  Blackfellow 

binna. 

A  Black  woman  - 

ngamuia,   ngam- 

Head  - 

-  makarta. 

maitye. 

Eye     - 

-  mena. 

Nose   - 

-  mudla. 

Ear     - 

-  yure. 

ADELAIDE    AND   ITS   NEIGHBOURHOOD. 


151 


No.  68. — From  Teichblmann  aud  Schuemann,  akd  W.  Wtatt — 
continued. 


Mouth 

-  ta,   naraparta, 

Boomerang  - 

- 

taiappa. 

Hill    - 

-  karnu,  mokoota, 

Teeth  - 

-  tia. 

Wood- 

-  gadla,  wirra. 

Hair  of  the  heac 

-  yoka. 

Stone  - 
Camp  - 

-  pure. 

-  werle,  wodli- 

Beard  - 

-  malta. 

bulto. 

Thunder      - 

-  biturro,  karndo. 

Yes     - 

-  ne. 

Grass  - 

-  ngurko. 

No      -  .      - 

-  yakko,  madlanna- 

Tongue 
Stomach 

-  tadlana. 
-•  moonto. 

I 

You    - 
Bark  - 

-  ngai. 

-  na,  nindo. 

-  (dry)  bakka, 

bokko. 

Breasts 

-  ngammi,  umme. 

Thigh  - 

-  yerko,  mitti. 

Good  - 

-  mane. 

Foot   - 

-  tedna,  tinna. 

Bad    - 

-  wakkenna. 

Bone  - 

- 

Sweet  - 

- 

Blood  - 

-  karro. 

Food  ' 

-  mai   (vegetable), 

Skin    - 

-  parpa,     yurinda, 

paru  (animal). 

maikundo. 

Hungry 

-  taityo,  taitchoo. 

Fat     - 

-  womga,  kurkur- 

Thirsty 

- 

la,  mani. 

Eat     - 

-  mutandi,  mai- 
endi. 

Bowels 

-  kudna. 

Sleep  - 

-  medo,  menur- 

Excrement  - 

-  kudna. 

nendi. 

War-spear  - 

-  winda. 

Drink  - 

-  narkone. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  kaya. 

Walk  - 

-  murreudi,     mai- 

Throwing-stick 

-  midla. 

endi. 

Shield - 

-  muUabakka. 

See     - 

-  nakkondi,   nang- 
andi. 

Tomahawk  - 

- 

Sit       - 

Canoe  - 

-  bokka  yoko. 

Yesterday  - 

-  bukkilyelo. 

Sun     - 

-  tindo. 

To-day 

- 

Moon  - 

-  piki,  kakirra. 

To-morrow  - 

-  paningolo,  tarka- 

Star    - 

-  purle,  willo. 

ryelo,       yellar 
karri, 
the 

Light  -        - 

-  gadlaieri. 

Where     are 

Dark  - 

- 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    -        - 

-  manyapaicenna, 

I  don't  know 

- 

manya. 

Plenty 

-  tauata 

Heat  - 

-  wortla. 

Big      -        - 

-  tauara,  parto. 

Day     - 

- 

Little  - 

-  tukkutya. 

Night  - 

-  ngulti. 

Dead  - 

-  medobulti,  kadi- 

adli. 

-  boora-boora. 

Fire    - 
Water 

-  gadla,  peea. 

-  kauwe. 

By-and-by  - 

Come  on 

-  kawai. 

Smoke 

-  puiyuoj-pooeyoo. 

Milk   - 

-  ngammi,  ngarru, 

Ground 

-  yerta, 

ummingaroo. 

Wind- 

-  warre. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  weelto. 

Eain  - 

-  kuntoro. 

Wild  turkey 

-  wolta. 

God     -        - 

- 

Wife  - 

-  yangarra,       um- 

Ghosts 

-  towilla. 

maiche. 

152  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE 


No.  69.— EVELYN  CREEK. 

By  H.  Crozieb,  Esq.,  and  Arthur  Dbwhubst,  Esq. 

I  AM  informed  by  Mr.  H.  Crozier  and  Mr.  Arthur  Dewhurst, 
surveyor,  that  the  country  inhabited  by  the  Pono  tribe  may 
be  roughly  described  as  bounded  on  the  south  by  Bencannia 
Lake,  Telawonga  and  Kooningberri  Ranges;  on  the  east  by 
Yancannia;  on  the  north  by  Dep6t  Glen;  and  on  the  west 
by  Mount  Arrowsmith.  As  several  of  these  features  do  not 
appear  on  the  map,  I  am  unable  to  draw  the  boundary 
lines-  of  the  Pono  country  with  any  approach  to  correctness. 
Evidently,  however,  Evelyn  Creek  is  the  prominent  feature 
in  the  area  in  question. 

The  Pono  people  having  been  much  reduced  in  numbers 
of  late  years,  it  seems  that  many  individuals  from  neigh- 
bouring tribes  which  occupy  less  desirable  country  have 
joined  them,  and  so  caused  a  great  mixture  of  dialects.  On 
the  whole,  however,  language  and  the  prevalence  of  circum- 
cision affiliate  the  Pono  Blacks  to  the  Cooper's  Creek  rather 
than  to  the  Darling  tribes.  The  absence  of  the  Darling 
term  Wimbija,  and  the  presence  of  the  Cooper's  Creek  term 
Kurna,  both  meaning  Blackfellom,  are  also  very  strong 
evidence  on  this  point.  The  practice  of  chewing  pitcher ee. 
exists  in  this  tribe,  and  cannibalism  in  the  past  used  occa- 
sionally to  be  had  recourse  to. 


EVELYN   CREEK.  153 

The  country  of  the  Pono  forms  a  portion  of  the  interior 
traversed  by  Captain  Sturt  in  1845  and  described  in  such 
dismal  colours  as  destined  to  be  for  ever  uninhabitable  by 
civilized  people.  It  was  here  that,  living  in  an  underground 
room  as  a  protection  against  the  intense  heat,  his  nails 
ceased  to  grow;  the  hairs  of  his  head  split  at  the  end;  lucifer 
matches  dropped ,  from  the  hand,  light  of  themselves  on 
reaching  the  ground,  and  so  on ;  and  yet  this  country  has 
been  found  for  several  years  to  make  good  sheep-runs. 


154 


THE   AUSTEALIAN   RACE: 


No.   69.— EVELYN  CREEK. 


By  H.  Crozieb,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  chukeroo. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum 

-  murlu. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  kuma  munderu. 

Tame  dog    - 

-  koonai. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  kurma  baralkeru 

Wild  dog     - 
Emu    - 
Black  duck  - 
Wood  duck- 
Pelican 

-  thirita. 

-  kurlithe. 

-  pundrewunga. 

One     - 
Two     - 
Three  - 
Pour    - 

-  koola. 

-  munderu. 

-  baralkeru. 

-  munderu-mun- 

Laughing  jackass 

Native  companion  mulumpari. 

Father 

deru. 
-  kooma. 

White  cockatoo 

-  kugalurinya. 

Mother 

-  ngumma. 

Crow  - 

-  kowulka. 

Sister-Elder 

-  kanuberti. 

Swan  - 

-  kuteruk 

,,      Younger 

-  karee. 

Egg     -        - 

-  kupi. 

Brother-Elder 

-  kaku 

Track  of  a  foot 
Fish     - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito     - 

Ply         .             - 

-  tina. 

-  kooia. 

-  muracuru. 

-  koonti. 

-  ulberu. 

„         Young( 
A  young  man 
An  old  man 
An  old  woman 
A  baby 

3r  neeyi. 

-  karuwurle. 

-  karu-karu. 

-  koorilpu. 

-  yalibuthe. 

Snake  - 

-  thuru. 

A  White  man 

-  birre-birre. 

The  Blacks  - 

-  yarlee. 

Children 

- 

A  Blaekfellow 

-  kuma. 

Head  - 

-  kukaminta. 

A  Black  woman 

-  kumbuga. 

Eye     - 

-  mirlke. 

Nose    - 

-  minthe. 

Ear  ■    - 

-  kutcheras 

EVELYN    CREEK. 


155 


No.  69. — Evelyn  Creek — continued. 


Mouth 

-  muma. 

Teeth  - 

-  murua-thunthera' 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  kukawincha. 

Beard  - 

-  ngunka 

Thunder      - 

-  thuna. 

Grass  - 

-  kuntha. 

Tongue 

-  thurU. 

Stomach 

-  mundera. 

Breasts 

-  ngumma. 

Thigh 

-  ngura. 

Foot    - 

-  tina. 

Bone   - 

-  moko. 

Blood  - 

-  kurte. 

Skin    - 

-  ngunya. 

Fat      - 

-  murne. 

Bowels 

-  kumangundere. 

Excrement  - 

-  koodna. 

War-spear  - 

-  birra. 

Reed-spear  - 

- 

Throwingstiak 

- 

Shield - 

-  puragu. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  nali. 

Canoe  - 

- 

Sun     - 

-  uku. 

Moon  - 

-  pirtall. 

Star     - 

-  purle. 

Light  - 

-  dudthera. 

Dark  - 

-  tinka. 

Cold    ■ 

-  muntha. 

Heat 

-  nurtekurla. 

Day     - 

-  dudthera. 

Night  - 

-  tinka. 

Fire     - 

-  kurla. 

Water 

-  ngapa. 

Smoke 

-  moyu. 

Ground 

-  nurte. 

Wind  - 

-  yurke. 

Rain    - 

-  koolpe. 

God     - 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

Boomerang  - 

-  kira. 

Hill     - 

-  pumperu. 

Wood  - 

-  kurla. 

Stone  - 

-  kumu. 

Camp  - 

-  nginchera. 

Yes      - 

-  ngagu. 

No       - 

-  punni. 

I 

-  nginyi. 

You     - 

-  yine. 

Bark    - 

-  ngonyia-ngonyia 

Good   - 

-  minko. 

Bad     - 

-  winu. 

Sweet  - 

-  minko. 

Food    - 

-  munu. 

Hungry 

purangu. 

Thirsty 

■  wirltunga. 

Eat      - 

-  thulinu. 

Sleep  - 

-  ngurwanu. 

Drink  - 

-  thapernii. 

Walk  - 

-  purlkanu. 

See      - 

-  thitthanu. 

Sit       - 

-  pula.    . 

Yesterday   - 

-  kulginyie. 

To-day 

-  kerreri. 

To-morrow  - 

-  koonigoonirri. 

Where    are 

the    noweraku? 

Blacks  1 

I  don't  know 

-  wertarie. 

Plenty 

-  perriri. 

Big      - 

-  pirna. 

Little  - 

-  wakarraka. 

Dead   - 

- 

By-and-by  - 

-  muta. 

Come  on 

-  kuba. 

Milk    - 

-  thunka. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  kurrera. 

Wild  turkey 

-  kurlathura. 

Wife    - 

-  nongo. 

156 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE 


No.  69.— EVELYN  CREEK. 


By  a.  Dewhurst,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

turlda. 

Opossum 

pUta. 

Tame  dog    - 

kunnuya. 

WUd  dog     - 

Emu  - 

kurlitchi. 

Black  duck  - 

kultappi. 

Wood  duck 

Pelican 

Laughing  jackass 

Native  companior 

puralko 

White  cockatoo 

kilumburra 

Crow  - 

kaulka. 

Swan  - 

kutteroo. 

Egg     -        - 

kappi. 

Track  of  a  foot 

tina. 

Fish    - 

kuya 

Lobster 

Crayfish 

umpurra. 

Mosquito     - 

kunti. 

Ply       .          . 

ilburroo. 

Snake  - 

turroo. 

The  Blacks  - 

yalli. 

A  Blaokfellow 

A  Black  woman 

kumbuka. 

Nose    - 

minta. 

Hand  ■ 

murra. 

2  Blacks      - 

3  Blacks      - 

One     - 

koola. 

Two    - 

boola. 

Three  - 

-  barlgo. 

Pour    - 

krundoo. 

Father 

kuTTima. 

Mother 

umma. 

Sister-Elder 

-  karaloo. 

„      Younger 

-  kalawarri. 

Brother-Elder 

■  karkoo. 

„         Youngei 

A  young  man 

-  kulta. 

An  old  man 

garroo-garroo 

An  old  woman 

-  walgnnnuga. 

A  baby 

-  multa-bobbra 

A  White  man 

Children 

-  kurndoo,  wal- 

tanna. 

Head  - 

-  karkunta. 

Eye     - 

-  milparloo. 

Ear      - 

-  yuimerta. 

EVELYN    CREEK. 


157 


No.  69. — Evelyn  Creek — continuel 


Mouth 

-  tia. 

Boomerang  - 

-  wunna. 

Teeth 

- 

Hill     - 

-  yanda. 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  kakowunta. 

Wood  - 

-  wi. 

Beard  - 

-  unkurroo. 

Stone  - 

-  yunda. 

Thunder      - 

-  kulpi. 

Camp 

-  ichurra. 

Grass  - 

-  muttoo. 

Yes     - 

"  kow. 

Tongue 

-  tarlindi. 

No       - 

Stomacli 

-  ayamuUa. 

I          -        - 

-  uunjie. 

Breasts 

-  numma. 

Thigh  - 

-  yaltarra. 

You    - 

-  yimba. 

Foot   - 

-  tinna. 

Bark  - 

-  bindarra. 

Bone   - 

-  mookoo. 

Good  -        - 

-  minko. 

Blood  - 

-  karti. 

Bad     - 

- 

Skin    - 

-  parlatta. 

Sweet  - 

-  taukoo. 

Fat     - 

-  mulni. 

Pood   - 

-  talata. 

Bowels 

-  naimoola. 

Hungry 

-  boorakinnia. 

Excrement  - 

-  goomana. 

Thirsty 

- 

War-spear  - 

-  kal-kurroo. 

Bat     - 

-  talindalto. 

Reed-spear  - 

- 

Sleep  - 

-  unangi. 

Woimnera  - 

- 

Drink - 

- 

Shield 

-  gulgarra. 

Walk  - 

-  bulkarannia. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  karro. 

See      - 

. 

Canoe  - 

- 

Sit      - 

-  ninaduimia. 

Sun     - 

-  yookoo. 

Yesterday  - 

-  bokanni. 

Moon  - 

-  pitali. 

To-day 

-  kaiio. 

Star    - 

-  purli. 

Light  - 

. 

To-morrow  • 

-  pamyinga. 

Dark  - 

- 

Where     are 
Blacks ' 

the 

Cold    -        - 

-  muuta. 

JL^iVIV^^m    • 

Heat  - 

-  nitiuUa. 

I  don't  know 

-  narooringo. 

Day    - 

-  bookaninti. 

Plenty 

-  gumdo. 

Night  -        - 

-  neilba. 

Big     -        - 

-  wilto 

Fire     - 

-  wi. 

Little 

-  bumpata. 

Water 

•  nappa. 

Dead 

-  palino. 

Smoke 

-  tooba. 

By-and-by  - 

- 

Ground 

-  nulti. 

Come  on 

- 

Wind  - 

-  yarlto. 

Milk   - 

-  tarpunda. 

Rain   - 

-  kulpi. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  purti. 

God     - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

-  kaldura. 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife  - 

- 

158  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

No  69a.— NEAE  THE  NORTH-WEST  CORNER  OF 
NEW  SOUTH  WALES. 
By  A.  W.  Morton,  Esq. 
The   following   vocabulary   and  information  concerning  a 
tribe  wliicli  dweUs  between  Lake  Torrowotto,  the  southern 
boundary  of  Queensland,  and  the   country   of   the    Pono 
tribe,  were  kindly  forwarded  to  me  by  Mr.  A.  W.  Morton. 
This  gentleman  gives   Mulya-Napa   as   the   name  of  the 
tribe  in  question,  which  differs  but  little  from  that  which 
distinguishes  the  people  which  dwell  on  Lake  Torrowotto. 
The  vocabularies  of  the  two  tribes,  however,  differ  very  con- 
siderably.    Napa  it  will  be  noticed  means  maUr,  a  word 
of   which    signification   enters    into  the   names   of  many 
Australian  tribes. 

Mr.  Morton's  communication  is  accompanied  by  several 
valuable  remarks  by  the  Revd.  William  Webster  in  con- 
nection with  this  tribe,  which  both  language  and  customs 
show  does  not  belong  to  the  Darling  section  of  the  Central 
Division. 

Mr.  Morton  relates  that  the  country  of  this  tribe  was 
first  stocked  in  1864,  at  which  period  the  Mulya-Napa  are 
said  to  have  numbered  about  1,000  souls,  but  that  when 
he  went  to  reside  there  in  1880  their  numbers  had  fallen  to 
347  persons,  ten  of  whom  were  half-castes.  These  people 
have  rugs,  some  made  of  opossum  skins  sewn  together  and 
others  consisting  each  of  a  single  kangaroo  skin.  They  wear 
by  way  of  ornaments  small  bunches  of  feathers  in  their  hair, 
also  necklaces  of  reeds  cut  into  short  lengths,  strung  on  a 
vegetable  thread.  They  have  also  large  nets  made  from 
grass  for  catching  ducks,  smooth  stones  for  grinding  nardoo 
into  flour,  stone  tomahawks  and  knives  of  chipped  quartzite. 
■On  the  march  they  carry  water  in  bags,  just  as  I  have  seen 
done  in  the  country  immediately  to  the  north  of  Swan  HiU 
in  Victoria.  For  this  purpose  an  opossum  is  skinned  from 
the  head  downwards,  the  hide  coming  off  inside  out,  without 
any  further  cutting  of  the  skin  except  at  the  feet.  The  holes 


NORTH-WEST  CORNER  OF  NEW  SOUTH  WALES.       159 

left  are  then  tied  up  and  the  bag  is  ready  for  use,  the  far 
being  inside.  The  Mulya-Napa  have  boomerangs  of  both 
sorts,  the  one  which  returns  being  called  tikka-tikka  and 
the  war  instrument  marna.  Their  spears,  which  are  thrown 
by  hand,  they  tip  with  quartzite  splinters,  which  are  attached 
with  beef-wood  gum.  Their  boomerangs  and  large  clubs  they 
color  with  ochre.  The  Eevd.  Mr.  Webster  remarks  that  on 
occasions  of  corroboree  the  men  paint  stripes  on  their  skins 
with  gypsum,  or  kopi  as  they  call  it.  Their  principal 
articles  of  food  are  kangaroo,  opossums,  lizards,  snakes, 
ducks,  crows,  kites,  and  grubs  ;  also  nardoo  and  portulacca. 
In  this  tribe  there  are  certain  restrictions  on  food  which 
apply  to  the  young  males  and  women.  Marks  of  small-pox 
have  not  been  observed.  Cannibalism  prevailed  to  some 
extent  at  and  prior  to  the  period  of  our  occupation,  as  the 
people  themselves  acknowledge,  the  parts  said  to  have  been 
eaten  being  the  fat  of  the  cheeks  and  thighs.  That  it  was 
really  limited  to  these,  however,  there  is  no  reason  to 
believe. 

The  persons  of  this  tribe  do  not  object  to  tell  their 
native  names,  of  which  Mr.  Morton  gives  the  following: — 
Male:  Pingali.  Females:  Pingeriba,  Pundarnika,  Boolura, 
Bombiak,  Moirguga,  and  Milpariche.  Marriage  occurs  both 
within  and  without  the  tribe.  Polygamy  prevails.  Infan- 
ticide accompanied  by  cannibalism  is  practised.  The 
stomachs  and  backs  of  this  people  are  ornamented  with 
scars.  The  young  males  are  admitted  to  the  rights  of 
manhood  by  circumcision,  and  the  majority  of  them  have 
to  submit  to  the  infliction  of  the  terrible  rite.  Some  of 
the  women  have  two  front  teeth  removed  from  the  upper 
jaw.  The  septum  of  the  nose  is  pierced,  and  a  stick  or 
feather  occasionally  worn  in  the  orifice.  The  doctor  or 
conjuror  of  the  tribe  carries  about  with  him  a  small  bag 
which  contains  bones  and  other  things.  The  leaves  of  a 
plant  called  murradutta  (supposed  by  Mr.  Webster  to  be 
pitcheree)  are  dried  in  the  sun  for  chewing,  and  are  said 
to  produce  the  same  result  as  spirits.  It  is  singular  that 
accounts  of  the  effects  of  pitcheree  are  so  uncertain,  and 


160 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


even  contradictory.  My  own  impression  is  that  intoxication 
does  not  follow  its  use.  In  some  of  tlie  caves  which,  exist 
in  the  country  of  this  tribe  painted  figures  of  the  out- 
stretched human  hand  are  found.  At  their  corroborees  the 
performers  tie  small  bunches  of  leaves  round  their  ankles, 
streak  their  chests  and  arms  with  kopi,  and  imitate  the 
actions  of  some  of  the  native  animals.  Mr.  Webster  remarks 
that  in  burying  the  dead  they  in  some  cases  smear  the  corpse 
as  well  as  their  own  persons  with  kopi.  Message-sticks  are 
in  use.  It  is  related  by  Mr.  Morton  that  a  man  being  Ul, 
one  of  his  friends  placed  a  ligature  round  his  own  arm  and 
opened  a  vein ;  that  the  sick  man  drank  a  quantity  of  the 
blood  which  flowed  from  it,  and  then  vomited. 

In  the  vocabulary  of  this  tribe,  hill  and  stone  are  both 
expressed  by  the  word  yanda. 


No.  69a.— NEAR  THE  NORTH-WEST  CORNER  OP  NEW 


SOUTH  WALES. 


Kangaroo 
Opossum 
Tame  dog    - 
Wild  dog     - 
Emu    - 
Black  duck  - 
Wood  duck 
Pelican 

Laughing  jackass 
Native  companion 
White  cockatoo  - 
Crow  - 
Swan  - 
Egg     - 

Track  of  a  foot    - 
Pish    - 
Lobster 

Crayfish       -    ,     - 
Mosquito     - 
Fly      -        -        - 
Snake  - 
The  Blacks  - 
A  Blaokfellow     - 
A  Black  woman'  - 
Nose    - 


By  a.  W. 

talda. 

pilta, 

koonoo. 

urlka. 

koleti. 

mungowri. 

kunarli. 

karbonera. 

pooralko. 

kuta. 

kowerulko. 

kuteru. 

karpi. 

tena. 

kooa. 

kutera. 

koonte. 

ulberu. 

turu. 

yarlye. 

yarlye-oorra. 

kumbukka. 

minti. 


MoETON,  Esq. 
Hand  - 

2  Blacks      - 

3  Blacks      - 
One     - 
Two    - 
Three  - 

Pour    -         -         - 
Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

,,      Younger  • 
Brother-Elder     - 

, ,         Younger 
A  young  man 
An  old  man 
An  old  woman     - 
A  baby 
A  White  man 
Children 


Head  - 

Eye      - 
Ear      - 


koola. 
boola. 

boolera-kulata. 
boolera-boolera. 
koomarde. 
armunde. 
piua  karooloo. 
pumpa  karaloo. 


koolta. 

karoo. 

pootoo. 

purta. 

too-too. 

(black)  pina  pur 

ta;  (white)   too 

too  purta. 
kataminta. 
milpa. 
waimerta. 


NORTH-WEST  CORNER  OF  NEW  SOUTH  WALES.       161 


No.  69a.— Neae  the  Nokth-west  Corner  of  New  South  Wales— 


continued. 

Mouth 

taryarre. 

Boomerang  - 

-  wana. 

Teeth  - 

teeyer. 

Hill     - 

-  yanda. 

Hair  of  the  head 

puntu. 

Wood  - 

-  tulu. 

Beard  - 

ankuroo. 

Stone  - 

-  yanda. 

Thunder      - 

■  urrukunda. 

Camp  - 

-  narohara. 

Grass  - 

mutu. 

Yes      - 

-  ka. 

Tongue 

tarlunya. 

No       - 

-  error. 

Stomach 

tookookooloo. 

I 

-  onye. 

Breasts 

-  ama. 

You     - 

-  ene. 

Thigh  - 

-  munka. 

Bark    - 

-  parlata. 

Foot    - 

-  tina. 

Good   - 

-  minko. 

Bone   - 

-  moko. 

Blood  - 

-  kurte. 

Bad     - 

-  wyuoo. 

Skin    - 

-  parlata. 

Sweet  - 

-  kulkalaunya. 

Fat      - 

-  murni. 

Food  - 

-  purra. 

Bowels 

- 

Hungry 

-  purra  karkinda. 

Excrement  - 

-  kurna. 

Thirsty 

-  ike-marri-urra. 

War-spear  - 

-  kalkoroo. 

Eat      -     .    - 

-  purra-perte. 

Reed-spear  - 

- 

Sleep  - 

■  meteru. 

Wommera     or 

throwing-stiok 

Drink  - 

-  tapa-eta. 

Shield 

-  kulgowra. 

Walk  - 

-  wolkutta. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  tarro. 

See      - 

-  tita-eta. 

Canoe  - 

•  pulturoo. 

Sit       - 

-  ninneroo. 

Sun     - 

-  yooko. 

Yesterday   - 

-  bokuimi. 

Moon  - 

-  petarli. 

To-day 

-  poola-ookoo. 

Star     - 

-  purli. 

To-morrow  - 

-  pemye-inga. 

Light  - 

-  petri. 

Where    are 

the    wonda  yarlye  ? 

Dark  - 

-  owoo. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    - 

-  munta. 

I  don't  know 

-  wondi-ee-pa. 

Heat   - 

-  yooera. 

Plenty 

-  nunka. 

Day     - 

-  kyoo. 

Night  - 

-  tinkai. 

Big      - 

-  pina. 

Fbe     - 

-  kulba. 

Little  - 

-  pumpa. 

Water 

-  napa. 

Dead   - 

-  tootoo. 

Smoke 

-  topoilla. 

By-and-by  - 

-  parooloo. 

Ground 

-  murnde. 

Come  on 

-  kaba. 

Wind  -        - 

-  yarto. 

Milk    - 

-  ama. 

Rain    - 

-  kulpi. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  kurrawerra. 

God     - 

. 

Wild  turkey 

-  kurlatora. 

Ghosts 

-  pure. 

Wife   - 

-  kumbukka. 

VOL.    II. 

L 

BOOK    THE    SEVENTH. 


I   2 


BOOK  THE  SEVENTH. 

PREFATORY  REMARKS. 

{The  tribes  treated  of  in  this  book  belong  by  descent  to  the 
Central  Division.') 

Many  tribes  have  traditions  concerning  their  origin.  Two 
instances  of  this  have  come  to  my  knowledge  in  connection 
with  the  branch  of  our  aboriginal  race  which  I  have  classed 
as  the  Darling  tribes.  Both  of  them  are  interesting,  and 
supported  by  the  evidence  of  language  and  manners.  The 
first  to  which  I  shall  refer  has  been  preserved  by  the  tribes 
which  dweU  on  the  banks  of  the  Lower  Darling,  and  was 
placed  on  record  by  C.  G.  N.  Lockhart,  Esq.,  as  he  informs 
me,  when  Commissioner  of  Crown  Lands,  in  his  Annual 
Report  to  the  Government  of  New  South  Wales,  in  1852  or 
1853.  It  is  to  the  effect  that  in  the  far  past  a  Blackfellow, 
whose  name  I  have  not  learnt,  arrived  on  the  banks  of 
the  Darling,  which  was  then  uninhabited.  He  had  with 
him  two  wives,  named  Keelpara  and  Mookwara.  These  two 
Eves  of  the  Darling  Adam,  as  Mr.  Lockhart  calls  him, 
bore  their  lord  children,  and  in  due  time  the  sons  of  Mook- 
wara took  as  wives  the  daughters  of  Keelpara,  and  their 
children  inherited  Keelpara  as  their  class-name  ;  and  the 
sons  of  Keelpara  married  the  daughters  of  Mookwara,  and 
their  children  bore  Mookwara  as  their  class-name.  Sub- 
sequently these  two  classes  were  divided,  the  Keelparas  into 
Emus  and  Ducks,  and  the  Mookwaras  into  Kangaroos  and 
Opossums  or  some  other  animal;  and  thenceforth  a  male  of 
the  Emu  class  could  not  marry  indiscriminately  any  girl 
descended  originally  from  Mookwara,  but  only  such  as  be- 
longed to  the  proper  sub-class,  and  so  on.  And  in  this 
way,  tradition   says,  these  original  class-names  and  their 


166  THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

subdivisions  have  gone  on  regulating  marriage  amongst 
the  descendants  of  the  Darling  Adam  for  who  shall  say  how- 
many  ages  up  to  the  present  time.*  What  led  the  Darling 
Adam  to  expatriate  himself  with  his  two  wives  can  only  be 
conjectured,  but  the  manners  of  the  race  render  it  probable 
that  he  had  either  committed  some  crime  which  the  usages  of 
his  tribe  punished  with  death,  or  what  is  more  probable,  that 
he  had  stolen  one  or  both  of  the  partners  of  his  flight,  who 
could  only  be  kept  possession  of  by  the  step  he  actually 
took. 

The  second  tradition  to  which  I  have  referred  belongs  to 
the  Narrinyeri  tribes,  which  dwell  at  and  near  the  mouth  of 
the  Murray,  and  is  related  in  a  work  entitled  The  Folklore, 
Manners,  Customs,  and  Languages  of  the  South  Australia 
Aborigines,  edited  hy  the  late  Revd.  George  Taplin.  At  page 
38,  he  says  that  a  party,  the  members  of  which  were  the 
progenitors  of  the  Narrinyeri,  originally  came  from  the 
Darling,  having  followed  down  that  river  and  the  Murray  to 
the  sea.  The  other  matters  mentioned  in  this  tradition  do 
not  concern  us  at  present,  but  will  be  referred  to  further  on. 

Of  the  correctness  of  these  traditions  I  feel  no  doubt,  for 
I  find  in  the  country  which  I  have  mapped  as  belonging  to 
the  Keelpara  and  Mookwara  descended  peoples  just  such  a 
state  of  things  as  I  should  expect  to  result  from  such  causes. 
As  it  would  take  a  considerable  period  for  the  descendants 
of  one  man  and  two  women  to  increase  in  numbers  so  as  to 
people  the  country  in  which  the  Darling  language  now  pre- 
vails, and  as  after  eventually  coming  in  contact  with  the 
outside  population  the  position  of  the  two  bodies  would  long, 
if  not  for  ever,  remain  hostile,  I  should  expect  to  find — 

1st.  That  these  long-isolated  tribes  would  bear  a  common 
name,  or  rather  that  they  would  have  a  common  equivalent 

*  To  this  there  is  an  exception  on  the  Upper  Darling,  where  the  Darling 
Blacks  have  come  into  contact  with  a  border  tribe  of  the  Eastern  Division. 
This  Darling  tribe  use  the  Eastern  class  names  Hippi,  Kumbo,  &c.,  as 
Mr.  Teulon  points  out,  which  is  one  instance  out  of  several  of  a  tribe 
relinquishing  a  custom,  to  take  up  one  of  a  neighbouring  tribe. 


PREFATORY    REMARKS.  167 

for  the  term  Blackfellow,  for  I  have  already  pointed  out  in 
,  Chapter  2  that  it  is  by  means  of  this  and  one  or  two  other 
words  that  associated  tribes  mark  their  connection. 

2nd.  That  these  tribes,  in  lieu  of  a  series  of  languages 
differing  every  fifty  or  one  hundred  miles,  as  always  happens 
when  the  spread  of  the  race  has  taken  place  in  the  normal 
way,  would  speak  a  language  almost  unbroken  by  dialect; 
because,  being  restricted  on  their  marches  by  tribes  speaking 
languages  different  from  theirs,  and  therefore  hostile,  to  a 
comparatively  small  area,  a  little  world  of  theix  own,  com- 
munication within  it  would  be  well  kept  up. 

3rd.  That  this  almost  common  language  would  differ 
very  considerably  from  those  around  it,  but  retain,  neverthe- 
less, some  words  by  which  the  long-isolated  tribes  might  be 
traced  to  the  section  of  the  race  from  which  their  ancestors 
had  sprung. 

4th.  That  some  of  the  customs  peculiar  to  that  section 
would  have  been  preserved  and  others  lost.    And, 

5th.  That  as  war  would,  for  a  considerable  period,  be 
unknown  amongst  the  descendants  of  Keelpara  and  Mook- 
warra,  some  falling  off  in  the  construction  of  weapons  would 
take  place. 

Now,  taking  these  expected  peculiarities,  we  find — 

1st.  That  the  Darling  Blacks  proper,  that  is  omitting 
the  Narrinyeri  branch,  and  their  descendants  have  a  common 
term  for  Blackfellow  peculiar  to  themselves. 

2nd.  That  speech  varies  so  little  amongst  the  several 
tribes  that  some  of  my  correspondents  are  under  the  impres- 
sion that  there  is  but  one  language  on  the  Darling. 

3rd.  That  the  languages  of  the  Darling  tribes  differ  so 
much  from  all  others  (though  they  possess  their  full  share 
of  the  common  Australian  characteristics)  that  I  had  some 
difficulty  in  tracing  them  to  their  source.  On  the  other 
hand,  the  absence  of  terms  peculiar  to  the  Eastern  and 
Western  Divisions,  and  the  following  agreements  with  the 


168 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE 


languages  of  tlie  Central  Division,  sliow  them  to  have  sprung 
from  that  section  of  the  Australian  race : — 

Table  showing  the  Connection  of  the  Languages  of  the  Darling 
Tribes  with  those  of  the  Central  Division. 


English. 

Darling 
Languages 

Languages  of  the  Central  Division  North 
and  West  ot  the  Darling. 

Mother  - 
Water  - 

Amukka 
Ngamukka  - 
Ngookoo 
Nookoo 

Umma 
Namika    - 
Ngukka   - 
Nukka     - 

Evelyn  Creek. 

Mount  Serle. 

-  Cooper's  Creek. 

Wilson  River. 

Rain 

Mukkra 

Ngappa    - 
Mukkra   - 

Kopperamaua. 
Mount  Remarkable. 

Kangaroo 

Thurlda 

Thuldra  - 
Thaldra   - 

Wilson  River. 
Cooper's  Creek. 

Opossum 

Dog       -        -        - 

Bilta     - 
KulHe  - 
Kallie 

Pilta 
Kadle      - 

-  Common. 
Yorke's  Peninsula. 

Native  companion 

Kooroolko    - 
Koolarkoo    - 

Pooralko 
Puraiku   - 
Booralko  - 

■  Warburton  River. 

-  West  of  Lake  Eyre. 

-  Cooper's  Creek. 

One 

Neecha 
Nitcha  - 

Ninta       - 

-  Macumba  River, 

Mosquito 

Koondee 

Koontee  - 
Koontee  - 

-  Cooper's  Creek. 

-  Warburton  River. 

Koontee  - 

-  Lake  Hope. 

Ear       -        -        - 

Uri,  ure 

Euri 

-  Common. 

Mouth  - 

Yelka  - 

Yikga      - 

-  Mount  Serle. 

Yalla    - 

Yalla 

-  Umbertana. 

Fire      - 

Kurla  - 
KuUa    - 

Kurda 
Kalla        - 

-  Gawler  Range. 

-  Marachovie. 

Boomerang    - 
Night    - 
Shield  - 

Wana  - 
Tunka  - 
Woolambora 

Wanna     - 

Tinka 

Woodlawarroo 

-  Beltana. 

-  Kopperamana. 
Kartabiua. 

4th.  As  regards  the  preservation  of  some  customs  and  the 
loss  of  others  by  the  Darling  tribes,  Mr.  Gason  has  recorded 
that  the  Dieyeri  to  the  north  dig  pits  in  connection  with  their 
rain-making  ceremonies,  and  Mr.  Lockhart,  in  a  letter  to  me, 
mentions  the  same  practice  amongst  the  Darling  Blacks; 


PREFATORY    REMARKS. 


169 


and,  on  the  other  hand,  circumcision  and  the  terrible  rite, 
which  prevail  to  the  north,  and  of  which  I  shall  speak  pre- 
sently, are  not  found  on  the  Darling.  Again,  in  connection 
with  weapons,  we  discover  that  few  of  the  Darling  tribes  use 
the  wommera  to  this  day,  those  which  do,  having  no  doubt 
taken  the  practice  from  neighbouring  tribes  differently  de- 
scended from  themselves. 

We  next  come  to  tradition  of  the  Narrinyeri,  that  their 
ancestors  descended  the  Darling  and  located  themselves  at  and 
near  the  mouth  of  the  Murray.  The  first  fact  I  shall  adduce 
in  support  of  this  tradition  is,  that  the  horrible  mutilations 
of  the  person  common  in  the  tribes  near  the  Narrinyeri — that 
is  in  the  country  around  Adelaide,  on  the  Gulf  of  St.  Vincent, 
Spencer's  Gulf,  &c. — are  not  practised  by  them,  and  that  in 
this  they  agree  with  the  Darling  tribes,  as  well  as  with  the 
whole  of  those  which  I  have  traced  to  Keelpara  and  Mook- 
wara.  Turning  to  language,  we  find  that  the  Narrinyeri 
have  a  few  words  found  on  the  Darling,  and  even  as  far  north 
as  Cooper's  Creek,  which  do  not  exist  amongst  the  tribes 
which  inhabit  the  country  next  to  theirs  but  practise  the 
mutilations  just  referred  to.*     They  are  as  follow : — 


English. 

Narrinyeri. 

Darling. 

Places  North  of  the  DarUng. 

Water 

Nguke- 

Ngookoo      - 

Ngukka      -  Cooper's  Creek. 
Nukka        -  Wilson  River. 

Kangaroo    - 

Tulatyi 

Tulta  - 

Thuldra      -  Wilson  River. 
Thaldara    -  Cooper's  Creek. 

Stone  - 

Marti  - 

. 

Murda        -  Cooper's  Creek. 

Mosquito    - 

MoorooUee  - 

Muninnerie  - 

NoonaruUy    Wilson  River. 

Stomach     - 

Mankoori    - 

Monda 

Mandree     -  Warburton  River. 

Hence  we  see  that  the  tradition  of  the  Narrinyeri  is  sup- 
ported by  the  absence  of  certain  mutilations  and  the  presence 
of  certain  words  prevalent  on  the  Darling  and  to  the  north 

*  It  is  noticeable  that  Komi,  or  some  other  related  "word,  is  the 
equivalent  of  BlachfdUm  in  the  Cooper's  Creek,  Adelaide,  and  Narrinyeri 
tribes.  It  seems  probable  that  the  Darling  Blacks  used  the  same  word 
originally  and  relinquished  it  after  the  departure  of  the  Narrinyeri. 


170  THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

of  the  country  occupied  by  the  Darling  tribes,  but  non- 
existent amongst  the  tribes  adjacent  to  the  Narrinyeri  on 
the  north  side  of  the  embouchure  of  the  Murray.  These  facts, 
it  seems  to  me,  can  only  be  explained  by  the  acceptance  .of 
the  tradition  that  the  Narrinyeri  are  descended  from  the 
Darling  tribes. 

Touching  the  Narrinyeri  there  are  two  circumstances 
which  lead  me  to  think  that  at  the  period  at  which  their 
ancestors  left  the  Darling  and  descended  the  Murray  was  but 
a  few  generations  after  the  arrival  of  Keelpara,  Mookwara,  and 
their  husband  on  that  river.  The  first  is,  that  had  the  exodus 
occurred  at  a  later  period,  we  should  probably  find  in  the 
Narrinyeri  vocabulary  a  word  or  two  which  had  come  into 
.existence  on  the  Darling,  and  which  of  course  would  be 
unknown  on  Cooper's  Creek ;  this,  however,  as  far  as  I  can 
judge,  is  not  the  case.  The  second  is  that  language  shows 
that  the  descendants  of  the  Narrinyeri,  gradually  as  they 
increased,  ascended  the  Murray,  and  kept  on  occupying  the 
land  on  its  banks,  until  at  length  they  met  the  Darling  tribes 
at  or  near  Menindie.  Of  this  the  languages  leave  no  doubt. 
But  had  population  on  the  Darling  been  numerous  at  the 
time  of  the  Narrinyeri  exodus,  the  point  of  meeting  would 
have  been  lower  down  that  river  or  on  the  Murray. 

Another  thing  which  we  learn  from  the  comparison  of 
languages  is  the  territory  which  the  decendants  of  Keel- 
para and  Mookwara  eventually  came  to  occupy.  This  will 
be  seen  by  reference  to  the  map  in  Vol.  IV.,  and  may  be 
roughly  described  as  extending  from  Lacepede  Bay  to  the 
mouth  of  the  Murray,  thence  upwards  along  the  banks 
of  that  river  to  its  junction  with  the  Murrumbidgee  and 
Lachlan ;  also  from  the  junction  of  the  Murray  and  Darling 
to  the  junction  of  the  Culgoa  and  Darling;  from  that  point 
north  to  about  lat.  29°;  thence  west  to  the  141st  degree 
of  longitude;  and  thence  south  to  the  Murray.  Taking  the 
two  traditions  mentioned,  facts  derived  from  language,  which 
admit  of  no  doubt,  and  the  peculiarities  of  the  tribes  in  the 
east,  west,  and  centre  of  the  continent,  minutely  detailed  in 


PREFATORY    REMARKS.  171 

a  former  chapter,  tlie  principal  circumstances  connected 
with  the  settlement  of  what  I  have  called  the  Darling 
tribes  may  be  epitomized  in  this  way:  The  husband  of 
Keelpara  and  Mookwara  reached  the  Darling,  having 
travelled  from  Cooper's  Creek,  then  but  sparsely  peopled, 
or  possibly  from  some  water  still  further  north.  After  a  few 
generations,  a  party  of  their  descendants  left  the  Darling,  went 
down  the  Murray  to  its  mouth,  and  established  themselves 
there.  These  were  the  Narrinyeri,  who,  as  they  increased 
in  numbers,  spread  to  Lacepede  Bay,  and  also  up  the 
Murray  until  they  came  in  contact  near  Menindie  with 
the  tribes  from  which  their  ancestors  had  separated  several 
generations  before,  and  with  a  tribe  of  the  Eastern  Division 
a  little  higher  up  the  Murray  than  its  junction  with  the 
Darling. 

But  the  reader  wiU  say,  if  the  ancestors  of  the  Darling 
tribes  came  from  the  north,  and  not  from  the  east,  how 
IS  it  that  we  find  wanting  amongst  their  decendants  cir- 
cumcision and  that  other  mutilation  so  general  in  the  north  ? 
In  considering  this  question,  we  must  remember  •  that  the 
Darling  Adam  marched  a  long  distance  through  a  country 
more  than  semi-desert,  and  found  himself  entirely  cut  off 
from  the  rest  of  his  race.  Being  thus  isolated  with  his 
two  wives,  in  country  in  which  abundance  of  food  must 
have  been  easily  procurable,  there  would  be  no  reason  to 
induce  him  to  follow  customs,  the  objects  of  which  were  to 
economize  food  by  keeping  down  population,  and  to  prevent 
the  young  men  from  intriguing  with  the  girls  whom  the 
old  men  habitually  monopolize  as  wives.  Besides  these, 
mutilations  are  not  inflicted  by  a  father  on  his  son,  and  they 
often  result  in  death,  a  loss  to  which  a  small  party  would 
not  be  likely  to  expose  itself;  hence  the  first  man  who 
dwelt  on  the  Darling  would  have  no  object  to  serve  by 
inflicting  the  terrible  rite  or  circumcision ;  his  children 
would  never  have  heard  of  them,  and  the  practices  would 
naturally  be  lost.  Had  the  party  consisted  of  several  men 
with  their  wives,  no  doubt  it  would  have  been  different. 


172  THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

From  this  account  of  the  Darling  tribes,  a  few  facts  of 
interest  which  bear  on  the  race  at  large  come  into  view.  It 
exemplifies  what  I  have  before  stated,  that  population  was 
sometimes  spread  by  means  of  small  parties,  which  marched 
long  distances  into  the  wilderness,  where  they  remained 
isolated  for  a  considerable  time,  and  that  out  of  such 
beginnings  especially  grew  associations  of  tribes  and  great 
differences  of  language.  Not  less  interesting  is  it  to  find 
that  it  was  in  consequence  of  the  flight  of  the  Darling 
Adam,  and  of  his  descendants  spreading  themselves  to  the 
mouth  of  the  Culgoa  on  one  hand,  and  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Murray  on  the  other,  that  those  horrible  mutilations  of  the 
person  which  prevail  from  the  north  coast,  as  far  nearly 
as  Adelaide,  were  prevented  from  being  carried  further  south. 

In  thus  viewing  the  Darling  tribes  as  a  whole,  I  am 
reminded  of  the  incident  already  related",  which  led  me  some 
twelve  years  back  to  take  up  the  study  of  Australian 
ethnology,  as  well  as  of  the  fact  that,  however  much  same- 
ness there  may  be  in  the  manners  of  our  tribes,  one  never 
contemplates  any  large  section  of  the  race,  or  compares  the 
languages  of  extensive  areas,  without  being  rewarded  by  the 
discovery  of  some  fact  which  throws  a  light  on  the  general 
history  of  the  aboriginal  of  this  continent,  or  in  some  cases 
claims  a  page  in  the  history  of  the  human  family  at  large. 


NORTH-WEST    OP    THE   BARRIER   RANGE. 


173 


No.  70.— COUNTEY  NOETH-WEST  OF  THE 
BAERIER  EANGE. 

By  Anonymous. 


The  following  words,  contributed  anonymously,  some  of 
wMcli  correspond  with  those  of  the  Common  Vocabulary, 
show  that  the  tribe  which  uses  them  is  of  Darling  descent: — 


Kangaroo    - 

-  tulta. 

Yes      - 

-  eh-eh. 

Tame  dog    - 

-  kalli. 

No      - 

-  nanger. 

Emu    - 

-  kalati. 

Good  - 

-  kungella. 

White  cockatoo 

-  packoo. 

Bad     - 

-  meeka. 

Crow  - 

-  wako. 

Neck  - 

-  bumba. 

Snake  - 

-  tooroo. 

Chest  - 

-  kumunia,    pc 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

doola. 

Head  - 

-  turtoo. 

Back   - 

-  tuma. 

Hair  of  head 

-  hoolkee. 

Arm    - 

-  wankara. 

Beard 

-  melka-bulkie. 

Finger 

-  melinga. 

Grasa 

-  murtoo. 

Creek  - 

-  pangil. 

Thigh 

-  yalchara. 

Plain  - 

-  peecha. 

Foot    - 

-  tenola. 

Waterhole 

-  tarkarooloo. 

Fat     - 

-  merni. 

Eatable 

-  memo. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  koorka. 

Gum-tree     - 

-  bungoo. 

Star    - 

-  poorli. 

Pine-tree     - 

-  pinpa. 

Fire    - 

-  kooneka. 

Sundown     - 

-  yoko-upi-ana. 

Water 

-  millyera. 

Sunrise 

-  baapanannia. 

Rain    - 

-  wongaroo. 

Midday  sun 

-  moretinki. 

174 


THE   AUSTRALIAI^   RACE: 


No.  71.— OOUNTEY  ABOUT  SIXTY  MILES  NORTH- 
WEST FEOM  A  POINT  ON  THE  DARLING 
MIDWAY  BETWEEN  MENINDIE  AND  WIL- 
CANNIA. 

By  William  Haines,  Esq. 

The  object  of  inserting  these  iniperfect  vocabularies  is  to 
mark  the  country  occupied  by  the  Darling  tribes,  by  which  I 
mean  the  descendants  of  Keelpara  and  Mookwara,  and  to 
allow  the  reader  to  form  his  own  opinions  on  the  subject. 


Kangaroo    - 

thulda. 

Hand  -        -        -  murra. 

Opossum 

yerungee. 

2  Blacks       - 

Tame  dog    - 

3  Blacks       - 

Wild  dog     - 
Emu    - 

thultee 

One     - 

Black  duck 

Two     - 

Wood  duck 

Three  - 

Pelican 

Four    -        -        - 

Laughing  jackass 

Father 

Native  companion 

Mlother 

White  cockatoo  - 

^V-Lw  Ul.Lv'X 

Crow  - 

warko. 

Sister-Elder 

Swan  - 

,,      Younger  - 

Egg     -         -         - 

Brother-Elder     ■ 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

yuppar. 

„          Younger 

Fish    - 

A  young  man 

Lobster 

An  old  man 

Crayfish       - 

An  old  woman     - 

Mosquito     - 

A  baby 

Fly      - 

wongarra. 

A  White  man 

Snake 

thoro. 

The  Blacks  - 

Children 

A  Blackfellow      ■ 

wimbacha. 

Head  - 

A  Black  woman  - 

wichoon. 

Eye     -        -        -  may-kee 

Nose    - 

mendolo. 

Ear      - 

BETWEEN   MBNINDIE   AND  WILCANNIA. 


175 


No.  71. — CouNTKT  BETWEEN"  Menindie  ajtd  Wilcannia — Continued 

Mouth 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

-  undee. 

Hill     - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  thurtolkee. 

Wood- 

-  yerra. 

Beard  - 

-  warkowlkee. 

Stone  - 

-  kumoo. 

Thunder 

Camp  - 

-  immarna. 

Grass  - 

-  moto. 

Yes     - 

- 

Tongue 

-  thurlunia. 

No      - 

" 

Stomach 

-  koomtoo. 

I 

-  ingardarapa. 

Breasts 

-  poona. 

You    - 

-  imba. 

Thigh  - 

-  karreka. 

Bark   - 

- 

Foot    - 

-  thinna. 

Good  - 

-  pooleera. 

Bone   - 

- 

Bad     - 

-  thuluka. 

Blood  - 

-. 

Sweet  - 

. 

Skin    - 

- 

Food   - 

, 

Fat      - 

. 

Bowels 

Hungry 

- 

Excrement  - 

. 

Thirsty 

- 

Bat 

War-spear  - 

-  karlkool. 

Reed-spear  - 

_ 

Sleep  - 

-  umbaba. 

Wommera  or 

Drink  - 

- 

throwing-stick 

Walk  - 

- 

Shield 

-  pimpa. 

See      - 

Tomahawk  - 

-  tharunia. 

Sit       - 

■ 

Canoe 

- 

Yesterday  - 

- 

Sun     - 

-  yoko. 

To-day 

- 

Moon  - 

-  woyohuka. 

To-morrow  - 

-  kerankee. 

Star    - 

-  poortie. 

Where    are 

the 

Light  - 

- 

Blacks  ? 

Dark  - 

- 

I  don't  know 

_ 

Cold    -        - 

_ 

Heat  - 

-  thurto. 

Plenty 

- 

Day    - 

_ 

Big      - 

- 

Night  -        - 

- 

Little  - 

- 

Fire     - 

-  koneeka. 

Dead  - 

-  pooree. 

Water 

-  moko. 

By-and-by  - 

- 

Smoke 

-  pumdoo. 

Come  on 

- 

Ground 

- 

Milk    -        - 

„ 

Wind  - 

_ 

Rain  - 

-  mukurra. 

Eaglehawk 

- 

God     -        - 

v_ 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

. 

Wife   - 

176 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  72.— BOOLCOOMATTA. 

By  W.  J.  Lake  Dix,  Esq. 

Me.  Dix  informs  me  tliat  the  Boolcoomatta  Blacks,  who 
are  evidently  connected  with  those  of  the  Darling,  neither 
circumcise  nor  practise  the  terrible  rite.  They  caU  the 
tribes  which  circumcise  Buerndoppa,  and  those  which  do 
not  Talara. 

No.   72.— BOOLCOOMATTA. 


Kangaroo    - 

kurloo. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum     - 

pilta. 

2  Blacks      - 

_ 

Tame  dog    - 
Wild  dog     -        - 
Emu    -        -        - 
Black  duck 

kalley. 
kaltee. 

3  Blacks      - 
One     - 
Two    - 

-  koola. 

-  barkloo. 

Wood  duck 

koonallee. 

Three  - 

-  barklarroo. 

Pelican 

Pour  - 

Laughing  jackass 

Father 

-  gumbja. 

Native  companion 
White  cockatoo  - 
Crow  -        -        - 
Swan  -        -        - 

wagoo. 

Mother 
Sister-Elder 
„      Younger 

-  ami. 

Egg    - 

berty. 

Brother-Elder 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

„          Younger 

Fish    - 
Lobster 
Crayfish      - 
Mosquito     - 
Fly     - 
Snake - 

wiugeroo. 

A  young  man 
An  old  man 
An  old  woman 
A  baby 
A  White  man 

-  thundukoa. 

The  Blacks  - 

weembabitcha. 

Children 

- 

A  Blackfellow      - 

Head  - 

-  tartoo. 

A  Black  woman  - 

koombutoha. 

Eye     -        - 

-  megie. 

Nose  -        -        . 

mendolo. 

Ear     - 

-  urie. 

BOOLCOOMATTA. 


177 


No.  72. — BooLCOOMATTA — Continued. 

Moutli 

- 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

-  anndil. 

HUl     - 

_ 

Hair  of  the  hea^ 

-  tartoo-hoopa. 

Wood- 

-  yarra. 

Beard  - 

-  wauk-hoopa. 

Stone  - 

-  kumo. 

Thunder      - 

-  kurndoo. 

Grass 

« 

Camp  - 

-  yeppra. 

Tongue 

-  tarelunia. 

Yes     - 

-  koo. 

Stomach      - 

-  karnunia. 

No      - 

-  mangee. 

Breasts 

-  amma. 

I 

-  appa. 

Thigh  - 

-  karraka. 

You    - 

-  imba. 

Toot   - 

-  didna. 

Bark   - 

. 

Bone  - 

- 

Good   - 

-  murracha. 

Blood  -        - 

- 

Bad     -        - 

-  toolacka. 

Skin   - 

-  palta. 

Sweet  - 

„ 

Fat     - 

-  murnie. 

Food   - 

_ 

Bowels 

- 

Hungry 

-  willcucca. 

Excrement  - 

-  koodna. 

Thirsty 

.. 

War-spear  - 

- 

Eat      - 

-  ditchua. 

E«ed-spear.- 

- 

Wommera  or 

Sleep  - 

- 

throwing-sticb 

Drink  - 

-  wiega. 

Shield 

- 

Walk  - 

-  parapa. 

Tomahawk  - 

- 

See      - 

-  bimme. 

Canoe  - 

- 

Sit      - 

- 

Sun     - 

-  yookoo. 

Yesterday  - 

- 

Moon  - 

-  piechyka. 

To-day 

- 

Star    -        - 

-  booerlee. 

To-morrow  - 

- 

Light  - 

- 

Where     are 

the 

Dark  - 

-  tunkem. . 

Blacks? 

Cold    -        - 

-  yackee. 

I  don't  know 

- 

Heat  - 

-  bookara. 

Plenty 

-  wobo-wobo. 

Day    - 

- 

Big     -        - 

-  wortoo. 

Night  - 

- 

Little  - 

-  berloo. 

Fire    - 

-  kudnicka. 

Dead  - 

-  bookalacha. 

Water 

-  ookoo. 

By-and-by  - 

-  wouko-wouko 

Smoke 

- 

Come  on 

- 

Ground 

_ 

Milk  - 

- 

Wind- 

_ 

Eain    - 

-  mukkara. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God    - 

_ 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

1    Wife  -        - 

■ 

VOL.    II. 

w 

178  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

No.  73.— TOEEOWOTTO. 

By  James  A.  Reid,  Esq. 

The  following  vocabulary  and  facts  connected  witli  the 
Milya-uppa  tribe  were  kindly  forwarded  to  me  by  Mr.  James 
A.  Eeid:— 

The  Milya-uppa  occupy  the  country  within  a  radius  of 
about  fifty  miles  from  the  centre  of  the  Torrowotto  Lake 
or  Swamp.  The  Whites  settled  there  in  1862  or  1863, 
the  tribe  at  that  time  numbering  some  200  souls.  By 
1872  the  tribe  had  fallen  to  150  persons,  and  in  September, 
1879,  only  about  sixty  remained,  half  of  whom  were  under 
fourteen  years  of  age;  besides,  several  of  those  included  in 
this  number  were  Blacks  from  less  desirable  country,  who 
on  the  reduction  of  the  Milya-uppa  and  the  partial  break- 
down of  old  customs  in  the  neighbourhood  had  made 
Torrowotto  their  home. 

The-  Milya-uppa,  whose  country  is  extremely  hot  in 
summer  but  frosty  on  winter  nights,  wear  opossum-rugs. 
They  ornament  the  person  (or  used  to  do)  with  the  usual 
long  scars,  which,  however,  in  their  case  are  on  the 
stomach.  They  also  wear  necklaces  of  bones,  and  in  deco- 
rating for  the  corroboree  paint  the  person  with  stripes  of 
pipe-clay,  and  stick  the  down  of  birds  on  to  the  back  and 
chest  with  blood,  one  of  the  men  bleeding  himself  at  the 
elbow  for  the  purpose. 

Their  tomahawks  were  of  stone,  of  the  common  pattern, 
ground  to  an  edge.  They  had  also  the  instrument  general 
in  the  continent,  which  is  shaped  like  a  chisel,  but  used 
also  as  a  knife.  Besides  these,  there  were  nets  for  the 
capture  of  ducks  and  emu,  but  not  for  fish,  as  Torrowotto 
Swamp  contained  none,  my  informant  says,  until  they  were 
introduced  by  the  Whites.  This  tribe  have  also  the  boom- 
erang and  clubs  and  spears  of  various  kinds.  The  wom- 
mera  is  not  used.     Their  shields  were  sometimes  carved, 


TOEROWOTTO.  179 

the  implement  employed  for  that  purpose  being  as  usual 
a  bone.  Kangaroo,  emu,  wild-fowl,  nardoo,  and  pig-weed 
(the  two  latter  especially)  were  their  chief  articles  of 
food,  and  were  cooked  on  the  fire  or  in  the  ashes,  ovens 
not  being  used.  Since  the  arrival  of  the  Whites  there 
have  been  many  changes  in  their  ways  of  life  and 
customs. 

Cannibalism  existed  amongst  them,  but  the  women 
were  forbidden  to  taste  human  flesh,  as  it  was  thought 
to  make  them  barren.  They  had  no  objection  to  tell 
their  names,  as  was  the  case  with  many  tribes,  and  Mr. 
Eeid  gives  the  following  as  specimens : — 


Poorpa. 

Wamby. 

Boolbelly. 

Wilbooly. 

Koonmelly. 

Kathally. 

Wately. 


Women. 
Yonga. 
Piltery. 
Koorlgoo'. 
Neilthery. 
Wooatoha. 


Regarding  marriage,  my  informant  says,  neither  men 
nor  women  married  outside  of  the  tribe.  Polygamy  pre- 
vailed ;  the  tribe  was  divided  into  two  classes,  and  no  man 
was  allowed  to  marry  a  woman  of  his  own  class.  Children 
belonged  to  the  class  of  the  mother.  Possibly  the  system 
was  more  elaborate  than  Mr.  Eeid  was  aware  of.  When 
a  woman  had  a  baby  (the  former  child  being  still  young), 
it  was  killed  immediately  after  birth.  This  people  did  not 
circumcise,  though  that  practice  was  common  in  the 
neighbourhood.  They  believed,  says  my  informant,  in  the 
existence  of  Grod,  which  I  think  doubtful,  and  that  after 
death  they  would  be  transformed  into  birds.  They  buried 
their  dead  in  the  ground,  and  when  the  deceased  had 
been  a  warrior  they  cut  one  another's  heads  and  let  them 
bleed  on  the  corpse  as  it  lay  in  the  grave.  When  a  man 
had  given  another  cause  of  complaint,  custom  required 
that  he  should  allow  his  head  to  be  struck  by  the  indi- 
vidual offended  till   blood   came.     Message-sticks  were  in 


180 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    EACE  : 


use.  After  a  long  separation  men  used  to  hag  on  meeting. 
The  tribes  whicli  bound  tbe  Milya-uppa  are  the  Ngurunta 
on  the  west,  the  Momba  on  the  south,  those  of  the  Paroo 
on  the  east,  and  the  Karengappa  on  the  north. 

For  the  cure  of  wounds,  earth  and  in  some  cases 
charcoal  were  applied  as  a  plaster.  Mr.  Eeid  also  says 
that  water  in  which  certain  herbs  had  been  steeped  was 
used  as  a  laxative,  but  does  not  say  whether  this  occurred 
before  the  arrival  of  the  Whites  or  not.  For  myself,  I 
never  knew  any  uncivilized  Black  who  took  any  heed  of 
the  state  of  his  bowels  or  believed. that  it  had  anything 
to  do  with  health. 

The  equivalents  of  tongue,  food,  and  eat  are  evidently 
from  one  root. 


No.  73.— TOEROWOTTO. 

Kangaroo    - 

-  tharlta. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum      - 

-  yoranga. 

2  Blacks      - 

- 

Tame  dog    - 

-  kaltha. 

3  Blacks      - 

. 

Wild  dog     - 

-  poolkaga. 

One     - 

-  neecha. 

Emu    - 

-  kathie. 

Two    - 

-  barcoolo. 

Black  duck  - 

-  ngalta. 

-  koormaly. 

Wood  duck  - 

Three  - 

-  barcoolo  neecha 

Pelican 

-  thampano. 

Pour    - 

-  barcoolo-bar- 

Laughing  jackass   (none). 

coolo. 

Native  companion  koorltho. 

Father 

-  kumbidgi. 

White  cockatoo 

-  korkanda. 

Mother 

-  homochi. 

Crow  - 

-  wakoo. 

Sister-Elder 

-  cinchi. 

Swan  - 

-  youngooli. 

,,      Younger 

-  whirtooka. 

Egg     - 

-  birty. 

Brother-Elder 

-  kogoi. 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  tiutha. 

„         Young 

er  burlogi. 

Fish^  - 
Lobster 

-  (none). 

A  young  man 

-  thumba. 

An  old  man 

-  wirtoo. 

Crayfish 
Mosquito     - 

-  kondie. 

An  old  woman 

-  wirtoo  oonbuca. 

Ply       . 

-  wingorlo. 

A  baby 

-  kichingo. 

Snake 

-  thora. 

A  White  man 

-  boree. 

The  Blacks - 

-  wimbiga. 

Children      - 

- 

A  Blackfellow 

-  wimbiga. 

Head  - 

-  tarto. 

A  Black  woman 

-  nongo. 

Eye     - 

-  mee-ee. 

Nose   - 

-  miudolo. 

Ear     - 

-  ure. 

TORROWOTTO. 


181 


Mouth- 
Teeth  - 

Hair  of  the  head 
Beard  - 
Thunder 
Grass  - 
Tongue 
Stomach 


Thigh  ■ 
Foot    - 
Bone    - 
Blood  - 
Skin    - 
Fat      - 
Bowels 
Excrement  - 
War-spear  - 
Reed-spear  - 
Wouunera     or 
throwing-stick 
Shield - 
Tomahawk  - 
Canoe  - 
Sun     - 
Moon  - 
Star     - 
Light  - 
Dark   - 
Cold    - 
Heat    - 
Day     ■ 
Night  - 
Fire     - 
Water - 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind  - 
Rain    - 
God     - 
Ghosts 


No.  73, 
yalla. 
thande. 
tartawoolka. 
warkawoolka, 
pimdi. 
mootho. 
tarlina. 
koontoo, 
ama. 
karka. 
tintha. 
pima. 
kandara. 
paltha. 
mume. 
koomowa. 
kooma. 
karkooro. 


uUumburra. 
taronga. 

yako. 

bichirka. 

poorly. 

minkee. 

tonka. 


•ToBROwoTTo — continued. 
Boomerang  - 


poohee. 

bokara. 

tonka. 

koonaka, 

nocho. 

pomdo. 

mumdy. 

yartoo. 

mukkara. 

boree. 


Hill     - 

-  kanpo. 

Wood  - 

-  yara. 

Stone  - 

-  kano. 

Camp  - 

-  yatha. 

Yes      - 

-  kurry-kurry. 

No       ■ 

-  natha. 

I          -        - 

-  upa. 

You     - 

-  imba. 

Bark    - 

-  paltha. 

Good   - 

-  kamgilla. 

Bad     - 

-  toolaka. 

Sweet  - 

- 

Pood    - 

-  thiala. 

Hungry 

- 

Thirsty 

-  yarka. 

Eat      - 

-  tiala. 

Sleep   - 

-  boompopa. 

Drink 

-  weohana. 

Walk  - 

-  parapoo. 

See      - 

-  pome. 

Sit       - 

-  ninga. 

Yesterday   - 

-  ellemo. 

To-day 

-  kalpo. 

To-morrow  - 

-  wambama. 

Where   are    1 

the    winga  wimbiga  ? 

Blacks  ? 

I  don't  know 

-  wingana. 

Plenty 

-  woolurty. 

Big      - 

-  parooro. 

Little  - 

-  kichirloo. 

Dead   - 

-  tamboro. 

By-and-by  - 

-  kana. 

Come  on 

-  kowo. 

Milk    - 

-  ama. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  billara. 

Wild  turkey 

-  thurlchega. 

Wife   - 

-  nongo. 

182  THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


1^0.  74.— THE  LOWER  PORTIOISrS  OP  THE  PAROO 
AND  WARREGO  RIVERS. 

By  G.  Scbivenbr,  Esq. 

The  dialects  of  the  Lower  Warrego  and  Lower  Paroo,  of 
wliicli  latter  the  attached  vocabulary  is  a  specimen,  are 
undoubtedly  off-shoots  of  the  Darling  languages.  From  an 
account  of  the  Parooinge*  tribe,  which  dwells  on  the  lower 
portion  of  the  Paroo,  given  me  by  Mr.  Q.  Scrivener,  I  gather 
as  follows : — 

When  the  Whites  first  occupied  the  Paroo  country,  in 
1863,  this  tribe  is  thought  to  have  numbered  about  500 
souls,  but  has  fallen  off  considerably  since.  In  cold  weather, 
the  Parooinge  wear  opossum-rugs.  They  have  boomerangs 
of  both  sorts,  but  not  the  wommera,  all  spears  being 
thrown  by  hand.  Their  weapons  generally  are  much  carved 
and  painted.  My  informant  notices  that  there  are  undoubted 
signs  of  small-pox  having  visited  this  tribe  about  thirty 
years  ago,  and  that  it  is  said  to  have  half  exterminated 
it.  This  people  object  to  tell  their  native  names,  but  wUl 
do  so  if  pressed  by  a  White  man.  Mr.  Scrivener  gives  the 
following: — Males:  Okomine,  Milta,  and  Bareo.  Females: 
Kutteri,  Nambala,  and  Binjilla.  Marriages,  which  are 
chiefly  made  within  the  tribe,  are  regulated  by  classes, 
which  Mr.  Scrivener  calls  Mukkwaroo  and  Kilparoo. 
Widows  are  said  to  remain  their  own  mistresses  for  a  year, 
after  which  they  generally  become  the  property  of  the  best 
fighting-man  of  the  proper  class.  The  girls  become  wives 
whilst  mere  children  and  mothers  at  fourteen,  and  the  old 
custom  was  to  kill  the  first-born  by    strangulation.    At 

*  People  of  the  Paroo. 


PAROO    AND    WARREGO    RIVERS.  183 

present  abortion  is  so  prevalent  tliat  very  few  children  are 
reared.     This  is  generally  effected  in  Australia  by  pressing 
on  the  stomach.     It  is  a  novelty  found  in  this  tribe,  that  the 
usual  ornamental  scars  are  produced,  not  by  incision,  but  by 
the  lighted  stem  of  a  burr,  which  is  placed  on  the  part  and 
allowed  to  burn  into  the  skin.    Neither  circumcision  nor  the 
terrible  rite  are  practised.     The   septum   of   the  nose   is 
pierced;  and  the  rights  of  manhood  are  said  to  be  conferred 
at  about  fifteen  years  of  age  by  knocking  out  two  of  the 
upper  front  teeth.     When  rain  is  much  needed,  I  am  told 
that  the  men  pluck  out  their  whiskers,  bleed  themselves, 
and  abstain  from  cohabitation  with  women  for  about  ten 
days.     Pitcheree  is  not  chewed  by  this  tribe.     Canoes  are 
not  used,  and  fish  are  caught  with  nets  only.     Burials  take 
place  immediately  after  death;  graves  are  about  four  feet 
deep,  and  over  them  is  erected  a  little  hut  in  which  is  placed 
a  vessel  holding  water,  the  ground  being  carefully  swept 
for  a  short  distance  round.     The  bearer  of  an  important 
communication  from  one  party  to  another  often  carries  a 
message-stick  with  him,  the  notches  and  lines  on  which  he 
refers  to  whilst  delivering  his  message.     This  custom,  which 
prevails  from  the  north  coast  to  the  south,  is  a  very  curious 
one.    The  reader  has  already  been  told  that  no  Blackfellow 
ever  pretends  to  be  able  to  understand  a  message  from  the 
notched  stick,  but  always  looks  upon  it  as  confirmatory  of 
the  message  it  accompanies.     As  early,  perhaps,  as  1844, 
the  Bangerang  Blacks  showed  me  sticks  of  the  sort,  and  said 
that  they  had  used  the  Like  from  time  immemorial,  and  that 
they  answered  the  purpose   of  the  White  man's  writing. 
Finding  that  none  of  them  could  read  the  lines  and  notches, 
I  rejected  the  whole  story  of  their  antiquity  and  general 
prevalence,  thinking  them  a  mere  imitation  of  our  practice 
of  writing  letters;  and  it  was  not  until  many  years  after 
that   I   found    I   was   wrong   as  regards   their   antiquity. 
Whether  the  idea  was  brought  with  the  first  comers  to 
these  shores  or  whether  it  originated  in  this  continent  I 
know  not.    The  extent  to  which  it  prevails  in  Australia,  at 


184 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


all  events,  shows  the  custom  to  be  one  of  very  ancient  date, 
so  that,  in  either  case,  we  find  the  savage  mind  originating 
an  idea  which  might  develop  into  writing.  Of  hieroglyphics 
I  have  found  no  trace. 


No.  74.— THE  LOWER  PORTIONS  OP  THE  PAROO  AND 
WARRBGO  RIVERS. 

By  G.   ScBivENBB,   Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  tulta. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum     - 

-  wirrikoo,  yar- 

2  Blacks      - 

-  barkoola  wimbit 

ingi. 

cha 

Tame  dog    - 

-  kuUi. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  barkoola  itcha 

Wild  dog     - 

-  bulkitcha. 

wimbitcha. 

Emu    -        -        -  kulti. 
Black  duck  -        -  mingara. 
Wood  duck  -        -  koonali. 
Pelican        -        -  booloooh. 
Laughing  jackass  (none). 

One     - 
Two    • 

Three  - 
Four  - 

-  itcha. 

-  barkoola. 

-  barkoola  itcha. 

-  barkoola-bar- 

koola. 

Native  companion  kooloorka. 
White  cockatoo  -  (none). 
Crow  -        -        -  warkoo. 
Swan  -        -        -  yoongooli. 
Egg     -        -        -  birti. 

Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 
,,     Younger 

-  kumbitcha. 

-  ummaka. 

-  wertooki. 

-  warticha. 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  tinna. 

Brother-Elder 

-  karkuga. 

Fish    - 

-  namba. 

„         Younger  burluoha. 

Lobster 

. 

A  young  man 

-  tumba. 

Crayfish 
Mosquito     - 

-  koongoola. 

-  gundi. 

An  old  man 
An  old  woman 

-  dulbil. 

-  kooritcha. 

Fly     -        - 

Snake  - 

-  wingero, 

-  dooroo. 

A  baby 

A  White  man 

-  burloo. 

-  tundook,  bori. 

The  Blacks  - 

-  wimbitoha. 

Children 

-  burloo-burloo. 

A  Blaokfellow 

-  marli  (?) 

Head  - 

-  turtoo. 

A  Black  woman 

-  noongoo. 

Eye     - 

-  mikki. 

Nose   ■ 

-  mindoolo. 

Ear     - 

-  uri. 

PABOO   AND   WARREGO   RIVERS. 


185 


No.  74. — Lower  Portions  of  the  Paeoo  and  Wabrego  Rivers — continued. 


Mouth 

-  yulka. 

Boomerang  - 

-  wuna. 

Teeth  - 

-  ngundi. 

Hill     - 

-  unikkoo  (?) 

Hair  of  the  heac 

-  turtoo  bulki. 

Wood  - 

-  yerra. 

Beard  - 

-  waka  bulki. 

Stone  - 

-  kurnoo. 

Thunder      - 

-  bumdi. 

Camp  - 

-  yeppera. 

Grass  - 

-  mootho. 

Yes     - 

-  ngu. 

Tongue 

-  tarlinya. 

No      - 

-  ngater,    ngarter- 

Stomach 

-  kumunga. 

berri. 

Breasts 

-  ununa. 

I- 

-  uppa. 

Thigh  ■ 

-  yalko. 

You     - 

-  imba. 

Foot    - 

-  tinna. 

Bark    - 

-  pultha. 

Bone   - 

-  birna. 

Good  - 

-  mariga. 

Blood  - 

-  kamdera. 

Bad     - 

-  tulukka. 

Skin    - 

-  puttha. 

Sweet  - 

-  wartink. 

Food   - 

-  mewulk. 

Fat      - 

-  mumi. 

Hungry 

-  wilka-wilka. 

Bowels         ; 

-  kitohakumunya. 

Excrement  - 

-  gooma. 

Thirsty 

-  yerka. 

Eat      - 

-  tundel. 

War-spear  - 

-  karlkooro. 

Sleep  - 

-  immarela. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  (none). 

Drink  - 

-  wichal. 

Thro  wing-stick 

-  (none). 

Walk  - 

-  wommole. 

Shield- 

-  ooloomburra. 

See      - 

-  bummy. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  turroin. 

Sit 

-  arngle. 

Canoe  - 
Sun     - 

-  (none). 

-  ooko. 

Yesterday  - 

-  yillon. 

Moon  - 

-  bychook. 

To-day 

-  kimbo. 

Star    - 

-  boorle. 

To-morrow  - 

-  wombin. 

Light  - 

-  meerinki. 

Where  are  the 

wimba  wimbit- 

Dark  - 

-  malara. 

Blacks? 

cha? 

Cold    - 

-  mukoora,  yeku. 

I  don't  know 

-  winjarto. 

Heat  - 

-  bootohi. 

Plenty 

-  oolirti. 

Day     - 

-  meerinki. 

Big      - 

-  wertoo. 

Night  - 

-  malara. 

Little  - 

-  kichalko. 

Fire    - 

-  wi,  goonikka. 

Dead  - 

-  booka. 

Water- 

-  ooko,  noko. 

By-and-by  - 

-  kunni,  bulyardo. 

Smoke 

-  boomdoo. 

Come  on 

-  yoon  berrip. 

Ground 

-  mumdi. 

Milk    - 

-  unmialora. 

Wind  - 

-  yertoo. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  boolyara. 

Rain    - 

-  mukkera. 

Wild  turkey 

-  dikkera. 

God     - 

-  koolerberri. 

Wife    - 

-  noongoo  or 

Ghosts 

-  bukkemberri. 

taminyi. 

186  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  75.— BOURKE,  DARLING  EIVER. 

Bt  Geevillb  N.  Teulon,  Esq. 

The  following  account  of  the  Bahkunjy  tribe  and  vocabulary 
of  its  language  bave  been  drawn  up  by  Mr.  Teulon,  to  whom 
I  am  particularly  under  obligation  for  the  great  pains  he  has 
expended  on  the  matter.  In  one  particular  only  do  I  differ 
with  my  contributor,  namely,  as  to  the  amount  of  frontage  to 
the  Darling  which  he  assigns  to  this  tribe.  This,  accounts  of 
the  neighbouring  tribes  show  to  have  been  less  extensive.  It 
will  be  noticed  that  the  Bahkunjy  have  as  neighbours  above 
them  on  the  Darling  tribes  which  belong  to  the  Eastern 
Division,  in  which  are  found  the  class-names  Kombo  and 
Hippi,  and  not  Keelpara  and  Mookwara. 

In  my  description  of  tribes  it  has  been  my  custom  to 
reduce  to  a  narrative  form  the  replies  received  to  my  series 
of  printed  Questions,  but  in  this  instance  I  shall  insert 
exactly  Mr.  Teulon's  replies  to  my  questions.  The  following 
is  an  extract  from  the  letter  which  accompanied  that 
gentleman's  contribution: — 

"  In  these  vocabularies  there  are  but  few  words  that  have 
been  suffered  to  pass  without  confirmation  from  at  least  one 
entirely  independent  source.  I  trust,  therefore,  that  errors 
also  are  but  few.  The  work  of  collecting  information  in  the 
present  day  from  the  Blacks  of  the  Upper  Darling  is  equally 
trying  to  the  patience  and  bewildering  to  the  wits.  The  old 
man  retains  a  most  indistinct  remembrance  of  the  long  past, 
and  is  suspicious  of  any  raking  of  its  ashes;  while  the  man 
in  his  prime,  distracted  between  the  two  stools  of  the  two 
eras  (willing  to  be  communicative  about  that,  were  this 
away),  makes  mistakes,  is  discovered,  and  resents  discovery 
by  cutting  off  supplies.  Moreover,  the  tribes  are  not  sun- 
dered as  of  old :  the  common  misfortune  has  drawn  them 


BOURKE,    DARLING   RIVER.  187 

together;  consequently,  tongues  have  become  mixed,  words 
have  become  changed,  or  have  fallen  out  of  use  or  out  of 
memory,  so  that  what  one  cannot  confirm  by  reference  to 
one's  own  memory  or  recollection  calls  for  many  siftings 
before  any  accepting.  I  have  appended  a  vocabulary  of 
words  and  sentences.  It  contains  nearly  every  word  men- 
tioned in  the  pages  preceding  it,  besides  other  words.  In 
a  note  further  on  I  shall  give  a  list  of  words  and  their 
counterparts — in  sound,  not  in  sense.  There  are  several 
compound  words  that  follow  the  lead  of  these,  and  are 
perhaps  as  innocent  of  meaning  anything  whatsoever  in 
connection  with  their  apparent  derivations  as  ludicrous 
ventre-bleu  itself,  and  its  kin.  Such  are  goorra-bootta  (whirl- 
wind— grey  thunder!);  yeulta-wulkka  (vein — string  of  the 
water-monster ! ! )  ;  turtoo-woollee  (doctor  —  hole  in  the 
head ! ! !) ;  &c.  Moonnoo-moorra,  to  hum,  means  (if  it  has  a 
meaning)  upper  lip — to  think;  which  may  or  may  not  mean 
further — to  hold  the  lip  in  a  state  of  quiescence,  which  one 
certainly  does  when  humming?  But — these  extravagances 
set  aside — one  finds  in  the  Kornoo  tongue,  even  at  the 
eleventh  hour  of  now-a-days,  words  sufficiently  sensible  and 
eloquent  (those  for  God,  morning  star,  evening  star,  mirage, 
for  example)  to  have  entitled  it  to  something  beyond  bare 
Non  omnis  moriar,  and  to  make  one  ask — If  the  shallows 
can  supply  such  'inestimable  stones,'  what  may  not  the  deep 
have  held?" 


188  THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

Address — Alma  Terrace,  Ohapel-street,  Bast  St.  Kilda. 
Sir,  Melbourne,  18    . 

Allow  me  to  bring  under  your  notice  tbat  I  bave  been 
engaged  for  several  years  in  collecting  for  ethnological  pur- 
poses, and  witb  a  view  to  publication,  specimen  vocabularies 
of  the  aboriginal  languages  and  dialects  of  this  continent,  of 
which,  as  the  result  of  the  support  which  I  have  received 
from  the  several  Colonial  Grovernments,  stock-owners,  police 
magistrates,  inspectors  of  police,  and  others,  a  very  large 
number  are  in  my  hands.  In  the  course  of  my  inquiries  I 
have,  however,  come  to  see  how  important  it  is  for  those  who 
interest  themselves  in  such  studies  that  correct  and  syste- 
matic information  on  many  matters  connected  with  our 
aboriginal  race  should  be  obtained  before  it  is  too  late,  and 
from  all  parts  of  the  continent.  Under  these  circumstances, 
and  as  my  object  is  of  a  public  rather  than  a  personal  nature, 
I  trust  I  shall  be  excused  for  the  liberty  I  have  taken  in  for- 
warding to  you  copies  of  my  Questions  and  Vocabulary,  and 
in  begging  for  such  information  in  connection  with  them  as 
you  may  have  opportunity  or  leisure  to  communicate.  In 
order  to  avoid  misconceptions,  I  may  notice  that  it  is  not 
anticipated  that  the  gentlemen  to  whom  these  papers  are  sent 
will  in  general  be  able  to  reply  to  the  whole  of  my  queries, 
but  that  some  will  be  able  to  give  information  on  one  point, 
and  some  on  another,  and  all  on  a  few;  and  I  may  add  that, 
however  meagre,  the  contribution  will  be  received  with 
thanks. 

Concerning  the  vocabulary,  which  is  a  very  important 
feature,  experience  has  proved  that  four-fifths  of  the  words, 
at  least,  can  be  very  quickly  taken  down  with  the  aid  of  a 
moderately  intelligent  Blackfellow.  The  aboriginal  words 
should  be  written  very  distinctly,  and  without  using  capital 
letters,  which  are  often  very  puzzling;  and  it  should  be  borne 
in  mind  that  budgeree,  bael,  gin,  lubra,  &c.,  are  not  aboriginal 
words,  though  they  pass  for  such. 
I  am.  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant," 

EDWARD  M.  CURE. 


QUESTIONS   CONCERNING   THE   ABORIGINES.  189 

Questions  Concerning  the  Aboeigines  of  Australia.. 
My  questions  to  Teuton  and  his  replies  are  as  follow: — 

1.  What  country  does  (or  did)  ttie  tribe  to  which  your 

answers  refer  inhabit  ?  It  is  essential  that  this  question 
should  be  answered  in  such  a  way  that  the  locality  can 
be  set  down  on  a  map,  approximately  at  least,  and  that 
all  your  replies  should  have  reference  to  this  particular 
tribe  and  to  no  other  ? 

1.  The  tribe  inhabits  both  banks  of  the  Darling  from 
about  Bourke  on  the  left  bank  to  about  Tilpa  on  the 
right  bank,  a  length,  by  road,  of  upwards  of  100  miles. 
Towards  either  limit  the  dialect  shows  itself  affected  by 
other  dialects ;  but,  indeed,  one  may  question  whether, 
at  the  present  time  (1884),  it  is  spoken  unmixed  any- 
where, so  whitewashed,  so  to  speak,  are  the  few  Blacks 
now  to  be  seen,  and  of  these  so  great  is  the  proportion 
of  what  would  once  have  been  regarded  as  Warregals,  or 
Tanqui  (hostile  persons). 

2.  What  is  the  native  name  of  the  tribe  ? 

2.  Bahktinjy. 

3.  In  what  year  was  their  country  first  occupied  by  the 

Whites  ? 

3.  Probably  about  1845. 

4.  What  was  the  number  of  persons  composing  the  tribe  at 

the  time  ? 

4.  Probably  not  fewer  than  3,000. 

5.  In  what  year  did  you  first   reside   on   the   country  in 

question  ? 

5.  1863. 

6.  How  many  did  the  tribe  number  in  that  year  ? 

6.  Probably  not  fewer  than  1,000. 

7.  How  many  does  it  number  now  ?     If  you  can,  please 

specify  the  men,  women,  youth  of  both  sexes,  boys  and 
girls,  at  present  composing  the  tribe. 

7.  Probably  not  more  than  80  ;  namely  (say),  25  men, 
35  women,  10  boys,  10  girls. 


190  THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

8.  If  there  has  been  a  decrease  in  numbers,  to  what  do  you 
attribute  it  ? 

8.  There  has  been  a  decrease  to .  an  extent  scarcely- 
short  of  annihilation  (the  majority  of  the  remnant  being 
decrepit  in  the  extreme),  owing  in  part  to  the  diseases 
that  accompany  the  White  man ;  in  part  to  what  must 
almost  ever  be  the  result  of  putting  "  a  piece  of  a  new 
garment  upon  an  old." 

9.  Were   there  any  old   Blacks  when  first  you  knew  the 
tribe. 

9.  Yes. 

10.  As  far  as  you  can  judge,  what  ages  did  the  oldest  ones 

reach  ? 

10.  Their  looks  were  the  looks  of  White  men  of  70 
years. 

11.  Are  there  any  old  persons  in  the  tribe  now  ? 

11  Fully  half  of  the  adults  remaining  look  old,  but 
the  actually  old  are  few. 

12.  Did  they  wear  clothes  before  the  coming  of  the  Whites; 
and,  if  so,  what  clothes  ? 

12.  None,  except  the  loin-net  (weerlppa-pulkka)  or 
the  fringed  apron  (weerlppa)  supported  by  the  loin- 
line  (weerlppa-weenya),  the  head-band  (merry-merryja) 
or  the  head-net  (turtoo-weerlppa) ;  and,  in  cold  weather, 
the  skin-rug  (kombee). 

13.  Do  they  wear  any  now  ? 

13.  Yes;  but  never  with  grace,  and  seldom  with  a 
good  grace.  This  latter  assertion  is  proven  by  the 
alacrity  with  which  they  disrobe  as  soon  as  camp  is 
reached. 

14.  If  they  had  no  clothes,  how  did  they  manage  on  cold 

nights,  or  when  mosquitos,  &c.,  were  troublesome  ? 

14.  Their  fires  warmed  them;  and  the  smoke  of  their 
fires,  aiding  the  fish-grease  with  which  they  daubed 
their  bodies,  was  potent  to  hold  at  bay  the  most  blood- 
seeking  mosquito. 


QUESTIONS    CONCERNING    THE   ABORIGINES.  191 

15.  Do  or  did  the  men  or  women  wear  any  ornaments  of  the 
person,  and  what  are  they  ? 

15.  The  women  wore  the  necklace  (pernba-wulkka) ; 
the  men  wore  tufts  of  feathers  in  head-net  or  head-band; 
both  sexes  wore  the  nose-stick  (meundeeahrra). 

16.  Do  they  smear  their  persons  with  grease,  red  ochre,  pipe- 

clay, or  other  substances;  and,  if  so,  on  what  occasions  ? 

16.  Grease,  as  being  repulsive  alike  of  insects  and  of 
weather,  was  employed  universally  in  place  of  clothing, 
with  the  occasional  admixture  of  red  ochre  (koottee) 
and  pipe-clay  (ko-pajja).  Red  ochre  was  utilized  also 
as  war-paint,  pipe-clay  as  dance-paint.  Pipe-clay, 
moulded  to  the  head,  is  still  the  mourner's  head-dress. 

17.  What  bags,  nets,  baskets,  or  other  utensils  had  your 

tribe  in  its  natural  state  ? 

17.  Their  principal  utensils  were  the  fish-net  and 
duck-net  (mulkka),  the  fish-spear  (tintee),  the  spade 
(boppara),  the  yam-stick  (werkka),  the  large  wooden 
bowl  (yookooja),  the  small  wooden  bowl  (yerra-koo- 
rooka),  the  mat  (pintooka),  the  basket  (koorooka),  the 
little  net  (worroka),  and  the  fly-switch  (weerlppa).  The 
duck-net  was  very  large,  reaching  from  the  one  bank  to 
the  other  of  the  river,  and  to  a  height  of  many  feet 
above  it.  The  process  of  duck-hunting  was  very  simple. 
Two  Blacks  would  take  charge  of  the  out-stretched  net, 
and  a  third  down-stream  would  disturb  the  ducks  ; 
which,  thoroughly  frightened,  as  they  neared  the  net, 
by  the  kite-like  cries  and  missiles  of  the  enemy  about 
it,  would  almost  infallibly  drop  and  become  enclosed. 

18.  Have  they  any  implements  of  stone,  such  as  tomahawks 

or  flint  knives  ?     "Were  they  ground  smooth  or  only 
chipped  ?     Please  describe  them. 

18.  The  stone  instruments  used  by  these  Blacks  were 
the  tomahawk  (durrinya),  the  chisels  (mundooba  and 
mooUee),  and  the  knife  (yernda).  These  were  all 
ground  smooth,  not  chipped.  The  head  of  the  toma- 
hawk was  fixed  to  its  handle  by  means  of  gum  and 
string. 


192  THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

19.  What  weapons  have  or  had  they  ?  Is  the  boomerang 
used  ?  Does  it  return  when  thrown  ?  Do  they  throw 
their  spears  with  the  hand  or  with  the  throwing-stick 
(wommera)  ?  Are  their  weapons  ornamented  with  carv- 
ing, or  colored  with  ochre,  &c.  ? 

19.  In  addition  to  the  common  fish-spear,  their  spears, 
available  equally  for  fighting  and  for  hunting,  were  at 
least  four,  namely,  goolleer,  unbarbed;  wirra-mirroty, 
barbed  on  one  side ;  kulkaroo  and  nunndeebooka,  barbed 
on  both  sides.  AU  barbs  were  cut  out  of  the  wood,  and 
were  not  splinters  of  stone  inserted  in  it.  The  barbs  of 
kulkaroo  and  mrra-wirroty  were  stout  and  short,  those 
of  nunndeebooka  were  very  fine  and  very  long,  and  lay 
parallel  with  their  shaft ;  nunndeebooka  was  used  as  a 
fish-spear  as  well  as  for  other  purposes.  The  wommera 
was  unknown  to  the  tribe ;  so,  probably,  was  the  reed- 
spear.  Boomerangs  were  of  two  kinds — wonggee,  which 
would  return;  wonna,  which  would  not  return.  Nullah- 
nullahs,  or  clubs,  also  were  two — koloroo,  that  for  the 
fray ;  poonggoroo,  that  for  the  chase.  Waddies  (clubs) 
were  two — the  rounded  poondee,  the  flat  mung-abuttaka. 
Some  of  these  weapons  were  ably  employed  in  seconding 
woolloomburra,  the  shield,  in  the  work  of  defence.  The 
shield  was  invariably  colored  with  red  ochre;  sometimes 
it  was  carved ;  then  it  would  display  alternate  stripes  of 
red  ochre  and  pipe-clay.  Speaking  of  weapons,  one  is 
specially  justified  in  using  the  past  tense.  It  may  be 
seen  of  no  grandly-framed  Wimbaja*  now-a-days  "  quo 
turbine  torqueat  hastam"  no  bird  falls  to  the  lesser 
nullah-nullah,  no  stranger  quails  before  the  boomerang 
returning.  A  broken  boomerang  here  and  there,  a 
battered  unregarded  shield,  a  toothless  spear — these 
are  the  "  sole  remaining  "  representatives  of  the  not 
despicable  armoury  that  was.     T^^qja  fuit  indeed. 

20.  With  what  implements  do  they  make  and  carve  their 

weapons  ? 

20.  With  durrinya,  mundooba,  and  yernda. 

*  Black  man. 


QUESTIONS    CONCERNING    THE   ABORIGINES.  193 

21.  With,  what  do  they  cut  open,  skin,  and  divide  animals 
when  killed  ? 

21.  With  the  shell-knife  (kahra),the  emu-hone  knife 
(kulttee-pinna),  and  the  kangaroo-bone  knife  (tultta- 
pinna). 

22.  What  are  their  principal  articles  of  food  ? 

22.  The  seeds  of  nardoo  (tundukka),  of  pig-weed 
(toong-ara),  &c.,  bruised  and  kneaded  into  a  paste 
(womppa)  between  flat  stones  (yeltta),  and  either 
scooped  up  with  the  forefinger  and  advanced  to  the 
mouth  at  this  stage,  or  baked  into  a  cake  (bookala) ; 
sow-thistle  (bullumba),  trefoil  (poontta),  pig-face  (kahn- 
bee),  yam  (koonpinya),  gum  (tunninya);  eggs  innumer- 
able in  their  seasons;  and  of  the  animals  under  him, 
every  one,  without  exception,  perhaps,  from  the  kan- 
garoo (tultta)  to  the  pisant  (moonnee). 

23.  How  do  they  prepare  their  food  ? 

23.  Most  of  the  plants  eaten  by  them,  and  a  few  of 
the  smaller  animals,  they  ate  raw.  Meat  they  cast 
whole  or  piecemeal  into  the  fire,  and  little  more  than 
singed  it.  The  Wimbaja  is  conservative,  and  still  prefers 
his  food  thoroughly  underdone. 

24.  Have  they  ovens  ?    What  are  they  like  ?    How  large  are 
they  ?    How  are  they  used  ? 

25.  Are  there  many  of  them  ?     Have  any  fallen  into  disuse  ? 

24.  25.  Of  old  they  used  the  oven  (wong-a),  a  mere 
hole  in  the  ground,  for  the  cooking  of  large  game. 
Having  well  heated  it,  they  would  place  it  in  the  carcase 
to  be  cooked,  and,  having  "  topped-up "  with  a  good 
fire,  sit  awaiting  patiently  the  kindred  cries,  nahtooko 
(take  it  out !),  putta-puttako  (cut  it  up  !).  Ovens  have 
been  out  of  use  for  very  many  years ;  the  existence, 
therefore,  of  any  of  them  in  the  present  day  is  doubtful. 

26.  Have  your  tribe  any  restrictions  with  respect  to  food;  if 

so,  what  are  they  ? 

26.  Nowhere  on  the  Darling  do  the  Blacks  recognize 
any  restrictions  in  regard  of  food,  saving  such  as  may 


194  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

come  of  super-sufficiency  within  or  of  deficiency  without. 
(See  72.) 

27.  Had  any  of  your  tribe  marks  of  small-pox  when  first 
you  knew  them  ?     Were  such  marks  strong  or  light  ? 

27.  I  can  recollect  but  one  Black  having  pock-marks, 
which,  in  his  case,  could  not  be  called  light,  although 
less  strong  than  those  ordinarily  seen  on  a  White  man's 
skin.  This  Black  answered  to  the  name  Shylock;  and 
certainly  in  his  sinister  features  and  furtive  glances,  and 
subdued  sullen  bearing,  one  could  trace  little  of  the  open, 
hearty  (I  would  say  honest)  expression  that  stamps  the 
Wimhaja  in  general. 

28.  Are  any  still  alive  with  the  marks  ?     How  many,  and  of 

what  ages  ? 

28.  AU  answers  to  this  question  and  to  the  half-dozen 
following  it  were  so  conflicting  as  to  be  all  but  valueless. 
I  saw  probably  two-thirds  of  the  Blacks,  now  living,  of 
the  tribe,  but  not  one,  howsoever  slightly,  pock-marked; 
on  the  other  hand,  I  was  informed  that  some  having 
marks  are  yet  to  be  seen.  The  early  explorers  affirm 
that  the  disease  had  plainly  done  its  work  before  their 
time,  whereas  the  Blacks  (many  of  them  at  least)  main- 
tain that  the  White  man  introduced  it. 

32.  Did  many  of  the  tribe  die  of  it  ? 

32.  Yes. 

38.  What  did  they  call  small-pox  ? 

33.  Mungga. 

34.  Did  they  bury  those  who  died  of  it  ? 

34.  Not  known. 

35.  Are  your  Blacks  cannibals  ?  Please  mention  the  grounds 

of  your  opinion  or  belief  of  this  subject. 

36.  If  they  are  cannibals,  to  what  extent;  and  what  are  their 
practices  with  respect  to  cannibalism  ? 

37.  Please  state  any  facts  you  know  on  the  subject. 

35.  36,  37.  There  appears  to  be  no  reason  to  suppose 
that  they  were  at  any  time  cannibals.  Until  stock 
littered  their  simple  harvest,  and  dogs  and  horsemen 


QUESTIONS   CONCERNING    THE  ABORIGINES.  195 

and  fowling-pieces  scared  and  thinned  their  lawful 
furred  and  feathered  prey,  and  the  effeminacies  bred  of 
apparel-wearing  debarred  them  from  fishing  in  the  old 
fashion  that  insured  a  hauling,  not  chanced  a  hooking, 
they  were  abundantly  supplied  with  food,  and  ex- 
perienced, therefore,  no  provocation  to  a  feast  so  gross 
as  the  cannibal's. 

38.  Have  your  Blacks  any  objection  to  tell  their  native 
names. 

38.  They  hesitate,  and  in  a  manner  so  suspicious 
that  when  at  length  they  tender  a  name,  one  cannot 
help  doubting  the  genuineness  of  it.  They  always 
show  an  extreme  repugnance  to  hearing  mentioned,  as 
to  mentioning  the  name  of  one  dead. 

39.  Please  give  me  as  many  of  their  names  as  you  are  able, 
distinguishing  those  of  men  and  women,  boys  and 
girls. 

39.  Men:  Kahppo,  Booldo,  MnkkSrally,  Mahrttm, 
Ttin-gulyara.,  MathabSrin,  Eeburry,  Mtirroorry,  KShbo- 
reeka.  Women:  Ydomma,  Melnma,  GoorgoogoogS., 
Neelppee-bundtika,  Murrinjara,  Kahbobnjara,  Niim- 
moonjara.  The  children  of  the  period  (1884)  affect 
English  names  in  toto. 

BittolS-gooUee  {i.e.  moon-house)  is  the  name  of  an 
isolated  hill,  near  the  river,  right  bank,  at  about  the 
centre  of  the  territory,  on  Dunlop  Station.  This  hill  is 
marked  in  a  map  annexed  to  MitcheWs  Expedition  in 
Eastern  Australia. 

Kttlkulkobeekareejee  is  the  name  of  ,a  creek  at  the 
foot  of  Bittola-gooUee. 

40.  Have  they  any  class-names  ?     "What  are  they  ?    To  what 

do  they  refer  ? 

41.  Do  your  Blacks  (or  did  they  originally)  marry  women 
of  their  own  tribe  or  of  some  other  tribe  or  tribes  ? 

40.  41.  The  tribe  was  divided  into  (I  believe)  only 
two  families,  Kombo  and  Hippi ;  any  member  of 
the  one  of  which  might  marry  with  any  member  of  the 

N2 


196  THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

other.  The  marriage  of  a  Kombo  with  a  Kombo,  or  of 
a  Hippi  with  a  Hippi,  constituted  an  offence  against 
law.  Marriage  out  of  the  tribe,  being  a  matter  of  vis, 
commonly  involved  the  summons  ad  arma. 

42.  Have  any  of  the  men  more  than  one  wife  ?     What  pre 

portion  had  more  than  one  ? 

42.  A  very  small  proportion  had  more  than  one  wife, 
probably  none  but  a  redoubtable  warrior  could  compass 
such  an  accession  to  his  household,  or,  having  com- 
passed, sustain. 

43.  At  what  age  do  the  males  marry,  and  at.  what  age  the 

females  ? 

43.  The  males  might  marry  at  19,  the  females  at  13 
or  14. 

44.  At  what  age  do  the  females  bear  children  ? 

45.  If  the  females  marry  out  of  the  tribe,  into  which  tribe 

do  they  marry. 

44.  45.  I  could  get  no  answer  to  either  of  these 
questions. 

46.  How  do  the  men  of  your  tribe  obtain  wives  ? 

46.  A  man  wishing  to  marry  a  girl  of  his  own  tribe 
expressed  the  wish  to  her  parents,  on  whose  application 
a  meeting  of  the  tribe  was  called,  where  the  banns,  so 
to  speak,  were  published,  and  the  girl  was  exhorted  to 
be  a  faithful  wife.  The  meeting  dissolved,  bride  and 
bridegroom  retired,  as  on  their  honeymoon,  into  other 
parts,  until  the  possible  shrew  had  been  duly  tamed ; 
they  then  returned,  and  if  the  inquiry  put  to  the  girl  by 
her  mother  as  to  whether  she  is  happy  could  be  answered 
satisfactorily,  the  pair  continued  to  live  together ; 
otherwise  they  separated — that  is,  the  girl  went  home 


[This  answer  must  be  taken  "  for  what  it  is  worth," 
as  it  was  not  confirmed.     The  most  romantic  part  of  it 
is  omitted.] 
47.  Have  they  any  laws  about  marriage;  and,  if  so,  what  ? 
47.  See  40,  41. 


QUESTIONS    CONCERNING    THE  ABORIGINES  197 

48.  What  becomes  of  widows  ? 

48.  A  widow  (boortooka)  returned  to  her  parents,  but 
might  marry  again  if  she  willed.  It  was  according  to 
rule  that  she  should  give  preference  to  the  brother,  next 
younger  than  him,  of  her  deceased  husband. 

49.  Do  children  belong  to  the  father's  tribe  or  the  mother's? 

49.  Marriage  was  within  the  tribes.  Children  belong 
to  the  mother's  class. 

50.  On  an   average,  how  many  children  did  each  woman 

bear  ? 

50.  No  answer  obtainable  to  this  question. 

51.  Is  infanticide  practised  ?  To  what  extent  ?  What  is 
the  cause  of  the  practice  ?  Are  you  aware  whether  it 
prevailed  before  the  coming  of  the  Whites  ? 

51.  The  Blacks  deny  that  infanticide  was  ever  prac- 
tised among  them,  but  I  can  certainly  recollect  rumours 
of  it,  and  I  distinctly  remember  the  case  of  one  babe-in- 
arms which  disappeared  suddenly,  "  and  nothing  said." 
I  fancy  that  the  crime  rarely  occurred  unless  a  mother, 
intolerably  overburdened,  found  the  poor  thing  an  en- 
cumbrance— as  ourselves  say.  If  the  custom  existed  at 
all,  the  coming  of  the  Whites  doubtless  extended  it,  as 
a  half-caste  child  was  seldom  to  be  seen. 

52.  To  what  diseases  are  your  Blacks  subject;  and  of  what 

do  they  die  ? 

52.  The  most  common  aboriginal  disease  was  that 
still  known  by  the  name  "  giggle-giggle  "  (moorkka),  a 
form  apparently  of  scrofula,  arising  from  uncleanHness 
and  dearth  of  vegetable  food.  This  disease  showed  itself 
in  whitish  blotches,  chiefly  about  the  legs.  The  Blacks 
died  less,  perhaps,  of  any  specified  disease  than  of  that 
mysterious  inability  (and  uncarefalness  too)  to  live,  to 
which  those  succumb  who  are  (and  have  discovered  that 
they  are)  not  "  the  fittest." 

53.  Do  they  raise  scars  on  any  part  of  the  body  by  way  of 
ornamentation;  if  so,  describe  the  process,  the  age  at 
which  the  operation  is  performed;  the  part  of  the  body 


198  THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

on  whicli  the  scars  are  raised,  both  as  regards  males  and 
females  ? 

53.  On  the  back  about  the  shoulders,  on  the  outer 
side  of  the  biceps,  on  the  breast,  never  about  the  legs: 
they  raised  blisters  that  look  like  so  many  swollen 
leeches  laid  in  rows.  Either  moollee  or  kahra  was  used 
in  the  operation,  which  took  place  before  early  youth 
had  passed.  If  much  pain  followed,  iguana  fat  was 
rubbed  into  the  wounds;  in  any  case  they  were  bathed 
with  water.  The  same  parts  of  the  body  female  (plus 
abdomen)  were  tattooed  (scarred)  as  of  the  body  male. 

54.  Do  they  circumcise  ?  With  what  object  ?  Do  they 
intermarry  with  tribes  which  do  not  circumcise  ?  Are 
all  the  males  circumcised  ? 

54.  Circumcision  is  unknown. 

55.  Do  they  practise  any  other  rite  of  the  sort?    If  so, 

describe  it  ? 

55.  No. 

56.  Do  they  knock  out  any  of  the  front  teeth?  "Which  teeth  ? 
At  what  age  ?     For  what  purpose  ?     How  is  it  done  ? 

56.  They  knocked  out  the  tooth,  most  fronting  one, 
of  the  upper  jaw  of  every  lad  as  he  neared  manhood. 
None  would  account  him  man  while  full-mouthed.  The 
tooth  was  expelled  by  means  of  two  pieces  of  stick 
placed  on  each  side  of  it  (so  as  to  form  an  obtuse  angle 
— tooth  vertex),  and  struck  alternately  until  it  gave 
way.     (See  72.) 

57.  Do  they  pierce  the  septum  of  the  nose,  and  wear  a  bone 

or  stick  through  it  ? 

67.  A  hole  (yerra-wooUee)  is  made  in  the  septum  of 
the  nose,  and  a  menndeeahrra  is  worn  thrust  through  it. 

58.  Do  they  mutilate  the  body  in  any  other  way  ? 

58.  No. 

59.  Are  there  any  differences  of  customs  between  the  cir- 

cumcised and  uncircumcised;  if  so,  what  are  they  ?   Do 
enmities  exist  between  them  ? 

59.  Circumcision  is  unknown. 


QUESTIONS   CONCERNING   THE  ABORIGINES,  199 

60.  Have  they  any  religious  belief  ?     Do  they  believe  in  an 
Almighty  Creator  or  Ruler  ? 

60.  They  believe  in  one  God  (Wahtta^noorinya),  the 
ample-handed  maker  and  preserver  of  all  things,  but 
have  neither  knowledge,  nor  desire  for  knowledge,  of 
him;  nor  does  any  man  expect  to  see  him,  even  should 
his  delighted  soul  attain  to  its  star.  Some  assert  that 
they  will  exist  after  death  as  White  men,  the  increasing 
number  of  these  and  the  decreasing  numbers  of  them- 
selves leading  them  not  unnaturally  to  such  conclusion; 
others,  that  the  evil  one  {Boorree)  removes  indiscrimi- 
nately all  souls,  nobody  knows  whither. 

61.  Have  they  any  superstitions;  if  so,  what  ? 

61.  They  still  cherish  a  superstitious  belief  in  a  pair 
of  snake-like  water  monsters  {Neittee  and  Yeutta),  en- 
dowed not  with  huge  teeth  only,  but  also  with  a  special 
craving  for  the  Wimbaja;  also  in  Boorree,  just  men- 
tioned, in  whose  despite,  that  the  devoted  camp  may 
escape,  nature  engages  the  curlew  (willaroo)  to  sound 
alarums  from  evening  till  morning;  also,  in  a  god  of  the 
winds,  one  Pindee,  author  of  thunder,  who  gathers  the 
clouds  and  (but  sparingly)  breaks  them  with  a  blow. 
They  hold,  too,  that  the  spirits  (koylppa)  of  the  departed 
walk  the  earth  after  dark,  and  that  the  whisperings  of 
leaves,  when  all  else  is  still,  are  the  murmurs  of  ghostly 
voices;  nevertheless,  they  are  not  utterly  averse  from 
moderate  travel  by  night.  In  respect  of  death,  they 
somewhat  illogically  maintain  (or  maintained)  that  no 
man  can  die  a  natural  death  except  through  the  ill- 
offices  of  an  enemy,  and  that  the  manes  of  the  dead 
cannot  be  appeased  until  that  enemy  has  been  discovered 
and  despoiled  of  his  kidney  fat.  This  deed  done,  the 
kopajja*  of  sorrow  may  be  removed.  The  Bahkunjy 
Blacks,  Like  most  aborigines  of  regions  subject  to 
drought,  kept  in  pay,  as  an  item  of  necessary  furniture, 

*  Pipe-clay  worn  on  the  head  as  mourning. — E.  M.  C. 


200  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

a  rain-maker  (boontairramukkra).  The  process  by 
whicb  this  man  compelled  the  rain-clouds  was  to  take 
of  bark  one  strip,  to  knead  blood  and  kopajja  into  a 
lump  in  it,  and  to  deposit  the  mixture,  sprinkled  with 
feathers  and  coated  with  mud,  at  the  foot  of  any  gum- 
tree  growing  on  the  slope  of  a  bank  leading  to  water. 
In  seven  days  from  that  moment  rain  might  be  ex- 
pected; in  seven  days,  or  more,  it  would  assuredly  fall. 

62.  Have  they  any  account  of  the  Creation,  or  of  the  Deluge, 
or  any  traditions  of  the  origin  of  their  race  ? 

62.  Yes ;  but  they  plainly  confuse  their  own  traditions 
with  what  they  have  heard  of  our  beliefs.  For  example, 
they  speak  of  the  Deluge  as  the  big  water  that  devoured 
the  White  man. 

63.  Is  pitcheree  or  any  other  narcotic  or  stimulant  used  by 
your  tribe;  if  so,  how  is  it  prepared  and  used;  and  what 
are  its  effects  ? 

63.  No  aboriginal  narcotic  is  known  to  the  tribe;  a 
fact  deplored  by  all  to  whom  this  question  was  put. 

64.  Have  your  Blacks  any  crests  or  totems?  What  are 
they  ?     To  what  do  they  refer  ? 

65.  Do  your  Blacks  use  signs  instead  of  words  ?  To  what 
extent,  and  what  particulars  can  you  state  ? 

66.  Did  your  Blacks  draw  or  paint  in  their  wild  state  ? 

64.  65,  66.  To  these  three  questions  the  answers  were 
invariably  No,  but  I  feel  inclined  to  believe  that,  except- 
ing so  far  as  painting  is  concerned,  they  were  false.  I 
do  not  think  that  the  Blacks  painted,  there  being  no 
caves  and  but  few  rocks  in  the  territory. 

67.  Describe  the  canoes  used  by  your  tribe  ? 

67.  The  canoes  of  this  tribe  were  the  gum-canoe 
(koombahla-booltaroo)  and  the  box-canoe  (koorkooroo- 
booltaroo).  They  were  made  of  bark,  somewhat 
"bowed"  at  either  end,  where  would  be  placed  a  lump 
of  clay  as  supplementary  prora  or  puppis,  and  were 
propelled  by  a  long  pole  (werkka),  pulled  with  long 
firm   strokes.     The   sides  were   kept   apart  by  sticks 


QUESTIONS    CONCERNING    THE    ABORIGINES.         201 

(yerkaka),  laid  thwartwise,  abaft  and  forward  of  a  third 
lump  of  clay  (koony-kahn-go,  or  fire-place).  More  of 
this  very  handy  clay  was  used  for  caulking,  should  any 
fissure  occur. 

68.  How  do  they  kill  kangaroo  and  emu  ? 

68.  By  surrounding  them,  and  narrowing  the  circle 
until  poondee  and  poonggoroo  could  be  used  to  advan- 
tage. Or  by  noosing.  The  animal  in  this  case  was  his 
own  doomster. 

69.  Do  they  procure  fish  ?    With  nets,  spears,  or  hooks  ?    If 
with  hooks,  describe  them. 

69.  They  both  speared  fish  and  netted  them.  Hooks 
were  unrecognized  as  expedient  until  the  more  straight- 
laced  days  of  the  era  of  apparel-wearing.  Net-fishing 
was  the  work  of  two  Blacks,  who  grasping,  each  of 
them,  a  pole  of  the  net,  would  swim  hither  and  thither 
for  a  few  minutes,  and  finally  bring  up  against  some 
gently  shelwng  bank,  or  on  some  shallow. 

70.  Can  you  give  me   any  information   concerning   their 
corroborees  ? 

70.  I  remember  little  more  myself  of  their  corroborees 
beyond  the  facts  that  the  chief  bones  (in  front)  of  each 
performer  were  marked  out,  skeleton  fashion,  with 
kopajja*  that  his  knees  and  ank  s  were  fringed  with 
gum-leaves,  and  that  daring  a  part  of  the  performance 
he  would  sweep  the  air  above  the  ground,  rhythmically 
from  side  to  side,  with  bunches  of  green  leaves,  making 
the  while  with  his  mouth  a  hissing  sound,  as  though  in 
imitation  of  that  made  by  the  leaves;  and  that  the 
gins,  and  very  old  men,  and  little  children,  who  formed 
the  appreciative  audience,  kept  up  a  sing-song  accom- 
paniment, and  beat  time;  the  females  by  thumping 
their  opossum-rugs,  folded  into  pads,  and  the  males  by 
clashing  their  boomeranges  together  as  cymbals.  Per- 
haps the  most  striking  feature  of  such  corroborees  as  I 
witnessed  was  the  ever-recurring  transformation  scene  ; 

*  Pipe-clay. 


202  THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

backs  would  be  suddenly  turned  to  one,  and  lo  I  "  the 
coUied  night";  faces,  and  presto!  an  array  of  gesticulat- 
ing, or  leaping,  or  quivering  skeletons.  The  Blacks  of 
the  present  day  are  singularly  reticent  touching  all  their 
ceremonies — will  not,  indeed,  refer  to  them  in  the  pre- 
sence of  a  gin  (who  generally  manages  to  continue 
present);  and  of  the  many  names  supplied  to  me  of 
their  various  corroborees  I  could  substantiate  none,  save 
one — mahnee. 

71.  What  is  the  average  height  of  the  men;  also  of  the 
women?  Describe  their  hair.  Are  their  any  cripples 
or  Albinos  ? 

7 1 .  The  men  average  in  height  about  five  feet  and  seven 
inches ;  the  women  are,  in  proportion,  somewhat  taller. 
The  hair  of  the  Blacks  is  black  and  strong  and  straight; 
heads  even  partially  bald  are  rarities.  I  never  heard 
of  either  cripple  or  Albino. 

72.  Do  they  make  the  youth  into  young  men?  At  what 
age  ?    With  what  ceremonies  ? 

72.  The  lad  (kornoondoo)  became  the  pree-adult 
(wilyahng-o),  and  thence  the  adult  (tummba),  at  the 
age  of  about  eighteen  years.  Six  weeks  or  so  before 
the  day  on  which  the  ceremony  of  his  initiation  had 
been  appointed  to  take  place  he  retired  from  the  camp, 
preceded  by  an  old  man,  and  following  by  cuttings  of 
bark  flung  at  him  by  his  youngest  brother,  or  other 
boy,  the  women  lying  perdues  behind  a  screen  of  boughs, 
erected  lest  any  of  them,  seeing  the  direction  taken, 
should  curiously  attempt  to  follow  it.  The  old  man 
conducted  him  to  some  secluded  spot,  where  or  where- 
abouts he  remained,  without  communication  with  any 
but  his  possible  fellows  in  probation,  and  without  fire, 
until  recalled.  Food  was  brought  to  him  daily  by  an 
elder  (sole  exception  to  the  rule  just  cited),  from  whom 
at  length  he  would  learn  of  his  promotion  to  the  estate 
of  wilyahng-o ;  whereupon,  for  a  period  of  three  days,  he 
would  fast.     On  the  third  day  of  the  three  the  closing 


QUESTIONS    CONCERNING   THE  ABORIGINES.  203 

ceremonies — the  expulsion  of  the  tooth,  and  whatever 
might  pertain  to  that  ordeal — took  place ;  and  these 
were  followed  by  a  corroboree,  in  which,  as  being  then 
tummba,  he  was  permitted  to  make  one. 
73.  How  do  they  dispose  of  their  dead?  Describe  their 
funeral  ceremonies,  if  any.  Have  they  any  form  of 
mourning? 

73.  They  bury  their  dead  beyond  highest  flood-mark 
in  the  soft,  easily-worked  sand  of  the  red  sandhills. 
Nowhere,  perhaps,  may  be  met  more  face  to  face  than 
at  the  funeral  of  a  Black  that  touch  which  makes  the 
whole  world  kin.  The  procession  in  twos  or  threes,  for 
fellowship's  sake ;  the  hanging  of  heads,  and  the 
wringing  of  hands ;  the  wailings  in  camp,  on  route, 
and  at  the  grave's  mouth,  that  come  plainly  from  no 
hired  lips  ;  the  carefully  swathed  body ;  the  carefully 
swept  holy  ground  containing  it ;  the  green  leaves 
(flowers  being  none)  laid  under  it  and  over  it;  the  green 
boughs  protecting  it,  all  testify  to  recognition  of  the 
fact  that  a  member  has  been  taken,  and  that  the 
members  suffer  and  prize  the  worth  of  the  lacked  and 
lost.  Nor  may  any  sound  be  heard  more  plaintive, 
hardly  more  musical,  than  the  varied  intonations  of 
the  mourners,  as  each  raises  his  or  her  peculiar  cry  of 
relationship: — KSh-koo-jai-S^f^ — Alas,  my  brother! 
Wimba-rai-a-ray — Alas,  my  child !  Wah-pa^nyai-a-ray 
— Alas,  my  child's  child !  .  .  .  .  On  one  occasion 
I  was  present  at  a  burial,  when  the  widower*  (as  the 
chief  mourner  chanced  to  be)  leapt  into  the  grave,  and, 
holding  his  hair  apart  with  the  fingers  of  both  hands, 
received  from  another  Black,  who  had  leapt  after  him, 

*  The  bereaved  man's  name  was  Towney.  Towney  was  a  chatty 
pleasant  little  "  nugget"  of  a  fellow,  who,  if  one  might  judge  him  by  his 
self-contained  fearless  manner,  and  by  the  fact  of  the  presence  of  a  bullet 
in  his  neck,  had  not  held  back  from  doing  his  part  versus  the  invader.  He 
went  to  Bourke  shortly  after  the  death  of  his  gin,  and  was  made  tracker 
there;  and  when,  through  an  accident,  he  died  some  years  ago  he  received 
the  honor  of  a  public  funeral. 


204  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

a  smart  blow  with  a  boomerang  on  the  "  parting."  A 
strong  jet  of  blood  followed.  The  widower  then  per- 
formed the  same  duty  by  his  comrade.  This  transaction 
took  place,  I  fancy,  on  the  bed  of  leaves,  before  the 
corpse  had  been  deposited.  I  may  add  that,  wlule 
walking  lately  (1884)  on  the  other  side  of  the  river 
from  Bourke,  I  came  across  a  recently-made  grave, 
about  three  and  a  half  feet  by  two  feet,  swept  and 
levelled,  and  bordered  with  pieces  of  round  wood. 
Twenty  pieces  of  kopajja,  each  of  the  shape  and  size  of 
an  emu  egg,  long  drawn  out  at  the  ends,  covered  most 
of  the  space  enclosed,  while  at  the  grave's  head  lay  a 
much  larger  piece,  and  globular,  that  had  apparently 
been  worn.  Quite  a  gunyah  (hut)  of  boughs  shadowed 
this  grave. 

74.  What  are  the  causes  of  their  wars?      How  are  they 
carried  on  ? 

74.  The  ordinary  origin  of  a  war  between  two  tribes 
of  Blacks  was  the  offence  of  gin-stealing ;  the  tribe  of 
the  intruding  Black  being  aggressor,  in  case  of  their 
kinsman's  death;  the  other  tribe  should  he  have  escaped. 
Not  that  the  word  war  in  its  extended  sense  applies 
to  what  would  actually  occur;  there  would  be  a  few 
duels,  and,  perhaps,  a  m^lde,  in  which,  by  reason  of 
the  address  of  the  combatants,  not  a  life  in  all  like- 
lihood would  pay  forfeit;  and  then  two  ancients,  one 
from  each  army,  would  step  to  the  front,  and  exchange 

.  peaceful  words,  an  example  anon  followed  generally. 
The  Wimbaja  does  not  foster  for  long  alta  mente 
repostum,  what  we  call  bitterness  and  wrath — may  be 
he  is  too  indolent  to  do  so,  and,  perforce,  therefore, 
too  indolent  to  prosecute  a  war. 

75.  How  are  disputes  vrithin  the  tribe  settled? 

75.  The  settlement  of  disputes  within  the  tribe  was 
left  to  a  conclave  of  old  men,  who,  having  heard  both 
parties,  would  do  their  best  to  bring  about  a  recon- 
ciliation.    Failing  in  such  endeavour,  they  would  con- 


QUESTIONS    CONCERNING   THE  ABORIGINES.  205 

sent  to  the  breaking  of  the  peace  which  they  had 
found  themselves  powerless  to  make.  Nothing  more 
serious,  though,  than  a  duel,  and  that,  possibly,  all 
but  bloodless,  might  be  expected;  worse  threatening, 
the  kindly  services  of  the  old  men  would  be  again 
brought  into  play.  The  will  and  pleasure  of  these 
ancients  (only  form  of  government  in  the  tribe)  seems 
to  have  consisted  largely  of  deprecation,  but  little  of 
dictation,  and  to  have  been  conveyed  ever  with  a  view 
to  the  rest  and  quietness  of  the  community. 

76.  It  has  been  said  that  messages  are  sent  from  one  tribe 
to  another  by  figures  painted  on  bark  or  cut  on  sticks ; 
will  you  give  me  your  experience  on  the  subject? 

76.  I  have  been  told  that,  in  the  event  of  the  loan 
of  a  net  being  required  of  another  tribe,  a  waddy  (club) 
having  the  image  of  a  net  scratched  or  carved  on  its 
nob,  would  be  despatched  thither;  and  that  bark,  too, 
was  used  as  a  means  of  communication. 

77.  Have  they  any  mode  of  salutation  amongst  themselves, 

such  as  shaking  hands,  &c. 

77.  Two  men,  not  necessarily  related  but  friendly, 
when  meeting,  would  salute  by  standing  side  by  side, 
and  casting,  each  of  them,  his  nearer  arm  round  his 
fellow's  neck,  with  the  greeting  kahmbeeja  or  bahlooja 
(father  or  younger  brother),  according  to  the  age  of  the 
addressed. 

78.  What  was  the  extent  of  country  which  belonged  to  the 

tribe  ? 

78.  About  100  miles,  as  the  crow  flies,  of  river  front- 
age. The  extent  of  back  country  was  probably  unde- 
termined, the  act  of  trespass  among  such  people  as 
Australian  aborigines  being  ordinarily  the  meeting 
anywhere  of  two  ahen  companies. 

79.  Name  the  tribes  with  whom  their  boundaries  conjoin. 

79.  The  adjoining  tribe,  up  the  river,  is  BurrunbinyS. 
That  down  the  river  is  Nullttlgo.  That  back  of  left 
bank  (Mulga   country)  is   Nyammba.    That  back  of 


206  THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

right  bank  (towards  Warrego)  is  Kahtegftlly.  That 
back  of  right  bank  (towards  Paroo)  is  Bahrunjy.  The 
tribe  Wahmbunjy  comes  next  above  the  tribe  Btirrfim- 
binya;  the  tribe  Tungga  next  below  NuUulgo. 

80.  Have  your  Blacks  any  masonic  signs  ? 

80.  I  never  heard  of  any. 

81.  Have  the  Blacks  any  Government,  or  council  of  old 
men  ?     If  so,  please  give  full  information. 

81.  See  75. 

82.  Does  the  native  bee  exist  on  your  run  ?  What  is  their 
economy  ?  What  are  they  like  ?  Do  they  swarm  ? 
What  is  the  weight  of  their  comb,  and  quality  of  their 
honey  ?     Can  they  do  without  water  ? 

82.  The  native  bee  (tintee-noorra)  did  formerly  exist 
on  the  run.  It  was  slim  and  stingless.  It  needed 
water.  The  honey  made  by  it  was  both  pleasant  to  the 
taste  and  fragrant,  but  wanting  in  clearness  untU 
strained.  I  do  not  know  whether  native  bees  were 
given  to  swarm,  nor  yet  what  was  commonly  the  weight 
of  their  comb.  Here  and  there  about  the  clayey  front- 
age of  the  Darling  grows  a  low  small-leaved  running 
plant  (mummalarooka),  which  secretes  a  tenacious 
milky  juice.  With  a  speck  of  this  juice  (honey  being 
required)  a  tiny  piece  of  down  would  be  attached  to  a 
bee's  back  (the  bee  having  been  caught  while  settled), 
and  serve  not  only  to  retard  the  flight  of  the  insect,  but 
also  to  aid  the  eyesight  of  the  Black  pursuing. 

83.  Have  your  Blacks  any  cures  for   sickness  ?     How  do 

they  treat  wounds  ? 

83.  Except  in  the  case  of  some  mysterious  disease 
calling  for  "  treatment,"  when  the  doctor  (turtoo- 
wooUee)  would  beat  and  sweep  with  leaves  the  air  and 
the  ground  about  his  patient,  knead  him  with  knuckles, 
mutter  over  him,  and  eventually  gladden  him  with 
sight  of  a  stone  or  piece  of  wood  as  causa  morbi,  the 
remedies  applied  by  the  Blacks  accorded  very  closely 
with  nature ;    the  severest  flesh-wound  (beingga),  for 


QUESTIONS   CONCERNING  THE  ABORIGINES.         207 

instance,  being  merely  sucked,  and  tlien  poulticed  with 
a  poultice  of  earth,  or  of  chewed  green  leaves,  or  of 
bruised  bark;  while  for  the  most  badly-fractured  bone 
(yahkoUojy-pinna)  nothing  more  than  splints  of  bark 
and  comparative  rest  would  be  considered  necessary  A 
man  suffering  from  rheumatism  (gahn-gala)  would  con- 
tent himself  with  a  poultice  of  boiled*  marsh  mallow 
(perndeecha).  To  remove  a  headache  (turtoo-meeka), 
he  would  dive  repeatedly,  or  hold  the  head  over  a  fire  of 
green  twigs,  or  apply  hot  to  it  smoked  green  leaves,  or, 
the  pain  in  it  becoming  extreme,  bandage  it  with  a  strij) 
of  green  opossum  skins;  sandy-blight  (meeky-koUala) 
and  swelling-blight  (tillunggoonna),  he  would  cure  with 
the  juice  of  the  pig-face,  when  this  was  to  be  obtained. 
Cold  water  within  for  a  fever  (koUala);  cold  water 
within  and  the  heat  of  a  fire  without  for  a  cold  (koon- 
dinya),  cold  water  both  within  and  without  for  indiges- 
tion (koonto-meeka),  are  other  examples  of  the  simple 
"  course  "  adopted  aforetime  by  the  Wimbaja.  His 
alleged  philosophic  prescription  for  snake-bite,  however, 
is  open  to  question.  If  the  snake's  harmless,  no 
remedy  will  be  needed ;  if  he's  not  harmless,  none  wiU 
avail. 


*  I  fancy  that  before  the  arrival  of  the  Whites  boiling  was  unknown 
to  the  Darling  tribes.— B.  M.  C. 


208 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  75.— BOURKE,   DARLING  RIVER. 
By  Grbnville  N.  TEULOif,  Esq. 


Kangaroo     - 

-  tultta. 

Hand  - 

-  murrS,. 

Opossum      - 

-  yarinjy. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  booUa  wimbaja 

Tame  dog    - 

-  multtara. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  booUa-neecha 

Wild  dog    - 

-  poolkgja. 

wimbaja. 

Emu    - 

-  kulttee. 

Black  duck  - 

-  ming-ara. 

One     - 

-  neecha. 

Wood  duck- 

-  koonahly. 

Two    - 

-  booUa. 

Pelican 

-  booleeja. 

Three  - 

-  boolla-neecha. 

Laughing  jackass  kOrrookahkahka. 

Four    - 

booUa-booUa. 

Native  companion  goolSrkoo. 

Father 

-  kahmbSeja. 

White  cockatoo 

-  kollybooka. 

Mother 

-  nUmmahka. 

Crow  - 

-  wahkoo. 

Sister-Elder 

-  wahttooka. 

Swan  - 

-  yoon-go-lee. 

,,     Younger 

-  wahttegja. 

Egg     -        - 

-  p6rtee-gull6. 

Brother-Elder 

-  kahkooja. 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  tinna. 

,,       Younger  bahlooja. 

Fish    - 

-  (nogeneralname). 

A  young  man 

-  tummba. 

Lobster 

-  (not  known). 

An  old  man 

-  mertta. 

Crayfish 

-  koon-gooloo. 

Mosquito    - 

-  koondee. 

An  old  woman 

-  nahnggO. 

Fly      - 

. 

A  baby 

-  ki-chttngga. 

Snake  - 

. 

A  White  man 

-  tundooka. 

The  Blacks - 

-  wimbaja. 

Children 

-  berloo-berloo. 

A  Blackfellow 

-  wimbaja. 

Head  - 

-  turtoo. 

A  Black  woman 

-  burrtlkka. 

Eye     - 

-  meeky. 

Nose   - 

-  pulkka-pinna. 

Ear     - 

-  eilrree. 

BOURKE,    DARLING   RIVER. 


209 


No. 

75. — BouRKE,   Darling  River — crnitinued. 

Month 

-  yelka. 

Boomerang  - 

-  wonn§,. 

Teeth  - 

-  nunndSe. 

Hill     - 

-  bol6. 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  tiirtSo-wooIkky. 

Wood  - 

-  yerra. 

Beard  - 

-  wokka-woolkky. 

Stone  - 

-  gibba. 

Thunder 

-  bootta. 

Camp  - 

-  yuppara. 

Grass  - 

-  moottS. 

Yes     - 

-  marrayta. 

Tongue 

-  tuUSenna. 

No       - 

-  nahttS,. 

Stomach 

-  koontS, 

Me       - 

-  ahppa. 

Breasts 

-  poonna. 

You     - 

-  imba. 

Thigh  - 

-  mungka. 

Bark   - 

-  tulkfiroo. 

Foot    - 

-  tinna. 

Good   -        - 

-  giinjillla. 

Bone   - 

-  pinna. 

Bad     - 

-  tooUaka. 

Blood  - 

-  kondara. 

Sweet  - 

-  gunjillla. 

Skin    - 

-  pultta. 

Food   - 

Fat      - 

-  munn6e. 

Hungry 

-  wilkahka. 

Bowels 

-  koonna-wulkka- 

wulkka. 

Thirsty 

-  yerlkka. 

Excrement  ■ 

-  koonna. 

Eat      - 

-  ti-ee. 

War-spear  - 

-  kulkaroo. 

Sleep  - 

-  6-margala. 

Reed-apear  - 

- 

Drink - 

-  toonjala. 

Throwing-stiok 

- 

Walk  - 

-  wong-a. 

Shield - 

-  woolloombttrra. 

See      - 

-  bonimSS. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  wokkaka. 

Sit       - 

-  neengga. 

Cauoe - 

-  booltaroo. 

Yesterday   - 

-  iUahgS. 

Sun     - 

-  mengkeeiillO. 

To-day 

-  keilppS. 

Moon  - 

-  bi-chooka. 

To-morrow  - 

-  wahmbeenya. 

Star     - 

-  booUSS. 

Where    are 

;he    weendya  wim 

Light  - 

-  mengkfeS. 

Blacks? 

baja. 

Dark  - 

-  wongka. 

I  don't  know 

-  weendyah-n-no 

Cold    - 

-  yerkkee. 

Plenty 

-  noollada. 

Heat   - 
Day     - 

-  boyttyee. 

-  yiikS. 

Big      - 

-  koombaja. 

Night  - 

-  toongka. 

Little  - 

-  kelch61k6. 

Fu-e     - 

-  koonyka. 

Dead  - 

-  bookka. 

Water- 

-  uo-kk8. 

By-and-by  - 

-  pooly-ahtta. 

Smoke 

-  poondoo. 

Come  on 

-  yo-thahnSS. 

Ground 

-  mundee. 

MUk    - 

-  nummaloo. 

Wind- 

-  yerttS. 

Rain    - 

-  mtikkra. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  bil-yahra. 

God     - 

-  wahtta-noorinya. 

WUd  turkey 

-  tikkara. 

Ghosts 

-  koylppa. 

Wife    - 

-  koombahka. 

VOL.    II. 

0 

210 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  75. — Additionai  Wokds. 

The  long  mark  and  the  short  mark  are  employed  in  this  vocabulary,  not 
only  to  insure,  as  far  as  possible,  with  the  help  of  the  hyphen,  a  correct 
pronunciation,  but  also  to  indicate  the  exact  number  of  syllables  in  a  word. 
In  a  compound  word,  the  place  of  the  long  mark  depends  generally,  as  with 
ourselves,  on  the  context :  turtoo-woolkky,  for  instance,  stands  in  contra; 
distinction  to  wokka-woolkky;  turtoo-woolkky,  to  turtoo-pinna. 

Soft  c  or  «  does  not  exist  in  the  tongue ;  for  hard  c,  I  have  used  h,  aa 
being  unmistakable;  j  for  soft  g;  ee  for  long  e;  ay  for  a,  as  in  baby 
ah  for  a,  as  in  father;  a  elsewhere  is  as  the  one  or  the  other  of  the  two 
vowels  in  manna.  The  softer  consonants  are  often  preferred  to  the  harder 
— ^  to  b,  t  to  d,  and,  now  and  then,  Ic  to  g.  Double  consonants  have  been 
constantly  employed,  even  where  a  single  consonant  may  seem  enough  (pp 
in  mulppa,  nn  and  kk  in  noonntoolkko,  e.g.).  The  cause  of  this  is  the  great 
emphasis  which  the  Wimbaja  lays  on  some  one  particular  syllable,  or  two, 
of  almost  every  word  spoken  by  him,  an  emphasis  so  great  at  times  as  to 
convert  into  a  mere  by-the-way  the  portion  left  without  emphasis.  The 
emphasis  is  most  apparent  if  the  word  be  of  two  syllables,  in  which  case  he 
favors  the  penultimate,  no  ultimate  being  lengthened  except  in  order  to  the 
strengthening  of  an  exclamation. 

Pronounce  al,  all,  as  in  valley; 
uU,  as  in  gully; 
th,  as  in  thought; 
arr.  err,  irr,  orr,  urr,  respectively,  as  in  barrow,  ferry,  mirror,  sorrow. 


Southern  Cross — Mirrabooka. 

Alpha,  Southern  Cross  —  N8r-ry- 
aldy. 

Pointers — KoUybSoka  (i.e,,  cocka- 
toos). 

MUky  way — P6rr6-wo-th6. 

Orion — Toolorlaja  (the  Wimbaja). 

Pleiades  —  Burlti-ch6  (the  Bur. 
rukka). 

Hyades  —  Poondool6  (poondoo, 
cloud). 

Meteor — Bahnggala. 

Comet — Nulppa. 

Heat — Boyttyee,  bookahra. 

Cold — YerkkSe,  koylySe. 

Rain — Mukkra. 

Water— N5-kk6,  guUinggS  (cf., 
gully,  gvki;  gurgle, 
gurgulio),  milydry 


God — Wahtta,  noorinya(ie..  He  of 

the  right  hand). 
Heaven,  sky — KOrobbyna. 
Sun— Mengkeealle,  yukOiilW. 
I.Ioon — Tlntiinny,  bittSla,  bi-chooka 

(i.e.,  white). 
Star — BooUee. 
Morning  twilight,  sunrise — Wahm- 

bee. 
Evening  twilight,  sunset — Kahlkka. 
Day,  light— Mengk6e,  yuk6. 
Night,  darkness — Toongka,  wongka. 
Morning  star  —  Wahmbeg-booU^, 

wOngkahloo  (i.e.,  that 

which  darkness 

brings).  * 
Evening  star — M6ngkaimairny  (i.e. , 

that    which    daylight 

brings).  * 


*Mark  the  original  beauty  of  these  two  conceptions. 


BOURSE,    DARLING   RIVER. 


211 


No.  75. — Additional 

Drop  of  water — Tttrtoo-darS. 

Bubbles— NuUdya-nttUdya. 

Rainbow — Mfindunbara,. 

Clouds  (various) — NinndS,,  poondoo, 
koolarSo,  taung-ara. 

Lightning — Ktilla-koonyka,  berla. 

Thunder — Bootta  (cf.,  boyttyee), 
pindee. 

Wind— Yertt6. 

Whirlwind  —  GoorrS-bootta,  yen- 
dltnya. 

North  wind — KoUy -willy. 

South  wind — Bukkin-ySrttO. 

East  wind — ^Tow-arra. 

West  wind— Ko-ly-grttO. 

Sunlight— BeinbSkka  (?of.,  bokka, 
leaf). 

Shade,  shadow  —  Koylppara  (cf., 
koylppa,  soul,  ghost, 
and  Umbra),  mor-r6. 

Land,  ground — MundSe. 

Mirage  (water  on  ground) — Tool- 
laka-no-kk6,  (i.e.,  false 
water). 

Mirage  ("gin  and  water")— Boy- 
ty6e-mungk6-mungk6, 
(i.e.,  heat,  blinking). 

Hail— Werloo. 

Dew— Keltta. 

Hoar  frost — Bahnggara. 

Ice — Nelleeng-flrra. 

Fog — Poondoo-poondoo  (i.e.,  smoke 
and  smoke,  or  smoke 
of  smokes ;  so  our  "  red 
red."  Cf.  poondoo, 
cloud,  and  also  nebula, 


Mud— Bulla. 
River — Parkka. 
Bank— Mendda. 
Point — Mertfee. 
Bend — Tookktlrra. 
Reach — BBppumba. 


WoKDS — continued. 

Ford- Kahnba. 

Reef — KernnO. 

Island — Poolppft. 

Flood— Toolppa. 

Wave  —  Koolaroo  (?  of.  koolaroo, 
cloud). 

Current — Kahneenya. 

Eddy— Mirrttnya. 

Water  returning  by  bank-side — 
Nermoo. 

Creek — Kulppa,  dalyy. 

Ana-branchT — Daiyy-vulkka. 

Waterhole — KahkSoroo. 

Lagoon — Bee-ree. 

Rain-water  pool — Moolttinya. 

Pool  left  by  flood — Yembtinya,  no- 
kkO-mtilia,  thanaka- 
roo. 

Wet  ground — Tukka. 

Ground  of  such  a  wetness  that  the 
feet  sink  in  it — ^Ydo- 
larSO. 

Ground  of  such  a  wetness  that  water 
lies  on  it — Poing-aroo. 

Rut  left  by  flood— Pulkkary. 

Fissure  left  by  flood — Yelkky.  t 

Hollow,  hole — Meengga,  wooUee. 

Sand— Temna. 

Hill— BooUa,  bolS. 

Sandhill— Temna-bo611a. 

Mountain — MukkO. 

Open  country — PuUara  (cf.  puUara, 
flame,  whereby  coun- 
try is  made  open;  and 
puUara,  bald). 

Scrub  country — Mulppa. 

Plain — Boolkka. 

Dust — Boottara. 

Gum-tree — Koombahla.  (Is  it  by  a 
chance  or  by  a  conceit 
that  maiden  also  ia 
koombahla?*  "  ATha 
ligustra,  *  Vaccinia 
nigra!") 


•  Other  doubles  are— Ternna  (sand,  back) ;  booUa  (hill,  two) ;  multtara  (tame  dog 
feather) ;  merry  (brow,  very) ;  mungko  (lower  arm,  to  wink) ;  geerra  (coimtry,  quickly) 
wong-a  (oven,  to  walk);  hulkka  (string,  to  kill). 

t  See  mtmth,  page  209.— B.  M.  C. 

02 


212 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE; 


No.  75. — Additional  Words — continihed. 


Box- tree — Koorkooroo. 

Saltbush  (gigas) — Bahlaka. 

Cotton-bush — ^Noorpoorooj  &. 

Polygonum  (p.  junoeum)  —  Ween- 
dda. 

"  Roly-poly"— Kahnaia. 

Sowthistle —  ("  warregal  cabbage  ") 
btillitmba. 

Trefoil — Poontta. 

Pigface — Kahnbee. 

Nardoo— Ttindukka  (?  cf.  tukka). 

Pig-weed — Toong-ara. 

Yam — Koonpinya. 

Mushroom — BooUee  (cf.  our  star- 
wort,  starfish). 

Marshmallow — PerndSSch^. 

Bee-plant — Ntimmalarookka  (num- 
maloo,  milk). 

Native  spinach — K611atyla-muimo6. 

Cress — Bahnacha. 

Cowslip — Kooroonggooroo. 

Lily — Bahlahmbahthara  (pronounce 
th  as  in  this). 

Native  pear* — Kaht:01a. 

Sturt's  pea — ^Meekyliika,  goolSlkoo. 

Toadstool— B6611ee-wee-ra  (cf .  mush- 
room), belttee. 

Herbages— Borddee. 

Grass — MoottS. 

Root — Pulyara. 

Sap — Yoong-a. 

Trunk — Tahree  (cf.  tahreenya,  per- 
pendicular). 

Bark — Pultta  (i.e.,  skin;  cf.  pelt, 
pellis),  tulkeroo. 

Bough — Woota-yfirra. 

Branch — Wol-y6rra. 

Leaf — Bokka. 

Blossom,  flower — WindSo. 

Seeds — ^Ding-y-dlng-y,  pahppa. 

Gum — Tunninya. 

Honeycomb — KuUoo. 


Honey — ^Wahrahna. 

Opossum  hole — Piintfin^. 

Kangaroo — Tultta. 

Wallaby — Murrinya. 

Kangaroo-rat — ^Wong-ar68. 

Tame  cat — Maroon-baroo. 

Tame  dog — Multtara. 

Wild  dog— Poolkgja. 

Bandicoot — Poolk6ny5. 

Rat— PoolkO. 

Mouse — Mung-5. 

Opossum — ^Ya-Vinjy,  worrfibooka. 

Emu — KulttSe. 

Curlew — Willar56. 

Native  companion — GoolSrkoo. 

Swan — Yoongolee . 

Turkey— Tikkara. 

Pelican — BoolSSja. 

Eaglehawk — Bilyahra. 

Kite — Goorkka. 

Crow — Wahkoo. 

Sulphur -crested     cockatoo — KoUy- 

booka. 
Tricolor-crested  -  cockatoo    (Lead- 
beater's)  —  Kahgoola- 

rinya. 
Rose-breasted  cockatoo — KiUitmba. 
Black    cockatoo  —  Pinnya-koUyja, 

teeahro. 
Parroquet — Killiinggoonya. 
Laughing      jackMS  —  Korrookah- 

kahka,  takkooka. 
Morepork — Woopooga,     noorrkoon- 

ya. 
Black  duck — ^Ming-ara. 
Wood  duck — Koonahly. 
Teal — Kooltapa. 

Squatter  pigeon — Bahndee-wootta. 
Crested  pigeon — -GooliimbtLlla. 
Speckled    dove   (g.  ouneata) — Kor- 

woSthoo. 
Magpie-lark — Koolootaroo. 


*  Not  the  wooden  frait  commonly  known  under  this  name,  but  a  rind  of  moderate 
hardness  and  thickness,  containing  a  mass  of  soft  spun  glass-like  fibre,  encased  in  a  coat 
of  bright  green  scales. 


BOURKE,    DARLESra   RIVER. 


213 


No.  75. — Additionai.  Wobds — continued. 


Swallow — Nmebytmby. 

Wagtail — Tirry-girryka  (cf.  mota- 
cilia). 

Hornet — ^Windyady. 

Bee — TintSS-noorra. 

Butterfly-^Billtibyleukka  (of.  pa^ 
pilio,  schmetterling, 
farfaUa,  mari/posa). 

Mosquito — KoondSe  (?  cf.  koonnee, 
sting). 

Blow-fly — KootrOty. 

March-fly — Pimp6ry. 

Eye-fly — ^Wing-oroo,  mo-kay. 

Sand-fly — Neelee-ooppyka. 

Ants  (various) — Kulk6ry,  pint&etSe, 
beeptinbtllla,,  memda, 
moonnSe,  mlpparoo. 

White  ant — Thunninya. 

Grasshopper — ^Nahrooka,  bendSe. 

White  grub — ^Mi-chungga. 

Centipede — Kelkka,  eurrygarttkka. 

Tarantula^Mmramarakka  ("The 
spider  taketh  hold  with 
her  haTids  "). 

Scorpion — Kahlee-koonda,ra  ("  They 
had  tails  like  unto 
scorpions  "). 

Louse — Noolltto. 

Snakes  (various) — ^Meetindy,  dahn- 
goo,  moondara,,  mul- 
kgry  (or  tooroo). 

Iguana — Tarkooloo. 

Lizard — ^Yendooroo. 

Worm — lUandooroo. 

Tortoise— Boomalabooka. 

Frog— Buubtilla  (bulla,  mud). 

Crayfish — Koon-gooloo. 

Mussel — lUeSja. 

Cockle — Bokkojjara. 

Periwinkle — Meemeejary. 

Fishes  (various) — Tahpooroo,  pung- 
ara,  nahmba,  ytlm- 
mahja,  kdonbahlee, 
pemdoo. 

Fur — Poolkky  (in  composition,  soft- 
ened to  woolkky). 


Tail — Kooudara. 

Claw — Mellinya  (naU). 

Beak — ^MoounSo  (upper  lip). 

Wing — Wunyge  (upper  arm). 

Feather— Multtara,  poolkky. 

Down — Poolppa,  poolkky. 

Egg— Pgrt^-gtillO. 

Nipper — ^Nimnd^  (tooth). 

Sting^ — Koonnee. 

Soul,  ghost — Koylppa. 

Body — Mahnba. 

Bone — Pinna. 

Hair — Poolkky. 

Head — Turtoo. 

Hair  of  head — Tiirtoo  woolkky. 

Hair    at    back    of    head — Bomby- 

woolkky. 
Skull — Tiirtoo-pinna. 
Brains — Tiirtoo-nummalSo  (i.e.,  head 

milk). 
Forehead — Beekkoo. 
Brow — Merry. 
Eyebrow — M6rry-woolkky,    meeng. 

a- woolkky. 
Eye — Meeky. 
Eyelid — ^MSeky-bo-la. 
Eyelash — MSSky -woolkky. 
Tears— Nahkka. 
Nose — Pulkka-pinna  (  ?  cf .  pulkka, 

string ). 

Nostril — Menndamtillo. 

Ear — ^Eurr6e  (of.  auris,  oiie   ;  also, 

avKij,  arip). 
Upper  lip — Moonnoo. 
Hair     of    upper     lip  —  MoonndS- 

woolkky. 
Lower  lip — Meemee. 
Hair     of     lower     lip  —  Meemee, 

woolkky. 
Tooth — Nunnd66. 
Gums — ^NunndSe-bahndee . 
Tongue — Tulleenna. 
Saliva — ^NuUtcha. 
Cheek — ^NuUSe. 
Chin — ^Wokka. 
Beard,  whiskers — ^Wfikka-woolkky. 


214 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  75. — Additional 

Throat— YelkkS. 

Neck — Pernba. 

Gullet  —  Koon-gim-giirra  (of.  gul- 
linggo,  water). 

CoUar-bone^Bimbary. 

Breast — PoondSlo. 

Breast — {i.e.,  uber) — pooima. 

Nipple — ^Numma  (cf.  mooimoo  and 
meemee,  and  also 
mamma). 

Milk — Numnial55. 

Rib — Tirra-kSeky-pinna. 

Heart — Borloo. 

Lungs — Thulkka. 

Belly,  stomach — Koont6. 

Naval — Winggoo. 

Liver — Tung-gtinya. 

Dung — Koonna.  * 

Bowels  —  Koonna- wulkka-wiilkka 
(pulkka,  string... ,...)• 

Kidneys — ^Yeerltto. 

Urine — Tippara. 

Shoulder — Kultta. 

Shoulder-blade^Nellee-pinna, 

Back — ^Ternna. 

Backbone — T6rnna-pinna. 

Hip — Tingka. 

Upper  arm — WunySe,  turtee. 

Biceps — Weingkara. 

Elbow^ — KoopO. 

Lower  arm^ — Mungk6. 

Hand — Murra. 

Wrist — Werttft-mttrra  («.e,,  the  heel 

of  the  hand). 
Palm — KoohtS-mtirra  (i.e.,  the  belly 
of  the  hand;  "  the  hol- 
low of  his  hand."   Cf. 
alveus,  ahius). 


Words — continiied. 

Fingers  —  (first  and  secondf) — No- 
kkakoo-mahmbiinya. 

Fingers — (third  and  fourthj),  fourth 
finger — Nulkkee- 
mttrra. 

Thumb — Koondahmahka. 

Nail— Mellinya. 

Thigh-joint — Bilkinny. 

Upper  leg — Mungka. 

Knee— Dlnggy. 

Lower  leg — Yelkkb,  dindd8. 

CaU— Yelkk6rrS. 

Shin — Dindoo-pinna. 

Ankle — Menggoonya. 

Foot — Tinna. 

Heel— Wertta. 

Sole — KoontS-tinna  {i.e.,  the  belly 
of  the  foot). 

Toe — Merloo. 

Big  toe — ^Weetyoo. 

Skin— Pultta. 

Perspiration — Kung-ara. 

Vein  —  Yentta-wttlkka     (pulkka, 
string ). 

Blood — Kondara. 

Fat,  marrow — MunnSg  (e.g., 

yeerltto-munnee,  kid- 
ney fat ;  mungka-mun- 
nee,  leg-marrow). 

Small-pox — Mungga. 

"  Giggle-giggle.  "§ — Moorkka. 

Fever — Kollala. 

Sandy  blight — Meeky-koUala  {i.e., 
the  fevered  eye) ; 
meeky-kondara    {i.e., 
the  bloodshot  eye). 


*  Note  the  series  of  which  this  word  is  head  and  front — Koong^ungurra,  koonto, 
koonna-wullska-WTillcka,  koondara,  koonnee. 

t  To  the  best  of  my  rememberance,  all  Blacks,  when  drinking',  flirted  the  water  into 
their  mouths  with  these  two  fingers  (the  third  may  have  been  included)  of  the  right  hand; 
and  the  women,  when  net  making,  employed  as  mesh-frarae  the  same  fingers  of  the  left 
hand;  hence,  doubtless,  the  conjoining  of  them  as  above.  Likely  enough,  too,  they 
formed  the  paint  brush  of  the  artist— in-kopajjar— when  adorning  a  comrade  tor  the 
corroboree. 

t  It  is  an  interesting  fact  that  the  subordinate  place  in  all  ages  allotted  to  the  third 
finger  should  have  obtained  among  these  Blacks,  toio  divisi  orbe  as  they  were. 

§  The  eruptive  disorder  common  amongst  our  Blacks  is,  I  think,  meant  by  this  word.— 
.M.  C. 


BOURKE,   DARLING   RIVER. 


215 


No.  75. — Additional  Words — continued. 


Swelling  blight — TlUtlnggooima. 

Rheumatism — Gahn-gala. 

Flesh  woimd,  scar  of  wound — Being- 
ga. 

Broken  bone — YahkSUojy-piima. 

Cramp — Menteeja. 

Indigestion — Koont6-m§eka. 

Headache — Turtoo  mSeka. 

A  cold — Koondinya. 

A  boil — MentSo. 

White  man — Tundooka. 

Black  man,  Black  men — Wimbaja. 

Black  woman — Burrtikka. 

Black  women — Burrabartlkka.* 

Old  man,  head  man — Mertta. 

Old  woman — NahnggQ,  Koombahka 

Husband — Mahlee,  nooundaja. 

Wife — NahnggO,  Koombahka. 

Father  — KahmbSeja. 

Mother — NummShka  (numma ;  of. 
maman,  mamma.) 

Son,  daughter — WimbarS. 

"Our  mutual  child." — (Expression 
used  by  either  parent 
to  the  other  when 
speaking  of  one  of  the 
children  of  the  family) 
— Wimbara-n-ulleenna 

Elder  brother — Kahkooja. 

Younger  brother — Bahlooja. 

Elder  sister — Wahttooka. 

Younger  sister — WahttSeja. 

Father's  brother — KahmbSeja  (i.e., 
father). 

Father's  sister — ^Nummooja. 

Mother's  brother — Wahkaja. 

Mother'ssister — Nahllooja. 

Nephew,  niece — Gain-gSoja. 

Cousia  (male) — Kahkooja  {i.e.,  elder 
.  brother.  )t 

Cousin  (female)  —  Wahttooka  (i.e., 
elder  sister.^ 


Father's  father — ^Mahtaja. 

Father's  mother — Meetooja. 

Mother's  father — Nahttaja. 

Mother's  mother — Gahneeja. 

Grandchild — ^Wahpa-nya. 

Father-in-law  (to  the  husband)  — 
Wahkaja  (i.e.,  mother's 
brother). 

Mother-in-law   (to  the  husband) — 
Nahllooja  {i.e., 
mother's  sister.  )t 

Son-in-law — GaSn-gooja  (i.e., 
nephew). 

Father-in-law   (to  the  wife)  — 

Kahmb^eja     (i.e.,    fa- 
ther's brother)  .t 

Mother-in-law  (to  the  wife) — 

Nummooja     (i.  e.,    fa- 
ther's sister.  )t 

Daughter-in-law  —  Gain-g66ja  (i.e., 
niece.)+ 

Baby — Ki-chiingga. 

Twins — Boollama. 

Child— Berloo. 

Children — Berloo-berloo. 

His  (mother's  husband's,  i.e.)  fa- 
ther's boy  —  Mahlee- 
bSrloo. 

Her  (father's  wife's,  i.e.)  mother's 
girl — ^Nahnggo-bgrloo. 

Lad,  youth — Kornoondoo. 

Lass,  maiden — Koombahla. 

Young  man,  immediately  before  ini- 
tiation— ^Wilyahng-6.  J 

Young  man,  after  initiation — 
Tummba. 

Widower — Yerkkeeja(?of.yerkkee). 

Widow — Boortooka. 

Orphan-  Wtilkinya. 

Rainmaker — Boon-tair-ra-mukkra. 

Doctor — Tiirtoo-woollee. 

Manslayer — Bulkka-bSokka. 


*  The  plural,  by  reduplication  of  some  sort,  appears  to  be  the  chief,  if  not  the  sole,  form 
of  plural  in  the  language. 

t  Theae  are  only  auggeationa  founded  on  analogy. 
}  See  page  119.— E,  M,  0, 


216 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE; 


No.  75. — Adbitional 
Country  (regio,  patria) — Geerra.  ■ 
News — Pulkkoo. 
Corroboree — MahnSe. 
Fight — Goo-rmya. 
Mll^e — NooUada-goorinya. 
Duel — Barkooloo-goorinya. 
Devil — Boorr^. 
God  of  the  winds — Pindee  (whence 

piudee,  thunder). 
Monsters  of    the    waters — Yeutta, 

nHtt6e. 
Burial  -  ground  —  MundSg-mundfee 

(i.e.,       ground       and 

ground,  or  the  ground 

of  grounds,  i.e.,  God's 

Acre). 
Grave — Toonggahra     (see    toong-g- 

ahty,*  to  bury;  and  cf . 

sepulchrv/m,  sepelire). 
Well— Keetcha. 
Road — Yengka. 
Track    (i.e.,    "spoor") — Tinna  (so 

Kurd     voSag,     on    the 

tracks). 
Stone — Gibba. 
Wood — Yerra. 
Fire — Koonyka. 
Fireplace — Koony-kahu-gG. 
Flame — PuUara. 
Sparks — Teewee. 
Smoke — Poondoo,  poondooma. 
Charcoal — Nekkee. 
Ashes — pulppa. 
Bread — Munnoo. 
Meat— Wongga. 
Paste  of  seeds — Womppa. 
Cake  of  seeds — Bookala. 
Flat    stones,   wherewith  to  bruise 

seeds — Yeltta. 
Oven — ^Wong-a    (  ?    of   wong-aroo, 

kangaroo-rat). 
Break-wind — Kahtrotoo. 
Sun-shade — Tahng-ftroo. 


Words— continued. 
Camp — Yuppara. 
Aboriginal  hut — Goollee. 
Ridge-piece— Yerkaka  (i.e.,  y-gool- 

lee). 
Front  upright — Meenggooka. 
Rafter — noo-ahkka. 
String,    cord — Pulkka    (sometimes 

hardened    to    bulkka, 

sometimes  softened  to 

wulkka). 
Canoe — Booltaroo. 
Canoe-pole  —  werkka       (i.e.,    b- 

werkka). 
Canoe-cord — Wahw6ry-wiilkka. 
Thwart-stick — Yerkaka. 
Net — mulkka. 
Fish-spear — Tintee. 
Spears — (2-barbed) — kiilkaroo, 

nunndSe-booka. 
Spear  (1-barbed) — Wirra-wirrOty. 
Spear  (unbarbed) — GooUeer. 
Shield — WooUoombtirra. 
War  boomerang — Wonua. 
Returning  boomerang  — Wonggee. 
Large  club — Ko-lo-roo. 
Small  club — poonggOroo. 
Club  of  another  sort — Poondee. 
Club  (flat)— Mttng-a-buttaka. 
Tomakawk — Wokkaka,     pirrambo- 

na. 
Stone  tomahawk — DOrrinya. 
Spade — Boppara. 
Yam-stick — Werkka. 
Stone  chisels — Mundooba,  mooUSe. 
Stone  knife — ^Yernda. 
Shell  knife — Kahra. 
Bone  knife — Tultta-pinna,  kulttee- 

pinna. 
Stick,  with  which  tooth  is  expelled 

— YentoorSS.  t 
Punch,  for  "  giggle-giggle  " — Poon- 

goota. 
Red  ochre— KootteS. 


*  As  a  rule,  noun,  verb,  and  adjective,  and  occasionally  adverb,  are  the  same  word 
exactly. 

t  The  Blacks  open  the  innumerable  pimples  which  arise  from  this  disorder  with  a  little 
pointed  stick.— E.  M.  C. 


BOURKB.    DARLING   RIVER. 


217 


No.  75. — Additional  Wob,t>s— continued. 


"Pipe-clay"   (sulphate  of   lime) — 

Ko-pajja. 
Wooden  bowl  (large) — Yookooja. 
Wooden  bowl  (small;   wherein  to 

heat      water) — ^Y6rra- 

koorooka. 
Mat — Pintooka. 
Basket — Koorooka. 
Net  (small,  for  odds  and  ends) — 

Worroka. 
Rug — Komb6e. 
Fringed  apron — Weerlppa. 
Loin-line,  supporting  it — ^W^rlppa- 

weenya. 
Loin-net  (for  bracing  the  body) — 

Weerlppa-pulkka. 
Fly-switch — ^Weerlppa     (i.e.,     e.g., 

wingoroo-weerlppa). 
Nose-stick  —  M6und6gahtla       {i.e., 

mexmdamullo-yerra ; 

i.e.,  nostril-stick). 
Head-band — M6rry-merryja. 
Head-net — Ttirtoo-weerlppa. 
Feathers  in  tufts  {e.g.,  emu-feathers) 

placed  therein — KuU- 

tSe-woolkky. 
Necklace — Pemba-wtilkka. 
Hole  in    septum    of    nose — ^YSrra- 

woollee. 
Ornamental  scars — Ningka. 
Gap  in  front  teeth — Bing-o-lo6. 
Hat — Ttirtoo-paroo. 
Good— Gunjalkka,    gunjttUa,     b61- 

leerra.* 
Bad— TooUaka,  tooUaktilly. 
Fat — Noorree. 
Old— To-tayly. 
Truthful — Marrayta. 
Untruthful — Tan-g56ja. 
Hot — B^tyee. 
Cold — YerkkeS,  bundSSng-iilla. 


Tall,  lofty — B6o-rijjary-turt66  {i.e., 
head  afar),  turtoolaja. 

Big — Koombaja. 

Little— Kelch61k6. 

Perpendicular — TahreenyS,. 

Horizontal — ^Eeppa. 

Right-handed,  using  the  right  hand 
— Ndo-rinya. 

Left-handed,  using  the  left  hand — 
Yanggooja. 

Using  both  hands,  ambidexterous — 
Mullttk-mulltik-noo- 
rinya. 

Angry — KooUa. 

Ill — Meeka,  meekaja. 

White — Bi-chooka. 

Black — Kerkreeka. 

Red — Nahllkeeka. 

Blue — Ko-kr§gka. 

Green — Noonbaraka. 

Hungry — ^Wilkahka. 

Thirsty— Yerlkka. 

Empty — ^Dikkiilla. 

Lame — Poolkka. 

Grey — Goorra. 

Blind — Wontooja. 

Bald — PuUara. 

Deaf — ^Nahppaja  (?  cf .  n-ahppa,  'tis  I: 
i.e.,  'tis  only  I;  the 
compulsorily  unsoci- 
able; pass  on). 

Dumb — Mitndting-ingga. 

Insane— Ttirto6-wulkkat(?cf.bulkka, 
to  kill ;  or  pulkka, 
string    .    .     .     .). 

Dead — ^Bookka. 

To  Hear,  to  understand — Tulleetee 
fshows  how  aflfined  in 
the  wimbaja    are  ivg 
and  vovg). 
SmeU — B6-ootta. 


*  These  three  words  (which  are  adverbs  also)  may  be  joined  indifferently  with  any 
noun  or  pronoun  that  is  to  be  favorably  qualified,  the  occasion  supplying  the  full  sense 
intended.  They  stand,  therefore,  for  grood,  sweet,  new,  &c.  TooUaka  and  toollakully^  in 
like  manner,  answer  to  our  bad,  lazy,  quarrelsome,  &c. 

t  See  page  213,  turtoo  woolkky  =  hair  of  the  head.—E.  M.  C. 


218 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE 


No.  75. — Additional  Woeds — continued. 


To  See — Bommee. 

Summon    by    whistling — ^Koyl- 

ppee  (?cf.  koylppa). 
Call  by  name — Kulppra. 
Fetch— WottOla^. 
Seize  forcibly — ^Noo-rinya   (noo- 
rinya,  as  verb  or  as  ad- 
verb,   takes   the   long 
mark  -   on     the     first 
syllable). 
Tattoo — Wahmma,  bahtSa. 
Kiss — Moonnoo-inja  (moonnoo). 
Tickle  —  Noonnda-noonndiinda 
(cf.     kinda-kindunda, 
the  event  of  noonnda 
noonndunda). 
Pinch — BeettS. 
Stroke — Toinbomba. 
Strike — Pertta. 
Kill— Bulkka  (cf.  bookka). 
Bury — Toonggahty. 
Breathe,  to  sigh — Tow-6rry. 
Sniff — ^Wahnggttnya. 
Sniff,  rubbing  the  nostrils  with 
the     finger — Mennda- 
miillabiitta. 
Blow  the  nose — ^N5nd6rry. 
Sneeze — EnchoochS. 
Crawl — Bungga. 
Dance — ^W66mb6mboollee, 
Swim — Yeekka. 
Dive^Burriing-a. 
Walk — Wong-a. 
Run — Kolyara. 
Pant — Moott6-moott5. 
Stumble  headlong — Nahnggahla- 
tanggoorSe   (?  of.  nah- 
nggo). 
Fall— Beekka  (cf.  bookka). 
Sit  down,  remain — Neengga. 
Sitcrosslegged— Pintee-pinteejy. 
Lie  down,  recline— Eemma  [cf. 

eeppa]. 
Think — Moorra. 
Sleep — E-margala. 


To  Dream  —  Bookoylppy    (?  cf. 
koylppa). 
Snore — PoompOppa,  bahndiinda. 
Yawn — Tahppapa. 
Wink — Miingko. 
Blink — Mungko-miingko. 
Stare — Wahmba. 
Get     up  — Dingggiy     (dinggy: 
"  A  hand  touched  me, 
which  set  me  upon  my 
knees  "). 
Smile — M6-ki-y8. 
Laugh — Kinda-kindiinda. 
Hum — Moormoo-moorra. 
Whistle — ^WeelpSolkO. 
Sing — Yengke. 
Gabble — ^YtLnda-yiindadS. 
Shoot    out    the    lip — Moonnoo- 

booteeja  (monnoo). 
Sulk — Breerry. 
Stamp  foot — ^Niimmbiiddy. 
Fight — Goo-rmya. 
Sob — ^NSnnggo-neimggary . 
Cry  —  Neerra,      nahng-aroo 

(nahnggo :     "  Women. 
must     weep  " — Kinga- 

ley). 

Groan — Yerkiilko. 

Cluck    with    tongue  —  Noonn- 

t661kk6. 
Drink — Toonjala,  tweendya. 
Hiccough  —  Tunttinda,    numm- 

btiUa. 
Blow  with  mouth — Poorppa, 
Eat— tl-6e,  tar-enjary. 
Gorge — Wertto-tiee,     beUeerra- 

tiSe,  noorinya-tiSe. 
Be  ill— KullttUa. 
Spit— Nulltcha. 
Cough — GoonkOko. 
Vomit — Mundtinda. 
Stammer — Mundiilka. 
Whisper — Mahra-bulkkoo. 
Shiver,  tremble — YiJrly-iirly. 
Paint — Wahloo-wahloolbS 


BOURKE,    DAHLING    EIVER. 


219 


No.  75. — Additional  Wobds — continued. 


To  Die— Bookka. 

Smell  iU — Bookka-bookka  (ie.,to 
be  dead  indeed). 
Very    very    long    ago — Kahndeen 
merry  kahndeen  yok6 
(i.e.,  yako). 
Very  long  ago — Kahndee-kahndSen- 
ya,  m6rrym6rry  kahn- 
dSen  y6k0. 
Long  ago — Kahndeenya,  kahndSSn 

yOkO, 
Lately — KeIlpp&-kSlpp6, 
The    day   before  yesterday — Kah- 

rookO, 
Yesterday — IllahgO, 
To-day — Now,  almost  (cf,  our  pre- 
sently)— KeilppS. 
To-morrow — Wahmbeenya,     Kah- 

reengky. 
To-morrow       morning — Wahmbo- 

ahmby. 
The  day  after  to  morrow — Kahkah- 

rSengky. 
The  day  after  the  day   after   to- 
morrow— Kahkahkah- 
rSengky. 
In  five  days  hence — ^Yenta    tiima 

yokO. 
In    ten    days    hence — Tinna  ohllb 

y6k6. 
By-and-by — Pooly-ahtta. 
Some    day    or    other  —  Boorijjary 
kahn^    {i.e.,    afar  to 
come)    —    kahn^-ee- 
kahn^. 
Forthwith — TundSgj  a. 
Often — Tim-ga, 
Always — Tun-ga  m6rry. 
Never — Ealla. 
For  long — ^WerkO-6-ta  (cf.  kitto-o- 

ta,  farewell). 
One — Neecha. 
Two — Barkooloo,  booUa. 
Three — Bark6ol6  neecha. 
Four — Barkooloo  barkool65. 


Together — BooUa. 
Apart — ^Neecha-neechS  {i.e.,  one  by 
one ;    cf,    dvo  Svo,   St. 
Mark  vi.  7). 
To  the  right — ^Noorinya. 
To  the  left— YanggO. 
On  the  hither  side — WOrronarukka, 

w6r-ang6ry. 
On  the  thither  side — MttUarka. 
Anigh — Teilppa. 
Afar — Boo-rijjary,  boo-reelly. 
Indoors — Koont6-g6ollee    {i.e.     the 

belly  of  the  house). 
Out  of  doors — Tahna-muUaka, 
The  end — Tintee-wulkka. 
The    middle — TmtSe-fSkka,   ttirtoo- 

no-kk6. 
Everywhere — Tinto6-n6-kk6. 
Very,  thoroughly — Merry. 
Plenty — NooUada. 
Lo  1 — Bommee. 
Hark  !  TflUeetee. 
What?— Minna? 
Where  ? — Weendya,  weendyara. 
Well  said  !    Well  done  !    Hooray  ! 
All  right  I — Gunjiilkka, 
gunjftUa,  bSUeerra. 
You  don't  say  so  ! — Aht6gng-a. 
Yes,    truly — Naho-,  nay    (cf.    vd,) 

marrayta. 
Yes,  indeed — Marrayta,  m6rry. 
No — Nahtta. 

Certainly  not — Nahtta  mgrry. 
Have  done  ! — Nahohtta,  nahtahtta. 
I — Ahppa. 

You — imba,  indoo,  o-mma. 
He,  She,  It— Wahtta,  wahtt6. 
The  man  yonder.  That  woman.  This 
thing  — Wahtta-  eennO. 
One  more — Neecha  binna. 
It's  all  one  to  me,  I  think  with  you 
— Eiinee-n-ahlppy,  en- 
neenya-n-ahppa.      (cf. 
unus). 
Ah  me ! — N-ahppa  guUago. 


220 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  75. — Additional  Words — continued. 


Take  care ! — Wirra-miUa. 

Cheer  up  I  Don't  make  a  fuss!  Hush! 

Moonda-neengga. 
My  dear — Mahmbo-li. 
Come  hither — Yo-thahn6e,  yo-vah- 

rfeepa.* 
Go  hence — Wahra-thahnSe,  wahra- 

vahreepa.* 
Come  hither  quickly  ! — Yo-mSrry- 

thahnee,        yo-m6rry- 

vahreepa. 
Fetch  it  hither  ! — Yah-wahttQ. 
Take  it  hence  ! — Wahra-gahndee. 
I'm    off — Thahnee    ahppa,    ahppa 

thahnSeng-ting-a. 
You  stay  behind — Imba  neengga. 
Which  way  shall  I  go  ? — Weendya 

ahppa      thahneeng- 

iing-a. 
Go  that  way — Wahtt6-a-rahn&e. 
Quickly,  quickly  ! — Geerra  geerra. 
Halt  there  ! — Neengga. 
Keep  to  the  road — Yengka  binna. 
I  don't  want  to  go  ! — Killhan6Sng- 

ahppa. 
I  shan't  go  ! — MooUtflrreeng-ahppa. 
I'm  very  tired  —  Boolyahppy-wah- 

nda-ahppa. 
I   have   too  huge  a  corporation — 
Koonna-na-p611a-ahppa. 
I'm  very  ill — Meeka-1-ahppa. 
Come,   no  more  of   that   gabble — 

Weendy  ak  miindy  y  ttn- 

da  ytindada  indoo. 
Go    and    have    a    drink — Beelkka 

toonjala. 
Where  are  the  Blacks? — Weendya 

wimbaja. 
I  don't  know — Weendyah-n-no.   (i.e., 

ay,  where  indeed  ?) 
I  have  seen  it — BOmmSe  wahttO. 
I  have  not  seen  it — KiUa  bSmmSe 

wahttO. 


I  have  heard  of  it — TuU^tee  wahttS 
I  understand — TuUeetee  ahppa. 
What  do  you  say? — K6-pa  kooray. 
There's  a  Black  coming — Thahnfeeng- 

tlng-a  nfeecha  wimbaja. 
Seize  the  fellow ! — ^Noo-ringa  wahttS. 

("With  aU  our  main 

of  power.") 
Why  so  ? — ^Minna  mundy. 
There's  not  a  Black  about  the  place 

— Killa  nahtta  wtmbaj  - 

ettee. 
Is  a  Black  here? — Wimbaja  nSengga. 
Yes,  I ! — N-ahppa. 
"Good  morrow  to  thee  !  Welcome" 

—  Geerra   -    thahnee, 

geerra-vahrSepa,    (i.e., 

come  quickly!  adsisl). 
Where's  another  Black  ? — ^Weendya 

kahroo  wimbaja. 
A  Black's  coming — Wimbaja  been- 

dal6ng. 
Come,  I  want  one  of  you  with  me — 

Yo  -  thahn^,     niHlee 

bSrroo  thahnee. 
Come  quicjkly,  one  of  you  ! — Geerra- 

geerrahnS. 
Come  quickly,  numbers  of  you! — 

Geerra  -  geerrahnfeeng 

ohllo. 
Make  a  big  blaze ;  it's  very  cold — 

Noollada  wahttS  koon- 

yka  ;    bUndeeng  -  iilla 

keekky. 
Get    more    wood  —  KahroS   y6rra 

wahttS. 
Where  is  it  ? — Weendyah-t-t8. 
It's  all  gone — Nahtta  winnOty. 
You're  a  humbug — ^Nahtta   mfiny 

imba. 
I'm  no  humbug,  I'm  in  earnest,  I 

speak  the  truth — Mar- 

rayta  mSriy  ahppa. 


*  In  the  yo-  and  the  wahra-  of  these  words,  one  can  almost  see  the  welcoming  and  the 
repelling  action  of  hands  and  lips. 


BOURKE,    DARLING   RIVER. 


221 


No.  75. — Abditional  Words— continiied. 


You're  a  lazy  fellow — ^Toollaktllly 
turtooja.  (Turtoo:  of. 
caput, — e.g.,  "care  ca- 
put.") 

You're  another — N-imbah-kaytlS. 

Where  shall  I  put  it? — ^Weendya 
Semma  ]'a-gy. 

Here — KItterryda. 

There — Eettona. 

More  this  way  ! — Yo-mSrry. 

More  that  way  ! — Wirra-mSrry. 

That'll  do;  I  don't  want  it— Na- 
hshtta;  kiUa  wahtt6 
ahltS. 


What  do  the  Blacks  name  this  ? — 
Minna  wlmbaja 
keekky. 

I'm  aU  but  a  Black  myself— KeilppS 
wlmbaja  n-ahappa 

Who  are  you  ?— Minna  wahn-ga 
imba. 

Where's  your  country  ? — Weend- 
yara  gSer-r-o-mma. 

Afar  on  the  other  side  of  the  river 
— MuUarka  parkka 
boorijjary. 

The  net's  at  the  camp  on  the  other 
side — Mulkka 
6-mama  milllarkyna 
moollee-n-ytlpparunna. 

The  sun's  just  setting ;  come,  be  quick,  be  quick,  and  get  over,  and  set 
off  to  the  camp  together — KeilppS  ytlko-illl6  beekka  kfinnah,  geerra  geerrah- 
n6eng-(5-tah,  geerra  geerrah,  yuppara  milnday. 

Good-bye  !  Good-night ! — Kilt6-6-ta,  neenggtingga. 

The  very  expressive  words  following — contained  above,  but  not  there 
noted,  many  of  them — seem  to  me  worthy  of  special  mention: — Wahkoo 
(crow),  woopooga  (morepork),  koonahly  (wood-duok),  korwoo  thoo 
(speckled  dove),  korrookahkahka  (laughing  jackass),  tirry-girryka  (wagtail), 
eurree  (ear),  moonnoo  and  meemee  (upper  lip  and  under  Up),  tuUeenna 
(tongue),  yelkka  (throat),  koongung-urra  (gullet);  gullinggo  (water), 
bootta  (thunder),  towerry  (to  breathe),  poompoppa  (to  snore),  enchoo-cho 
(to  sneeze),  goonkoko  (to  cough),  mootto-mootto  (to  pant),  nennggo- 
nennggary  (to  sob),  yurly-urly  (to  shiver,  to  tremble),  mungko-mungko 
(to  blink),  kinda-kindunda  (to  laugh),  tahppapa  (to  yawn),  weelpoolko  (to 
whistle),  noonntoolkko  (to  cluck  with  the  tongue),  nuUtcha  (to  spit),  poorppa 
(to  blow  with  the  mouth),  moonnoo-inja  (to  kiss),  moonnoo-booteeja  (to 
shoot  out  the  lip),  menndamuUabutta  (to  sniff,  rubbing  the  nostrels  with 
the  finger),  nahnggahla-tanggooree  (to  stumble  headlong).  And  what  can 
better  example  Shakspere's  "quick  cross-lightning"  than  kuUa-koonyka ; 
the  quiver  of  a  brandished  spear,  the  quiver  and  whirr  of  a  launched  spear, 
than  wirra-wirroty ;  the  fitful  ways  of  a  butterfly,  than  billubyleukka  ? 

One  may  reasonably  doubt  whether,  from  a  vocabulary  so  limited,  could 
be  furnished  by  any  civilized  tongue  such  a  galaxy  of  speaking  words. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  words  either  not  confirmed  or  having  some- 
thing suspicious  about  them,  but  not  necessarily  unworthy;  inserted  because 
some  of  them  might  possibly  be  confirmed  by,  or  confirm,  those  of  another 
contribution : — 


New  moon — Buttoo. 

Pull  moon — Koombaja  (i.e.,  big). 

Moon  on  wane — ^Winna. 


Evening  star — Nooahlok-mttttee- 

mutteeka. 
Sunrise — Kulchftlka. 


222 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  75.— Additionai 

Midday — Kulk6iy  (also,  bull-dog 
ant.) 

Sunset — Pilkka,  pilkahna,  piilkka- 
wahttS  Cpilkahna  was 
given  to  me  at  various 
times  not  only  as  sun- 
set, but  as  child;  and, 
joined  with  booUee,  as 
meteor). 

Night — Nahmoodee. 

Meteor — BooUee-pilkahna. 

Comet — Yengka  (also  road). 

Heat — Kahla-kahla. 

Water — KoUy  (this  word  savours  of 
boojery  and  the  like, 
as  do  wee-wee,  ill; 
ewoho,  sun ;  bimble, 
ground).  * 

Mirage — Ahppee-n6-kk6. 

Ford — Nairree-nQ-kkO. 

Island — Kurla-poolppo . 

Waterhole — N6-kk6-y6rra,  n6r- 
ahla. 

Pool— Gahttilyka. 

Open  country — -JUilkkah  (also 
brackish  water). 

Saltbush — BSkka-bootta  (thunder 
leaf). 

Cotton-bush — B66kumbaroo,bunnba. 

Trefoil — Goorra-goorra. 

Nardoo — Wahn-goo. 

Pig-weed — T6ol6rlflnggarinya. 

Yam — Giimni,  tahnee. 

Mushroom — Boo-rungga. 

Bee-plant — Buthim-bftthy  (th  as  in 
thin). 

Sap — Billa-n9-kk6. 

Sapling — Menttinya. 

Bough — ^Woombaja. 

Leaf — KahrSrSe, 

Seed — Poonbdlka. 

Hive — ^WooUSS  (i.e.,  hole;  is  wurley 
a  corruption  of  wool- 
lee?). 


WoEDS — continued. 

Honeycomb — Thi-6-ee  (th  asinthin). 

Kangaroo — Gilpyja. 

Kangaroo-rat — Martooka,  b6-inya. 

Bandicoot — K6ndara-booka. 

Porcupine — Ktlltoo,  kullgtSe. 

Curlew — Burtulaka. 

Turkey — Toolkeeka. 

Sandfly — MoonnSe-nlrreeka. 

Ants     (various) — Meetooja,  bultta, 

teerala. 
White  ant — Moominya. 
Snake  (a) — Yerr61k8. 
Iguana — Purnna,  w6116reeima. 
Lizard — Boonnoo. 
Tortoise — Kerky-mtilka,  poorkSo. 
Periwinkle — Neemma,  mooUairry. 
Pishes  (various) — PuntahlSe,  wee- 

g6er,  pumt6-oka. 
Soul— Toob6ry. 
Tears — Meeky-mahla,  mSeky-nullee 

(nuUee,  cheek). 
Septum  of  nose — Tahppa. 
Cheek— NoolkkS. 
Chin — MooltteS. 
Kidneys — Bahnda. 
Back — Nahroo,  bahlaroo. 
Hip — Kooloo-pinna. 
Ankle — Keng-g5o. 
Sole — Poonna. 
Big  toe — Bunna. 
Joint — Moorkka  (also,  "  giggle- 
giggle"). 
Blister— KuUa. 

Swelling  blight — MSSky-boylloo. 
Child— Pilkahna. 
Children — Gorwa,    kahtcha-wuUoo- 

koo. 
Maiden— Ptllkahly. 
Male  child — Willya-roong-a. 
Female  child — Ki-chtinggoo. 
Young  man — Miill6o-S5lta. 
Young    man,     before    initiation — 

Wilyaroo,         nulkktt, 

kahndee. 


*  I  had  warned  my  contributors,  in  a  letter  attached  to  my  list  of  words,  against  setting 
down  without  inquiry  a  few  such  words  as  boojeri=good,  &aeZ= nose,  which  the  early  settlers 
had  learnt  from  the  Sydney  tribe,  the  impression  with  some  persons  being  that  there  is  but 
one  language  in  Australia.— E.  M.  C. 


bourKe,  darling  river. 


223 


No.  75.— Additional  Womts— continued. 


Young  man,  after  initiation — Kool- 

ta-mttrra,  mooleenya. 
Widow — NOnnj^e. 
Woman  who  has  left  her  husband — 

Ginmee. 
Fatherless  child,  motherless  child — 

Mornnee. 
(A  woman  speaks  to  her  nephew  of 

his  father  as  taralby.) 
Breakwind — Ttirt5o-da-burtta. 
Corroboree — Bahkitnya,        yengkO, 

nommba,    moolgahlly, 

dinnabi. 
Road — ^Pulttoo,  etironedO. 
Small  flrewood^ — Mookooja. 
Large  firewood — Tahlara. 
Front  supports  of  gunyah — UllSe- 

engkara. 
Back  supports  of  gunyah — Tooltto- 

ungkara. 
Rafters — Tilkee-gooUee. 
Charcoal — Kimba. 
Fish-grease — Wilkahra. 
Cake  of  seeds — ^Windda. 
Poultice  of  warmed  leaves — Poon- 

bahmba. 
Oven — Kurkooroo,  nooa. 
Fish-spear — Kurttee,  biinda. 
Nullah-nullah  (small) — Keikka. 
Yam-stick — Kwingka,  kootaka. 
Red  ochre — Kurkkoo. 
Wooden  bowl  (small) — Keenyy. 
Mat — Pintooroo. 
Net  (little)— Mirra. 
Head-band — Nootong^a. 
Necklace — Keewara. 
Strong — KoorkrSe. 
Weak — Eella-koorkr^S. 
Courageous — Eella-ooUyaloo. 
Afraid — OoUya. 


Tall — Berlooroo. 

Short — Kardooka. 

Unthruthful- 

Thievish — Kernmahja. 

Lame — Kookka. 

Deaf— Mo-ko. 

One-eyed — Y6ntta-meekaja. 

Angry — Bee-r6-r§e. 

Lazy— Btlndee-biindeej  a. 

Industrious — Bopparaka. 

To  stroke  —  Koonna-koonneenya 
(probably  to  pat  with 
satisfaction ;  a  well- 
filled  stomach). 

To  fondle— BahndahkO. 

To  dive— NahppSo-orkala. 

To  get  up — Pumda. 

To  sing — Pukkinya. 

To  sob — Boqu§epa,  yahndalahna.  " 

To  drink — Weejja. 

To  stammer — TooUaka-bulkkoo. 

To  stop  ears — ^Nahjja. 

Yesterday — lUana. 

Ho,  there  ! — Mee. 

Stop  ! — TahrSe  (also  trunk) . 

Come  hither  I — Burreeba. 

Be  quick  !^-Moorra-moorra. 

Is  it  a  fact  ? — Injee. 

For  a  while — Btilyahda  (suspiciously 
like — soften  it  and  it 
becomes  pooly-ahtta, 
by-and-by). 

I  don't  know — Yoon-gahnjy, 

Tribes  (incidentally  mentioned) — 
Ahn-g66k6,  Mi-piilk6, 
Tungga,  Wahtta-waht- 
ta,*  Letcha  -  16tcha, 
Kahtchee-tahkka, 
Ung-i-ung-i. 


When  a  child  died,  it  waa  buried  near  to  a  young  tree,  round  which  bands  alternate 
(from  the  bottom)  of  black,  red,  yellow,  red,  white,  were  drawn ;  a  path  to  the  grave  was 
marked  out.    No  kopajji  was  placed  on  the  grave  of  a  child. 

*  It  is  curious  to  note  that  the  names  of  two  tribes  below  Swan  Hill,  on  the  Murray, 
were  known  on  the  Upper  Darling.— E.  M.  C. 


224 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  76.— FIFTY  MILES  BELOW  BOURKE  ON  THE 
DARLING. 


By  Sir  Samuel  Wilson  aot)  W.  Hendekson,  Esq. 

Or  this  vocabulary,  wliicli  has  a  good  deal  in  common  with 
the  foregoing  one,  I  have  received  two  renderings,  one 
from  Sir  Samuel  "Wilson,  and  the  other  from  Mr.  William 
Henderson  ;  they  agree  well. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  dulta. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum      - 

-  yerringee. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  boola    weim- 

Tame  dog    - 

-  kuUi. 

butha. 

Wild  dog     - 

-  kudill. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  boola    nicha 

Emu    - 

-  kulthi. 

weimbutha. 

Black  duck  - 

-  mengera. 

One     - 

-  nicha. 

Wood  duck  - 

-  ninyea. 

Two     - 

-  boola. 

Pelican 

-  nunkoor,     nan- 

Three  - 

-  boola  nicha. 

Jsura. 
Laughing  jackass  kurra-ka-ka. 
Native  companion  gultook. 

Four    - 
Father 

-  boola-boola. 

-  kombitha,    gam- 

biji. 

-  ummaka. 

-  wirtooka. 

White  cockatoo 
Crow  - 
Swan  - 
Egg     -        - 

-  kullepooka. 

-  wakoo. 

-  ungoli. 

-  purti. 

Mother 
Sister-Elder 
„      Younger 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  tinna. 

Brother-Elder 

-  wertiga. 

Fish    - 

-  (no    generic 

„          Younger  kakooga. 

name). 

A  young  man 

-  kooltha. 

Lobster 

-  (none). 

An  old  man 

-  murta. 

Crayfish 

wegiga. 

An  old  woman 

-  burruga. 

Mosquito     - 

-  oonthi. 

A  baby 

-  kaiohungo. 

Fly     - 

A  White  man 

-  weUbuUa. 

Snake  - 

mulkeri. 

Children      - 

-  kiioha-buUuko. 

The  Blacks  - 

■  weimbutha- 

Head  - 

-  thertoo,  thurt- 

A  Blackf ellow 

■  wombage. 

woola. 

A  Black  woman 

burraburraka. 

Eye     - 

-  mikey. 

Nose   - 

mendoomuUa. 

Ear      - 

-  yoori. 

BELOW   BOUEKE   ON   THE   DARLING. 


225 


No.  76. — PiJTT  Miles  below  Bou 

EKE  ON  THE  Daelinq — Continued. 

Mouth 

-  yelka. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

-  undi. 

HUl     - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  therteboolka. 

Wood  - 

-  yarra. 

Beard  - 

-  wakaboolka. 

Stone  - 

-  yernda. 

Thunder      - 

-  brinda. 

Camp  - 

-  yeppara. 

Grass  - 

-  molo,  muttoo. 

Yes     - 

-  00-00,  naya. 

No       - 

-  nata. 

Tongue 
Stomach 

-  therlunnia. 

-  moonda. 

I 

You     - 

-  uppa. 

-  Lmba. 

Breasts 

-  umma. 

Bark   - 

-  pultha. 

Thigh - 

-  mulka  or  monka. 

Good  - 

-  kungala. 

Foot    - 

-  tinna. 

Bad     - 

-  boolagalli. 

Bone   - 

-  brinna. 

Sweet  - 

-  murga. 

Blood  - 

-  karnthurra. 

Food   - 

-  ooquanna. 

Skin    - 

-  pultha. 

Hungry 

-  weilkukka,    yar- 

Fat      - 

-  murni. 

range. 

Bowels 

-  koonawoon. 

Thirsty 

-  nookoowerthi- 

Excrement  - 

-  koona. 

knppa. 

War-spear  - 

-  karkooro. 

Eat      - 

-  kari. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  (not  used). 

Sleep  - 

-  immerkuUa. 

Throwing-stick 

-  (not  used). 

Drink  - 

-  toonjella,  dun- 

Shield - 

-  oolumburra. 

gera. 

Tomakawk  - 

-  wakukka,    tur- 

Walk  - 

-  taminjerri. 

rinya. 

See      - 

-  pommi. 

Canoe  - 

-  boolyimga. 

Sit       - 

-  narnguUa. 

Sun     - 

-  yooko. 

Yesterday  - 

-  karlkunna. 

Moon  - 

-  brittella. 

To-day 

-  kailpoo,  kiporta 

Star    - 

-  poolia,  burle. 

To-morrow  - 

-  wambi. 

Light  - 

-  wombe. 

Where    are 

the  wingera  wim- 

Dark  - 

-  toonka. 

Blacks? 

bagi? 

Cold    - 

-  bundinyella. 

I  don't  know 

-  wingera  moora 

Heat  - 

-  boorchi,  tila. 

kitthi. 

Day     - 

-  mimkay. 

Plenty 

-  oolurti. 

Night  - 

-  kailka. 

Big      - 

-  wertoo. 

Fire     - 

-  kurla. 

Little  - 

-  kurtalooko. 

Water 

-  nurko. 

Dead  - 

-  booka. 

Smoke 

-  burndoo. 

By-and-by  - 

-  gooni. 

Ground 

-  murndi. 

Come  on 

-  yonatani.     -. 

Wind  - 

-  yerto, 

Milk    - 

- 

Rain    - 

-  nina,  mukra. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God     - 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

-  boori. 

Wife   - 

VOL.    II. 

P 

226 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  77.— WILCANNIA. 


By  Murray  Rogers,  Esq. 


Kangaroo     - 

turlta,  telta. 

Hand  - 

murra. 

Opossum 

yarungee. 

2  Blacks 

barkool  wimbuta. 

Tame  dog     - 

bulkaja. 

3  Blacks 

barkooleacheree 

Wild  dog     - 

kuUee. 

wimbuta. 

Emu    - 

kultee. 

One      - 

neecha. 

Black  duck  - 

mingera. 

Two     - 

barkool. 

Wood  duck- 

koongnallee. 

Three  - 

barkooleacheree. 

Pelican 

Laughing  jackass 
Native  companion 

Four    - 

barkool-barkool. 

Father 

gombigi. 

White  cockatoo  - 

Mother 

■  ummiki. 

Crow   - 

waakoo. 

Sister-Elder 

wertoki. 

Swan   - 

yungolee. 

„      Younger 

Egg      - 

bertee. 

Brother-Elder 

kokogi. 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

tinna. 

„         Younger 

Fish     - 

A  young  man 

Lpbster 

An  old  man- 

mambee,  gombigi 

Crayfish 

An  old  woman 

Mosquito 

koondee 

A  baby 

burloo. 

Ely      -        - 

wingeroo. 

Snake  - 

mingera. 

A  White  man 

The  Blacks  - 

. 

Children 

A  Blackfellow 

wimbuta. 

Head   - 

turto. 

A  Black  woman 

uungo. 

Eye      - 

meekee. 

Nose    - 

mendolo. 

Ear      - 

yurree. 

WiLCANNIA. 

227 

No.  17.— WiLCANTSiA— continued. 

Mouth - 

yelko. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

undee. 

Hill     - 

-  bole. 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  turto  bulkee. 

Wood  - 

-  yerra. 

Beard  - 

-  wauka  bulkee. 

Stone  - 

-  kemo. 

Thunder 

-  pirndee. 

Camp  - 

-  yapra. 

Grass  - 

-  mootoo. 

Yes      - 

-  ungua. 

Tongue 

No       - 

-  atha     or     artha 

Stomach 

-  koontoo. 

berree. 

Breasts 

-  ummi. 

I 

-  appa. 

Thigh  - 

- 

You     - 

-  Lmba. 

Toot    - 

-  tinna. 

Bark    - 

-  pelta. 

Bone    - 

-  yelko. 

Good    - 

-  balera. 

Blood  - 

-  kamdara. 

Bad      - 

-  toolika. 

Skin    - 

-  pelta. 

Sweet  - 

- 

Fat      - 

-  mumee. 

Food    - 

-  wunga. 

Bowels 

-  tungunya. 

Hungry 

-  wilkuka. 

Excrement  ■ 

-  koolna. 

Thirsty 

-  yerka. 

War-spear   - 

-  pirror. 

Eat      - 

-  tiell. 

Reed-apear  - 

- 

Sleep   - 

-  wimpup. 

Wommera    or 

Drink  - 

-  weecherie. 

tkrowing-stick 

Walk  - 

- 

Shield-       '- 

-  wond  or  wound. 

See       - 

pommee. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  taroonya. 

Sit       - 

-  nerole. 

Canoe  - 

- 

Yesterday    - 

-  elarko. 

Sun     - 

-  yoko. 

To-day 

-  kailpo-yoko. 

Moon  - 

-  bichuka. 

To-morrow  - 

-  karankee. 

Star     - 

-  boorlee. 

Where     are 

the  wingera    wimbu- 

Light  - 
Dark   - 

-  yoko. 

-  marka. 

Blacks  ? 
I  don't  know 

ta? 
-  eela  athawa  pom 

Cold    - 
Heat    - 
Day     - 

-  yerkee. 

-  bootchee. 

-  yoko. 

Plenty 

Big       -        - 

ma. 

-  waupoo,   waugh 

waugh. 

-  werta. 

Night  - 

-  marka. 

Little  - 

-  kutchulka. 

Fire     - 

-  koonika. 

Dead    - 

-  booka,    bookala- 

Water  - 

-  ngoko. 

gee. 

Smoke - 
Ground 
Wind  - 
Rain    - 
God     - 

-  boothara. 

-  mundi. 

-  yerto. 

-  mukkra. 

By-and-by  - 
Come  on 
Milk    - 
Eaglehawk  - 
Wild  turkey 

-  kailpo. 

-  kowa,  koalee. 

-  teekera  or  tool 

kera. 

Ghosts 

. 

Wife 

- 

228 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  77. — Additional  Wokds,  by  Mtjhkay  Rogers,  Esq. 


Teal     - 

cooltooper. 

String  - 

burtka. 

Rose  cockatoo 

kukundee. 

Spring 

peril. 

Road   - 

yerkna. 

Spring  water 

gnalta  gnoko. 

Heart  - 

boolato. 

Summer 

bookara. 

Thin     - 

ninditcha. 

Winter 

koalyee. 

Corpulent    - 

nooree. 

South  wind  - 

koolyerto. 

Dust    - 

boothara. 

Small  ant    - 

moonee. 

Cotton-bush 

bootooja. 

Exclamation 

of 

yakai  ! 

Green  grass 

noomba  mootoo. 

I  am  hungry 

wilkuk  appa. 

surprise 

Stink  - 

booka-booka. 

Grass  seed   - 

paapa. 

You  go 

parek  imba. 

Marsupial  pouch  - 

wurlga. 

Get  out  of  that    - 

wurrumi  or  wur- 

Opprobrious 

epi- 

wurlgama. 

rumonda. 

thet  applied 

to  a 

I  am  soon  going  - 

kailpo  parik  appa. 

female 

Timber         -    .     - 

yerra. 

Opprobrious 

epi- 

curtoma. 

Gum-tree     - 

goombil. 

thet  applied 

to  a 

Box-tree 

koorkoor. 

male 

Pine-tree 

pimpa. 

Tail      - 

koondara. 

Laugh  - 

klnduda. 

White  - 

copage. 

Cry       -         -         . 

nukka-nukka. 

Black  - 

cookrega. 

Tears  - 

yanda. 

Quick  - 

kulyerall. 

Five     - 

yantamera. 

You  be  C[uick 

kulyerall  imba. 

Ten      - 

-  merrinole  (hand) 

Strong 

bickra. 

Twenty 

merrinole    tinole 

You    are    very 

werta    bickra 

(hand  and  foot) 

strong 

imba. 

Waterhole    - 

murtee. 

Calabash 

kerkee. 

Hill  waterholt 

i 

bolomurtee. 

Bag      -        -        - 

mirrar. 

Place   - 

geeri 

Net      - 

murlka. 

Good     place 

or 

balera  geeri. 

Covering  for  the 

turtoopero. 

country 

head 

Rock  wallaby 

■ 

wungeroo. 

Rug     - 

combee. 

Kangaroo-rat 

- 

curtie. 

Do    you     under- 

enrich imba  ? 

Paddimellon 

- 

yapoonia. 

stand  ? 

You  remain 

imba  nerole. 

I  do    not  under- 

wamba appa. 

I  have  a  pain  in 

koontoo  mukage 

stand 

my  stomach 

appa. 

WILCANNIA.  229 

In  several  localities  in  the  Central  Division  of  tlie  Con- 
tinent we  find  hut  translated  wurli,  and  in  the  Additional 
Words  just  given  we  have  murlga  =  marsupial  pouch,  which 
I  have  no  doubt  is  derived  from  wurli,  if  indeed  rourlga  does 
not  mean  hut  in  this  language.  Wurlgama,  the  opprobrious 
term  applied  to  a  female,  may  be  a  compound  of  wurlga  and 
ama  =  breasts.  In  this  Vocabulary  the  nasal  sound  is  ex- 
pressed by  gn  instead  of  the  ordinary  ng. 


230 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  78.— TINTINALIGI,  DARLING  RIVER. 


By  the  Authok. 

See  war 

spmr.     Kaalk  is  a  common  equivalent  for  wood. 

Kangaroo     - 

dulda. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum 

yeringi. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  barkooloo    wim 

Tame  dog    - 

kalli. 

booja. 

Wild  dog     - 

3  Blacks      - 

-  barkooliteheri 

Emu    - 

kalthi. 

wimbooja. 

Black  duck  - 

ngalta. 

One     - 

-  ngitya. 

Wood  duck - 

goonale. 

Two    - 

-  barkooloo. 

Pelican 

Three  - 

-  barkooliteheri. 

Laughing  jackass 

■  kokagok. 

Four   - 

-  barkooloo    bar- 

Native companion  koUoorkoo. 

kooloo. 

White  cockatoo 

-  kenke. 

Father 

-  kumbidja. 

Crow   - 

-  waakoo. 

Mother 

-  ngamukka. 

Swan  - 

-  yungoonoo. 

Sister-Elder 

-  widthooka.  . 

Egg     -        - 

-  birti. 

,,      Younger 

- 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  kappala. 

Brother-Elder 

-  kowkija. 

Pish    - 

- 

,,         Younger 

Lobster 

- 

A  young  man 

-  talera. 

Crayfish 

-  kumbooloo. 

An  old  man 

-  baalwila. 

Mosquito     - 

-  goondi. 

An  old  woman 

-  goomboka. 

Fly      -         - 

-  wiingeroo. 

A  baby 

-  moetpa. 

Snake  - 

-  thuroo. 

A  White  man 

- 

The  Blacks  - 

-  wimbooja. 

Children      - 

-  gonendoo. 

A  Blackfellow 

-  wimbooja. 

Head  - 

-  thartoo. 

A  Black  woman 

-  ngongoo. 

Eye     - 

-  miki. 

Nose   - 

-  mindoonga. 

Ear      - 

-  yoori, 

TINTrNALIGI,    DARLING    RIVEE. 


231 


No.    78. — TiNTINALIGI, 

Mouth  -  -  yalka. 
Teeth  -  -  -  unde. 
Hair  of  the  head  -  thurtolge. 


Beard  - 

-  wokolka. 

Thunder      - 

-  bimdi. 

Grass  - 

-  mothur. 

Tongue 

-  dthalainga. 

Stomach 

-  koomtoo. 

Breasts 

-  ngamma. 

Thigh-        - 

-  yalkoo. 

Foot    - 

-  dthinna. 

Bone   - 

-  bima. 

Blood  - 

-  kaangurra. 

Skin    - 

- 

Fat      - 

-  mimi. 

Bowels 

-  koomtoo. 

Excrement  - 

-  koorna. 

War-spear  - 

-  kaalkooroo. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  (none). 

Throwing-stick 

-  (none). 

Shield 

-  ngooloomburra. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  waakakoo. 

Canoe 

-  bootheroop. 

Sun     - 

-  jTikur. 

Moon  - 

-  burchooga. 

Star     - 

-  boorle 

Light  - 

-  ngunyak. 

Dark   - 

-  dalka. 

Cold    -        - 

-  yakke. 

Heat  - 

-  yanke. 

Day     - 

-  kalkere. 

Night  - 

-  doonka. 

Fire     - 

-  koonika. 

Water 

•  ngookoo. 

Smoke 

-  boordook. 

Ground 

-  mimdi. 

Wind  - 

-  yertoo. 

Rain    - 

-  mokkera. 

God     - 

- 

Ghosts 

_ 

Daeling  Rivee- 
Boomerang  - 
Hill  - 
Wood  - 
Stone  - 
Camp  - 
Yes  - 
No  - 
I 

You  - 
Bark  - 
Good  - 
Bad  - 
Sweet  - 
Food  - 
Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat  - 
Sleep  - 
Drink  - 
Walk  - 
See  - 
Sit  - 
Yesterday  - 
To-day 
To-morrow  - 
Where     are 

Blacks  ? 
I  don't  know 
Plenty 
Big*    -        - 
Little  - 
Dead   - 
By-and-by   - 
Come  on 
Milk    - 
Eaglehawk  - 
Wild  turkey 
Wife    - 


, — continued. 


-  yarra. 

-  kimoo. 

-  yappara. 

-  ngetina, 

-  angawirri. 

-  ngappa. 

-  ngomon. 

-  balthir. 

-  balera. 

-  dolooka. 

-  wonga. 

-  wilkookak. 

-  yaarke. 

-  daialaanook. 

-  boonpur. 

-  wigalangoo. 

-  bareje. 

-  bomera. 

-  ganoolana. 

-  elakoo. 

-  giki. 

-  mirdandoo. 
the  winjara    wim- 

booja  ? 

-  ngaroodoogoo. 

-  kumbooja. 

.  katchilgooka. 

-  thambooroo. 

-  balyarda. 

-  yamma  merrile. 


*  ContrMt  with  father. 


232 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE; 


No.  79.— PROM  WBINTERI6A,  ON  THE  DARLING,  TO  THE 
BARRIER  RANGE. 

By  Alexander  McLennan,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  tulta. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum 

-  yarrandi. 

2  Blacks       - 

-  barkoola    wyim- 

Tame dog     - 

-  kulli. 

bida. 

Wild  dog     - 

- 

3  Blacks      - 

-  barkoola     nidda 

Emu    - 

-  kulti. 

wyimbida. 

Black  duck  - 

-  koornalli. 

One     - 

-  nidda. 

Wood  duck  - 

-  mumburra. 

Two     - 

-  barkoola. 

Pelican 

-  puligi. 

Three  - 

-  barkoola  nidda. 

Laughing  jackass  gokaka. 

Four    - 

-  barkoola- 

Native  companion  goorlokko. 

barkoola. 

White  cockatoo 

-  kainki. 

Father 

-  kambidda. 

Crow  - 

-  wolko. 

Mother 

-  amukka. 

Swan  - 

-  youngalli. 

Sister-Elder 

-  wortakka. 

Egg     - 

-  burti. 

„      Younger 

- 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  dinna. 

Brother-Elder 

-  kaukooja. 

Fish    - 

- 

„        Young 

er 

Lobster 

- 

A  young  man 

-  gomo. 

Crayfish 

-  koongoolo. 

An  old  man- 

-  worto. 

Mosquito     - 

-  goondi. 

An  old  woman 

-  koombukka. 

Fly      -        - 

-  wingroo. 

A  baby 

-  katchuka. 

Snake  - 

-  tooro. 

A  White  man 

-  bori. 

The  Blacks  - 

-  wyimbida. 

Children 

-  goornondoo. 

A  Blackfellow 

-  wyimbida. 

Head  - 

-  dhirtoo. 

A  Black  woman 

-  nongo. 

Eye     - 

-  mikki. 

Nose    - 

-  mindolo. 

Ear      - 

-  uri  or  yoori. 

WBINTERIGA   TO    THE    BARRIER   RANGE. 


233 


No.  79.^Ebom  Weintbeiga  to  the  Baeeieb  Range — continued. 

Mouth- 

-  yalka. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth - 

-  hundthi. 

HiU     - 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  dhirt-bulki. 

Wood  - 

-  yarra. 

Beard  - 

-  wauka-bulki. 

Stone  - 

-  kumo. 

Thunder      - 

-  piindi. 

Camp  - 

-  yappara. 

Grass  - 

-  moodthu. 

Yes     - 

-  ngea. 

Tongue 

-  turlinya. 

No      - 

-  ataharri. 

Stomach 

-  urina. 

I- 

-  appa. 

Breasts 

-  umma. 

You     - 

-  imba. 

Thigh  - 

-  yalko. 

Bark   - 

-  palta. 

Foot    - 

-  dinna. 

Good  - 

-  balera. 

Bone   - 

.  pinna, 

Bad     - 

-  mikka. 

Blood  -       - 

-  kandara. 

Sweet  - 

-  koolcanya. 

Skin    - 

-  pulta. 

Food   - 

-  thyalo. 

Fat      -        - 

-  mumi. 

Hungry 

-  wilka,  wilkaya. 

Bowels 

-  koornalkaka. 

Thirsty 

-  yerka. 

Excrement  - 

-  kooma. 

Eat      - 

-  thytena. 

War-spear  - 

-  kalkooroo. 

Sleep  - 

-  boomparoo. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  patthai. 

Drink  - 

-  weatohaloo. 

Throwing-stick 

- 

Walk  - 

-  baripoo. 

Shield  - 

-  ulumbarra. 

See 

-  pami. 

Tomahawk  - 
Canoe  - 
Sun     - 
Moon  - 
Star    -        - 
Light  - 
Dark   - 
Cold    -       - 

-  waukaka. 

-  pooltooroo. 

-  euko. 

-  pychugga. 

-  poorli. 

-  kooyooro. 

-  toonka. 

-  yakki. 

Sit       - 
Yesterday   - 
To-day 
To-morrow  - 
Where    are 
Blacks  ? 
I  don't  know 

-  neenga. 

-  yellakko. 

-  kailpo. 

-  karrauki. 

the    windarra     anika 
wyimbida? 

-  yilla  urinadtoo. 

Heat    - 

-  bookara. 

Plenty 

-  wow-wow. 

Day     -        - 

-  euko. 

Big      - 

-  koombootoha. 

Night  -        - 

-  toonka. 

Little  - 

-  kitchilliqua. 

Fire     - 

-  koonika. 

Dead   - 

-  bookaUagey. 

Water- 

-  hoko. 

By-and-by   - 

-  palya. 

Smoke- 

-  boomdoo. 

Come  on 

-  yamaparri. 

Ground 

-  mumdi. 

Milk    - 

- 

Wind  -        - 

-  yurdtoo. 

Black  swan  - 

- 

Rain  - 

-  mukkra. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God     -       - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife    - 

234 


THE    AUSTRALItUST   RACE: 


No.  80.— MENINDIE,  DARLING  RIVER. 


By  —  Mair,  Esq.,  P.M. 


Kangaroo    - 

thurlda. 

Opossum      - 

bilta. 

Tame  dog    - 

-  kalya. 

Wild  dog     - 

Emu    - 

kalti. 

Black  duck  - 

nalta. 

Wood  duck- 

koolenalli. 

Pelican 

poolija. 

Laughing  jackass- 

tulpu. 

Native  companion 

koledrooko 

White  cockatoo  - 

kainki. 

Crow  - 

wokko. 

Swan  - 

yungolli. 

Egg     -        -        . 

paiti. 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

narrukka. 

Fish     - 

tilyekka. 

Lobster 

Crayfish 

kongola. 

Mosquito     - 

kooudi. 

Fly      - 

wengooroo. 

Snake  -        -        - 

tooroo. 

The  Blacks  - 

wiimbuja. 

A  Blackfellow     - 

wiimbuja. 

A  Black  woman  - 

nongu. 

Nose  -        -        - 

mendola. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

2  Blacks      - 

- 

3  Blacks      - 

- 

One      - 

-  neetoha. 

Two     - 

-  piakullu. 

Three  - 

-  piakullu  iteri 

Four    - 

-  piakuUu-pia- 

kullu. 

Father 

-  kambidja. 

Mother 

-  nyam-mugga. 

Sister-Elder 

-  kantoha. 

„       Younger 

- 

Brother-Elder 

-  kakoodya. 

,,         Younger 

A  young  man 

-  taldra. 

An  old  man 

-  weytu. 

An  old  woman 

-  burruga. 

A  baby        - 

-  purlu. 

A  White  man 

-  mad. 

Children      - 

- 

Head  - 

-  tartoo. 

Eye     - 

-  maikki. 

Ear     - 

-  yoorree. 

MENINDIE,    DARLING    RIVER. 


235 


No. 

80. — Meninbie,  Darl 

Mouth 

-  yalka. 

Teeth  - 

-  ngundi. 

Hair  of  the  heat 

-  poolkee. 

Beard  - 

-  walka-woolki. 

Thunder      - 

-  pindi. 

Graas  - 

-  mootoo. 

Tongue 

-  turlunna. 

Stomach 

-  komtoo. 

Breasts 

-  kookooroo. 

Thigh  -       - 

-  nooranya  (right), 

yango  (left). 

Foot    - 

-  tinna. 

Bone    - 

-  pinna.  . 

Blood  -       - 

-  kandera. 

Skin    -        - 

-  pulta. 

Fat     - 

-  maymee. 

Bowels 

-  weylpa. 

Excrement  - 

-  kooma. 

War-spear  - 

-  kalkooroo. 

Reed -spear  - 

-  kalka. 

Throwing-stiok 

- 

Shield - 

-  payalli. 

Tomahawk 

-  wokooga. 

Canoe  - 

-  pulturu. 

Sun     - 

-  yukkoo. 

Moon  -  • 

-  paitchugga. 

Star    -        - 

-  poorlay. 

Light  - 

-  menki. 

Dark  - 

-  doongka. 

Cold    -       - 

-  yakke. 

Heat  - 

-  taeyelu. 

Day    - 

-  menki. 

Night-    ■   - 

-  doongka. 

Fire     - 

-  koonyga. 

Water 

-  ngokko. 

Smoke 

-  pumdu. 

Ground 

-  murndee. 

Wind  -    .   - 

-  yartoo. 

Rain   - 

-  mukkera. 

God     - 

- 

Ghosts     .    - 

Boomerang  - 

Hill     - 

Wood  - 

-  yarra. 

Stone  - 

-  kamu. 

Camp  - 

-  yappurra. 

Yes      - 

-  ngyay. 

No       - 

-  ngawo. 

I- 

-  uppa. 

You     - 

-  ngymba. 

Bark    - 

-  palta. 

Good   - 

-  purlayra. 

Bad     - 

-  toolaka. 

Sweet  - 

-  kandjelka. 

Pood    - 

-  koombodja. 

Hungry 

-  weelkooja. 

Thirsty 

-  yarka. 

Eat      - 

-  nanuu. 

Sleep  - 

-  nettru. 

Drink  - 

-  waitago. 

Walk  - 

-  parrybo. 

See      - 

-  pammayo. 

Sit       - 

-  ngayingooyo. 

Yesterday   - 

-  idlago. 

To-day 

-  kaipoo. 

To-morrow  - 

-  karainke. 

Where    are 

the  winja  gupta 

Blacks  ? 

wiimbuja? 

I  don't  know 

-  winja  tigga. 

Plenty- 

-  koga. 

Big      ■        - 

-  murta. 

Little  - 

-  kattyelooga. 

Dead   - 

-  pukka. 

By-and-by  - 

-  pulyalya. 

Come  on 

-  kowwa. 

Milk   - 

- 

Black  swan- 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Wife  - 

- 

236 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE 


No.  81.— TOLARNO  STATION,  NEAR  MENINDIE. 
By  C.  W.  Shaw,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

turlta. 

Hand 

-  murra. 

Opossum 

yarrungi. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  barkoola  wim- 

Tame dog    - 

kurli. 

been. 

WUd  dog    - 

3  Blacks     - 

-  barkoola  nee- 

Emu 

kurlti. 

chera  wimbeen. 

One     - 

-  neecha* 

Black  duck 

kurloo. 

Two    - 

-  barkoola. 

Wood  duck 

goonarli. 

Three  - 

-  barkoola  nee- 

Pelican 

booUi. 

chera. 

Laughing  jackass 

kookarkoo. 

Four   - 

-  barkoola-bar- 

Native  companior 

L  koolarkoo. 

koola. 

White  cockatoo  - 

kainki. 

Father 

-  kumbeya. 

Crow  - 

warkoo. 

Mother 

-  hummugga. 

Swan  - 

yunggoole. 

Sister-Elder 

-  willoya. 

Egg     -        -        - 

burti. 

,,     Younger 

- 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

kuppintina. 

Brother-Elder 

-  karkooka. 

Fish    - 

koonbarli. 

„        Young 

er 

Lobster 

A  young  man 

-  thuldera  (see  kan- 

garoo). 

-  wittoo. 

Crayfish 

koongooloo. 

An  old  man 

Mosquito     - 

muninneri. 

An  old  woman 

-  koomburga. 

Fly      -        -        - 

wengooroo. 

A  baby 

-  moorpa. 

Snake 

tooroo. 

A  White  man 

-  boree. 

The  Blacks  - 

wimbeen. 

Children 

-  moorpa. 

A  Blackf ellow     - 

>vimbeen. 

Head  - 

-  durtoo. 

A  Black  woman  - 

uunga. 

Eye     - 

-  maki. 

Nose  - 

•  mindola. 

Ear      - 

-  munger. 

TOLARNO    STATION,    NEAR   MENINDIE. 


237 


No.  81.— ToLARNO  Staiiots— continued. 

Mouth 

-  yelka. 

Boomerang - 

- 

Teeth  - 

-  undi. 

Hill     - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head  -  bulki. 

Wood  - 

-  koondega. 

Beard  - 

-  wooka  bulki. 

Stone  - 

-  kumoo. 

Thunder      - 

-  bindi. 

Camp  - 

-  yapera. 

Grass  - 

-  mootoo. 

Yes     - 

-  nea. 

Tongue 

-  turlinya. 

No      - 

-  nartoogara. 

Stomach      - 

-  koonta. 

I-        -        - 

-  napa. 

Breasts 

-  humma. 

You     - 

-  imba. 

Thigh 

-  gurka. 

Bark   - 

-  burlta. 

Foot    - 

-  tinna. 

Good  - 

-  bellara. 

Bone  - 

-  brinna. 

Bad     - 

-  toolaka. 

Blood  - 

-  kandra. 

Sweet  - 

-  goolkoola. 

Skin    - 

-  bulta. 

Food  - 

-  wunga. 

Fat     - 

-  mumi. 

Hungry 

-  wilkoa. 

Bowels 

-  koonabulta. 

Thirsty 

-  yarraka. 

Excrement  - 

-  koonna. 

Eat      - 

-  tailata. 

War-spear  - 

-  marohinga. 

Sleep  - 

-  poompera. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  purthi. 

Drink - 

-  witola. 

Throwing-stick 

-  pulkarri. 

Walk  ■• 

-  omala. 

Shield 

Tomahawk  - 
Canoe  - 
Sun     - 
Moon  - 
Star    - 
Light  - 
Dark  - 

-  woolambora. 

-  wokara. 

-  pulthro. 

-  yooko. 

-  waichooka. 

-  booli. 

-  unnya. 

-  mullara. 

See     - 
Sit       - 
Yesterday  - 
To-day 
To-morrow  - 
Where   are 
Blacks? 

-  pumma. 

-  nangala. 

-  elow. 

-  kilepa. 

-  korooka. 

the    doo  wimbeen? 

Cold   -       - 

-  yekka. 

I  don't  know 

- 

Heat  - 

-  bookkara.      ■ 

Plenty 

-  oao. 

Day    - 

-  minki. 

Big      - 

-  koombeya. 

Night - 

-  tunka. 

Little  - 

-  kutchiloo. 

Fire     - 
Water 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind-        - 
Rain    - 

-  koondega. 

-  nookoo. 

-  boondoo. 

-  mundi. 

-  yartoo. 

-  mukkara. 

Dead  - 
By-and-by  - 
Come  on 
Milk   - 
Eaglehawk 

-  boogaloo. 

-  guypoo. 

-  yammari. 

God     -        - 

. 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

. 

Wife  - 

- 

238  THE    AUSTEALIAJSr   BACE  ; 


No.  82.— THE  JUNCTION  OF   THE    DAELING  AND 
MURRAY  RIVERS. 

By  John  Bulmer,  Esq. 

Of  this  language,  wliicli  is  called  Marowera,  I  liave  two 
vocabularies.  The  first,  which  was  kindly  forwarded  by  Mr. 
John  Bulmer,  manager  of  the  Lake  Tyers  Aboriginal  Station, 
I  have  inserted ;  the  second  was  taken  down  by  myself.  In 
most  cases  the  two  agree. 

Mr.  Bulmer  informs  me  that  it  was  the  practice  of  the 
women  of  the  Marowera  Blacks,  on  the  death  of  a  husband, 
to  put  a  small  net  on  the  head  and  cover  it  with  mortar  one 
or  two  inches  thick.  This  mortar  consisted  sometimes  of 
gypsum  and  at  others  of  pipe-clay.  After  being  worn 
several  days  it  became  solid,  and  was  removed  unbroken  by 
means  of  the  net,  so  giving  the  cast  of  a  considerable  por- 
tion of  the  head  of  the  wearer.  After  removal  it  was  baked 
in  the  fire  and  laid  on  the  tomb  of  the  deceased.* 

Since  Mr.  Bulmer's  communication,  Mr.  J.  H.  Leplastrier 
has  shown  me  two  specimens  of  these  casts.  They  are  quite 
uninjured  and  just  as  the  widows  took  them  off,  perhaps  a 
century  ago.  Mr.  Leplastrier  picked  them  up  at  a  deserted 
burial-ground  at  Yelta,  in  January,  1880.  They  have  not 
been  burnt,  however,  and  one  of  them  shows  quite  distinctly 
the  marks  of  the  meshes  of  the  net.  Mr.  Bulmer  says 
that  these  casts,  which  the  Kulnine  tribe  call  Kopi,  weigh 

*  Sir  Thomas  (then  Major)  Mitchell  found  similar  oasts  at  Fort 
Bourke,  nearly  400  miles  higher  up  the  Darling,  drawings  of  which  will  be 
found  in  his  Three  Expeditions  into  Interior  of  Eastern  Australia,  in  which 
the  marks  left  by  the  nets  are  visible. — Vol.  1,  p.  253. 


KOPI 

or  mourning  cap  of^psuirv 


JUNCTION  OF  DARLING  AND  MURRAY  RIVERS.        239 

sometimes  as  much  as  fourteen  pounds.  In  this  instance 
the  weights  are  respectively  10  lbs.  7  oz.  and  5  lbs.  13  oz. 
To  plaster  the  head  with  clay  in  time  of  mourning  is 
very  common  throughout  Australia,  and  the  Kopi  is  merely 
an  exaggeration  of  the  custom. 

The  word  Kopi  will  be  found,  signifying  mourning, 
occurring  at  the  junction  of  the  Georgina  Eiver  and  King's 
Creek. — See  Vocabulary  No.  105. 

As  regards  the  word  Nooralie  (God),  Mr.  Bulmer  says 
that  the  Blacks  understand  by  it  a  Superior  Being,  who  has 
existed  for  ages  and  ages,  and  still  exists.  He  gives  me  the 
following  additional  words  : — 


My  wife 

nongwi. 

Thy  wife 

nongoma. 

All  women    - 

kmnbumbarra. 

With  respect  to  this  word  Kumbumbarra,  the  termination 
barra  or  burra  seems  in  several  parts  of  the  Continent  to 
denote  large  numbers,  or  large  things.  For  instance,  in 
portions  of  the  Eastern  Division  the  names  of  the  tribes  end 
in  burra,  and  amongst  the  Bangerang,  in  the  south,  a  large 
fire  is  called  Wooloombara. 


240 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  82.— MAROWERA  LANGUAGE. 
By  John  Btjlmer,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

boololea. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum 

yairaringy. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  waimbia  ngolo. 

Tame  dog    - 

kaddelie. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  waimbia  barcolo 

Wild  dog     - 

wilcanya. 

nuckie. 

Emu    -        -        - 

kalte. 

,  One      - 

-  nuckie. 

Black  duck  - 

kultowa. 

Two     - 

-  barcolo. 

Wood  duck- 

Three  - 

-  barcolo  nuckie. 

Pelican 

ngankro. 

Four   - 

-  barcolo  barcolo. 

Laughing  jackass 

thakoa. 

Father 

-  kumbia. 

Native  companion 

Mother 

-  ngamara. 

White  cockatoo 

kainkie. 

Sister-Elder 

-  wertia  or  wirtoo. 

Crow  - 

wako. 

,,     Younger 

- 

Swan  - 

youngolie. 

Brother-Elder 

-  berlwea. 

Egg     -        - 

purty. 

„       Younger  kokwi. 

Track  of  a  foot 

yuthero. 

A  young  man 

-  thalara. 

Fish    - 

wanga. 

An  old  man 

-  wirto. 

Lobster 

An  old  woman 

-  kumbara,  koom- 

Crayfish 

kongola. 

bugga. 

Mosquito     - 

koondi. 

A  baby 

-  katchooa  (male), 

Ely     - 

wlngoro. 

kattarra  (female) 

Snake  - 

tooroo. 

A  White  man 

-  thandoa. 

The  Blacks  - 

waimbia. 

Children 

-  kendara. 

A  Blackfellow 

waimbia. 

Head  - 

-  thirtoo. 

A  Black  woman 

nongo. 

Bye     - 

-  miiki. 

Nose   - 

mendolo. 

Ear      - 

-  eurie,  munga. 

JUNCTION  OP  DARLING  AND  MURRAY  RIVERS.        241 


No.  82. — ^Maboweea  LANav\aE—contimied. 


Mouth 

-  yelka. 

Teeth  - 

-  nandie,  ngundi. 

Hair  of  the  head  -  therto  burlkie. 

Beard  - 

-  wakka  burlkie. 

Thunder      - 

-  piudie. 

Grass  ■ 

-  mutho. 

Tongue 

-  tarlinya. 

Stomach 

-  koorntoo. 

Breasts 

-  ngama. 

Thigh - 

-  karraku. 

Foot   - 

-  thina. 

Bone  - 

-  pena,  birna. 

Blood  ■        - 

-  kaandara. 

Skin    -        - 

-  palthu. 

Fat     - 

-  murni. 

Bowels 

-  koonna. 

Excrement  - 

-  kumang. 

War-spear  - 

-  kalkro  maitung. 

Reed-spear  - 

'  jerail. 

Wommera     or 

pira. 

throwing-stick 

Shield 

- 

Tomahawk  - 

-  waaka. 

Canoe  - 

-  pulthoro,  ban- 

koom. 

Sun     - 

-  yookkoo. 

Moon  - 

-  baitohoa. 

Star    - 

-  boorli. 

Light  - 

-  minkie. 

Dark  - 

-  maraka. 

Cold   -        - 

-  yackea,  yakki. 

Heat  - 

-  wapilka. 

Day     - 

-  minki. 

Night-       - 

~  maraka. 

Fire    - 

-  nandalie,   koon 

nia. 

Water 

-  ngookoo. 

Smoke 

-  boomdoo. 

Ground 

-  kara,  murndi. 

Wind- 

-  yartoo. 

Raia  - 

-  mokkera. 

God    - 

-  nooralie. 

Ghosts 

-  konejerie. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Hill     - 

- 

Wood- 

-  yarrara. 

Stone  - 

-  yarrda,  kamoo. 

Camp  - 

-  yappara. 

Yes     - 

-  ngu,  ngai. 

No       - 

-  mopu,  koko,  bal- 

yarto. 

I- 

-  ngio. 

You    - 

-  nindo. 

Bark  - 

-  palthu. 

Good  -        - 

-  kandelka. 

Bad     - 

-  thulaga. 

Sweet  - 

- 

Food   - 

-  mano. 

Hungry 

-  wilka  wilkana. 

Thirsty 

-  yarakana. 

Bat      - 

-  thialo. 

Sleep  - 

-  imia. 

Drink 

-  urupun. 

Walk 

-  pameua. 

See      - 

-  win. 

Sit       - 

-  mingana. 

Yesterday  - 

-  illower. 

To-day 

- 

To-morrow  - 

-  kara  minkie. 

Where    are 

the   windarawaimbia? 

Blacks  ? 

I  don't  know 

-  indearto  or  ngar 

too. 

Plenty 

-  koowa. 

Big     - 

-  koombaia. 

Little  - 

-  katewailno. 

Dead  - 

-  bokka. 

By-and-by  - 

-  kalpo. 

Come  on      - 

-  kowa,  yamara- 

barrioo. 

Milk   - 

-  ngama. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  bilyarra» 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Wife   - 

-  nongo. 

VOL.    II. 


242  THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

No.  83.— FROM  THE  BANKS  OF  THE  MUREAY 
RIVER,  WHERE  IT  ENTERS  LAKE  ALEX- 
ANDRINA,  TO  THE  EMBOUCHURE  OF  THAT 
RIVER  AND  LACEPEDE  BAY. 

By  the  late  Revd.  George  Taplin. 

No  Australian  tribe,  or  association  of  tribes,  has  been  so 
frequently  and  well  described  as  the  Narrinyeri,  and 
principally  by  the  same  writer,  the  late  Revd.  George  Taplin, 
who  during  the  ten  or  fifteen  years  he  managed  the  Govern- 
ment Aboriginal  Station  at  Point  Macleay,  on  which  one  of 
these  tribes  resided,  published  several  accounts  of  them, 
some  of  which  were  illustrated  with  a  few  excellent  photo- 
graphs of  men  and  women  of  the  tribe.  One  of  the  latest 
of  these  accounts  appeared  in  a  work  entitled  The  Folklore, 
Manners,  Customs,  and  Languages  of  the  South  Australian 
Aborigines,  which  was  published  in  1879,  and  consists  of 
replies  from  a  variety  of  persons  resident  amongst  different 
tribes  to  a  series  of  questions  drawn  up  by  Mr.  Taplin  at 
the  suggestion  of  His  Excellency  Sir  A.  Musgrave,  Governor 
of  South  Australia.  Mr.  Taplin,  the  editor  of  The  Folklore, 
was  one  of  several  who  furnished  replies  to  the  questions 
issued,  and  these  I  have  been  kindly  permitted  by  the 
Government  of  South  Australia  to  introduce  into  this  work. 
In  connection  with  them,  it  is  only  necessary  to  remark  that 
having  already  called  in  question  what  Mr.  Taplin  says  on 
the  subject  of  government,  it  is  unnecessary  again  to  refer 
to  the  matter.  The  following  is  the  account  of  the 
Narrinyeri  given  by  Mr.  Taplin  in  Folklore : — 

The  "Naeeinybri"  Tribe. 
[The  questions  were  sent  to  five  persons  dwelling  in 
localities  frequented  by  this  tribe — viz.,  Police-Trooper  E.  H. 
Deane,  of  Wellington,  River  Murray;  Police-Corporal  John 
Dann,  of  Milang;  Crown  Lands  Ranger  George  Wadmore, 
of  Meningie;  Police-Trooper  T.  Moriarty,  of  Goolwa;  and 
also  to  the  editor  of  these   pages.      The  answers   to  the 


FROM   MURRAY   RIVER  TO  LACEPEDE   BAY.  243 

questions  are  very  mucla  alike.  This  was  to  be  expected, 
as  they  refer  to  the  clans  of  the  same  tribe.  The  editor, 
therefore,  will  give  an  account  of  this  tribe  at  greater  length, 
and  entering  into  more  particulars  than  are  contained  in 
the  short  answers  of  Messrs.  Deane,  Dann,  and  Wadmore. 
PoHce-Trooper  Moriarty's  replies  also  refer  to  a  clan  of 
the  Narrinyeri;  but  as  they  live  at  Goolwa,  about  sixty 
miles  from  the  Wellington  clan,  it  has  been  considered 
advisable  to  give  his  very  able  and  intelligent  series  of 
answers  separately.  It  will  be  remarked,  however,  that  the 
similarity  of  the  testimony  of  these  five  observers  is  a  guar- 
antee of  the  correctness  of  the  statements.  This  is  very 
satisfactory.  The  Narrinyeri  are  one  of  the  most  important 
tribes  of  aborigines  in  South  Australia.  They  possess 
greater  vitality  than  any  other  tribe  that  we  know  of. 
There  is  also  amongst  them  indications  of  a  form  of  organ- 
ized society,  law,  and  government  of  a  higher  character 
than  is  usually  found  amongst  Australian  aborigines.] 

*1.  The  Eevd.  George  Taplin,  Missionary  to  the  Abori- 
gines, Point  Macleay. 

2.  The  "  Narrinyeri."  Probably  this  word  is  an  ab- 
breviation of  "  Kornarrinyeri"  (belonging  to  men).  This  is 
the  derivation  recognised  by  some.  Nevertheless  some 
natives  prefer  to  regard  the  word  Narrinyeri  as  derived 
from  "  narr,"  plain,  intelligible  (referring  to  language), 
and  "  inyeri,"  belonging  to.  This  would  make  the  word 
mean — belonging  to  plain  or  intelligible  speakers,  or  those 
of  one  language.  It  is  probable  that  the  first  derivation 
is  correct,  because  it  is  applied  frequently  to  those  whose 
dialects  differ  considerably. 

3.  A  tract  of  country — which  may  be  said  to  begin 
twenty  miles  above  Wellington,  on  the  Murray,  and  which 
may  be  enclosed  by  lines  supposed  to  be  drawn  from  that 
point  to  Cape  Jervis  on  the  west,  and  to  Kingston,  Lacepede 
Bay,  on  the  east  and  south-east — is  occupied  by  the  clans 
of  this  tribe  or  nation. 

*  The  questions,  to  which  what  follows  are  Mr.  Taplin's  replies,  will  be 
found  at  page  268. 

Q2 


244 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


4.  The  tribe  is  divided  into  eighteen  clans,  and  each 
has  a  tribal  symbol,  totem — or  as  they  call  it  "  ngaitye" — 
consisting  of  some  animal  or  vegetable.  The  following  are 
their  names  and  totems: — * 


Name  of  Clan. 

Locality. 

Totem  or  Ngaitye. 

1.  Eaminyeri 

Encounter  Bay     - 

Wattle  gum. 

2.  Tanganarin 

Goolwa         .... 

Pelican. 

3.  Kondarlinyeri - 

Murray  Mouth  (west  side)  - 

Whale. 

4.  Lungundi 

Murray  Mouth  (east  side)    - 

Tern. 

5.  Turarorn- 

Mundoo  Island     -        -        - 

Coot. 

6.  Pankinyeri 

Lake  Coorong 

Butterfish. 

7.  Kanmerarprn  - 

Lake  Coorong 

Mullet. 

8.  Kaikalabinyeri 

Lake  Albert  (south  side) 

Bull  ant. 

9.  Mungulinyeri  - 

Lake  Albert  (east  side) 

Chocolate  sheldrake; 

10.  Rangulinyeri  - 

Lake  Albert  Passage    - 

Wild  dog,  dark  color. 

11.  Karatinyeri     - 

Point  Malcolm 

Wild  dog,  light  color. 

12.  Piltinyeri 

Lake  Alexandrina  (east  end) 

Leeches,  catfish. 

13.  Korowalle 

Lake  Alexandrina  (north  side) 

Whip  snake. 

14.  Punguratpular- 

Milang  (Lake  Alexandrina)  - 

Musk  duck. 

15.  Welinyeri   "     - 

River  Murray 

Black  duck,  black 
snake  with  red  belly. 

16.  Luthinyeri 

River  Murray 

Black  swan,  teal,  black 
snake  with  grey  belly. 

17.  Wunyakulde    - 

River  Murray 

Black  duck. 

18.  Ngrangatari 

Lacepede  Bay 

Kangaroo-rat. 

5.  Each  clan  has  a  totem.  Indeed  the  totem  is  the 
nucleus  of  the  clan,  as  it  consists  of  those  persons  who, 
by  birth,  are  entitled  to  bear  the  same  totem — native, 
"  ngaitye  "  (literally,  friend).  Each  clan  is  called  "  laka- 
linyeri,"  and  all  its  members  are  regarded  as  blood  relations. 
Children   inherit  their  father's    totem.      The  ngaitye,  or 


*  The  Coorong  clans  of  the  Narrinyeri  were  called  in  the  early  days  of 
the  colony  the  "  Mihnenroora  tribe."  The  writer  recently  inquired  of  some 
Coorong  Blacks  if  they  bore  this  name;  they  replied  that  many  years  ago 
the  clan  dwelling  on  the  Coorong,  sear  McGrath's  Flat,  was  called  "Mil- 
menroorar,"  but  that  now  they  were  called  "  Milmenyeriarn. "  This  is  an 
instance  of  change  of  name.  The  natives  seemed  much  astonished  when 
the  name  "  Milmenroora  "  was  uttered;  they  regard  it  as  a  sort  of  resurrec- 
tion of  an  old  name. 


FROM   MURRAY   RIVER  TO  LACBPEDE  BAY.  245 

totem,  may  be  killed  and  eaten  by  those  wbo  possess  it,  but 
they  are  always  careful  to  destroy  the  remains,  such  as 
bones,  feathers,  &c.,  lest  an  enemy  should  obtain  them  and 
use  them  for  purposes  of  sorcery. 

6.  There  are  no  class-names. 

7.  The  Narrinyeri  never  marry  one  who  belongs  to 
the  same  ngaitye  or  totem — that  is,  of  the  same  clan; 
neither  do  they  allow  near  relations  to  marry,  although  of 
different  clans.  This  is  always  regarded  as  of  the  first 
importance.     Cousins  never  marry. 

8.  Marriages  are  generally,  but  not  always,  arranged  by 
the  clans.  The  marriage  ceremony  consists  in  the  father, 
or  eldest  brother,  or  nearest  male  relative  of  the  woman, 
formally  giving  her  to  her  fature  husband  in  the  presence 
of  the  assembled  clans  or  relatives.  She  signifies  her 
acceptance  of  the  giving  by  making  a  fire  for  her  husband. 
Songs  and  dances  accompany  the  marriage.  It  is  a  point 
of  decency  for  the  couple  not  to  sleep  close  to  each  other  for 
the  first  two  or  three  nights ;  on  the  third  or  fourth  night 
the  man  and  his  wife  sleep  together  under  the  same  rug 
This  arrangement  is  for  the  sake  of  decency.  At  the  mar- 
riage many  persons  are  present,  sleeping  in  the  same  camp; 
so  the  newly-married  couple  wait  till  they  have  moved  off, 
and  only  a  few  relatives  are  left  with  them.  They  then 
often  make  a  little  hut  for  themselves.  If  a  lewd  woman 
goes  with  a  man  without  being  given  away,  she  is  said  to  be 
"  kanauwurle"  (their's),  and  he  has  the  right  by  custom  to 
lend  her  to  any  of  his  friends.  It  is  considered  disgraceful 
for  a  woman  to  take  a  husband  who  has  given  no  other 
woman  for  her.  But  yet  the  right  to  give  a  woman  away 
is  often  purchased  from  her  nearest  male  relative  by  those 
who  have  no  sisters.  Of  course  this  amounts  to  the  same 
thing.  In  most  instances  a  brother  or  first  cousin  gives  a 
girl  away  in  exchange  for  a  wife  for  himself.  The  females 
are  married  when  about  fourteen  years  of  age.  It  is 
notorious  amongst  the  aborigines  that  girls  married  young 
make   the  best  wives.      Those  married  later  seldom  turn 


246  THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE; 

out  well.    The  men  rarely  marry  before  they  are  eighteen 
or  twenty. 

9.  Children  belong  to  their  father's  clan. 

10.  Polygamy  is  practised;  but  there  are  seldom  more 
than  two  wives.  The  eldest  wife  is  the  chief.  An  elderly 
wife  has  little  objection  to  her  husband  having  a  younger 
one,  as  she  is  subordinate  to  her.  Separations  and  divorces 
sometimes  take  place  by  mutual  consent.  If  a  man  ill-treats 
his  wife,  her  clan  always  interferes ;  and,  if  he  persists,  wUl 
take  her  away  from  him  and  give  her  to  another  man. 

12.  Blood  relations  do  not  marry. 

13.  Every  clan  has  a  chief,  called  "rupulli"  (or  land- 
holder). The  clan  is  actually  governed  by  a  council  of 
elders,  called  tendi,  which  controls  all  its  affairs.  When  a 
member  of  the  tendi  dies,  the  surviving  members  choose  a 
suitable  man  out  of  the  clan  to  take  his  place.  The  number 
of  men  on  this  council  is  usually  ten  or  twelve. 

14.  Justice  is  administered  by  the  tendi  in  accordance 
with  the  customs  handed  down  by  tradition  in  the  tribe. 
In  case  of  an  offence  being  committed  against  native  law  or 
custom,  a  regular  trial  takes  place.  The  rupuUi  presides,  and 
sits  on  a  judgment  seat  called  "  tendi  lewurmi."  "Witnesses 
are  examined,  and  full  inquiry  made.  All  parties  obtain  a 
hearing.  Various  punishments  are  inflicted  upon  the  guilty 
in  proportion  to  the  heinousness  of  the  crime.  Sometimes  a 
certain  number  of  blows  are  given  on  the  offender's  head. 
Sometimes  he  is  banished  from  the  clan.  And  sometimes 
death  is  inflicted.  Sometimes  the  tendi  will  secretly  con- 
demn a  breaker  of  the  law,  and  appoint  a  person  to  suddenly 
fall  upon  him  and  put  him  to  death.  "When  offenders  belong 
to  different  clans,  or  the  contention  is  between  members  of 
two  or  more  clans,  the  united  tendis  decide  the  matter. 

15.  The  most  frequent  punishments  are  blows.  Some- 
times, however,  a  murderer  is  speared  to  death.  Sorcery  is 
severely  punished. 

16.  There  are  three  forms  of  sorcery,  called  "millin," 
"  ngathungi,"  and  "  neilyeri." 


FROM  MURRAY  RIVER  TO  LACBPEDE  BAY.         247 

MilUn. — The  aborigines  have  a  big-headed  club,  called 
plongge,  which  is  used  entirely  for  mfllin.  Its  mere  touch 
is  injury.  "When  they  get  an  opportunity  they  knock  down 
an  enemy,  then  tap  his  chest  with  this  club,  hit  him  with  it 
on  the  shoulders  and  knees,  and  pull  his  ears  till  they  crack ; 
he  is  then  called  "  plongge  watyeri."  The  victim  is  now 
supposed  to  be  given  into  the  power  of  a  demon  called 
Nalkaru,  who  will  make  him  have  chest  disease,  or  cause 
him  to  be  speared  in  battle,  or  be  bitten  by  a  snake.  Very 
often  the  plongge  is  used  upon  a  person  sleeping.  The 
weapon  is  warmed,  and  his  or  her  chest  gently  tapped  with 
it.  One  who  has  been  thus  served  is  supposed  to  be  sure  to 
have  disease  of  the  chest.  If  a  man  or  woman  feels  sore  in 
the  chest  it  is  always  attributed  to  millin.  After  death  the 
chest  is  opened,  and  any  disease  found  there  is  attributed  to 
this  cause. 

Ngathungi. — This  kind  of  sorcery  is  practised  with  bones, 
or  remains  of  animals  which  have  been  eaten.  When  a  man 
gets  hold  of  a  particular  bone  of  some  bird  or  beast  which 
his  enemy  has  eaten,  he  mixes  it  with  grease  and  red  ochre 
and  human  hair,  and  sticks  the  mass  in  a  round  lump  on 
the  end  of  a  prepared  skewer  of  kangaroo's  leg-bone,  and  it 
is  called  a  "  ngathungi."  When  injury  is  to  be  inflicted 
on  the  enemy  who  ate  the  animal  from  which  the  remains 
came,  the  possessor  of  the  ngathungi  puts  it  down  by  the 
fire,  and  as  the  knob  melts,  so  disease  is  supposed  to  be 
engendered  in  the  person  to  be  bewitched,  and  if  it  wholly 
melts  off  he  dies.  A  man  who  knows  that  another  person 
has  a  ngathungi  capable  of  injuring  him  buys  it  if  he  can, 
and  throws  it  into  the  river  or  lake;  this  breaks  the  charm. 

Neilyeri. — This  is  practised  by  means  of  a  pointed  bone. 
It  is  scraped  to  a  very  fine  point.  Sometimes  an  iron  point 
is  used.  This  is  poisoned  by  being  stuck  into  a  dead  body. 
Any  one  wounded  by  it  is  inoculated  with  the  virus,  and 
either  loses  a  limb  or  dies.  Very  ofter  this  wound  is  inflicted 
secretly  when  a  person  is  asleep.  The  bone  point  is  kept 
moist  for  use  by  human  hair  soaked  in  liquor  from  a  dead 
body.     The  natives  are  so  terribly  afraid  of  neilyeri  that 


248  TUE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

they  dread  even  for  the  weapon  to  be  pointed  at  them, 
attributing  to  it  a  deadly  energy. 

17.  Children  who  died  in  infancy  were  sometimes  burned, 
but  are  now  always  buried.     Youths  and  adults   in  the 
prime  of  life  when  they  died  had  their  bodies  dried.    After 
death    the  body   was    carefully    examined,    and    all    the 
apertures  sewed  up.     Then  it  was  set  on  its  back,  with  the 
arms  crossed  in  front  and  the  thighs  spread  out,  and  the 
legs  and  feet  bent  under.     In  this  posture  it  was  placed  on 
a  sort  of  triangular  bier   called   "ngaratta."      This  was 
elevated  on  three  men's  heads,  with  the  body  on  it.    Then 
all  the  friends   and  relatives  stood  round  and  called  out 
various  names,  in  order  that  they  might  discover  who  had 
by  sorcery  caused  the  man  or  woman  to  die.     The  body, 
thus  elevated,  was  taken  to  various  spots  in  the  neighbour- 
hood which  had  been  frequented  by  the  deceased.    It  was 
said  that  when  the  right  name  was  called  an  impulse  was 
felt  impelling  the  bearers  towards  the  person  who  called  out 
the  right  name.     This  was  regarded  as  a  sufficient  indica- 
tion of   the    guilty    person.      The   bearers   profess  to  be 
entirely  controlled  by  the  dead  man's  spirit.     Sometimes,  in 
order  to   discover  the   guilty   sorcerer,   the   nearest   male 
relative  would  sleep  with  his  head  on  the  corpse,  in  order  to 
dream  who  was   the   criminal.     This  matter  having  been 
settled,  the  body  was  placed  over  a  slow  fire  till  the  skin 
rose,  and  then  it  was  all  peeled  off,  and  the  corpse  appeared 
like   a  White  man,   the  piffmentum  nigrum    having    been 
removed  with  the  scarf  skin.     I  do  not  think  there  was 
any  rule  for  this  ceremony  or  the  preceding  one  to  be  per- 
formed first.     It  depended  on  the  presence  of  friends.    All 
near  relatives  were  required  to  be  present  at  the  trying  for 
sorcery.     The  scarf  skin  having  been  removed,  the  body  was 
smeared  with  grease  and  red  ochre,  and  the  head  tied  up 
in  pieces  of  skin  or  rags.     It  was  now  called  "  gringkari,"  a 
name  applied  to   Europeans   by  the  Blacks,  because  they 
think  that  they  resemble  a  peeled  corpse.     The  body  was 
then  elevated  on  a  stage  about  four  feet  from  the  ground  in 
a  sitting  posture,  Avith  the  feet  under  the  thighs.    A  slow 


FROM  MURRAY  RIVER  TO  LACBPEDE   BAY.  249 

fire  was  kept  under  it  for  weeks,  and  it  was  Ijasted  with 
grease  and  red  ockre.  The  liquor  from  it  was  kept  for 
neUyeri  purposes.  Eegular  times  of  wailing  and  screaming 
around  it  were  observed.  Men  and  women  cut  off  their  hair 
in  sign  of  mourning.  The  hair  was  spun  and  made  into 
head-hands.  The  hair  of  the  dead  was  especially  prized  for 
this  purpose,  as  it  was  supposed  to  confer  the  gift  of  clear- 
sightedness. Men  blackened  their  faces,  and  women 
smeared  filth  on  their  foreheads,  in  sign  of  mourning.  It 
was  not  uncommon  for  them  to  cut  themselves  to  show  grief. 
When  the  body  was  dried,  it  was  wrapped  in  rugs  and 
carried  about  from  place  to  place  to  be  mourned  over. 
When  the  grief  was  assuaged,  it  was  put  on  a  stage  in  a 
tree,  and,  after  a  time,  buried.  The  body  of  a  very  aged 
person  would  be  wrapped  up  and  put  in  a  tree  without  much 
ceremony. 

18.  Property  descends  from  father  to  son,  or  nearest  male 
relatives  if  there  be  no  sons. 

19.  The  Narrinyeri  always  believed  in  a  future  life  after 
death.  They  believed  that  the  dead  go  to  some  place  in  the 
west  where  their  god  Nurunderi  resides.  In  passing  to  this 
place  they  go  under  the  sea,  and  as  they  go  see  down  below 
them  a  great  fire,  and  the  bad  are  in  danger  of  falling  into 
it  and  being  burned,  but  good  people — according  to  their 
ideas  of  goodness — get  safe  to  Nurunderi.  They  call  heaven 
Waiyirri,  or  Wyirri,  or  Wyirrewarri. 

20.  21.  The  great  god  of  the  Narrinyeri  is  Nurunderi. 
They  also  believe  in  several  demi-gods  called  Waiungare, 
Nepelle,  and  demons  Pepi,  Melapi,  Nalkaru,  Mulgewanke, 
and  Karungpe.  The  traditions  of  the  Narrinyeri  all  refer 
more  or  less  to  Nurunderi  and  his  adventures  and  exploits. 

Nurunderi,  their  great  and  wonderful  god  or  chief,  came 
down  the  Darling  with  his  followers.  When  he  arrived  at 
the  lower  Eiver  Murray  he  sent  back  two  of  his  men  to  tell 
those  from  whence  he  came  of  his  arrival.  They  never 
rejoined  Nurunderi.  The  chief  and  his  party  are  said  to 
have  crossed  the  country  from  the  Murray — apparently  from 
the  south  bend — to  the  lakes,  striking  Lake  Albert.     They 


250  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

found  the  country  around  the  lakes  in  possession  of  clans  of 
Blacks  under  Waiungare  and  ITepelle.  Various  marvellous 
adventures  are  told  of  these  personages.  Nurunderi  is  said 
to  have  thrown  flat  stones  into  Lake  Alexandrina,  near 
Pelican  Point,  and  they  became  the  fish  called  "  tinuwarri  " 
(or  bream).  He  made  an  expedition  up  the  Coorong,  where 
he  had  a  great  fight  with  and  slew  a  chief  who  had  stolen 
his  children.  Then  he  arrived  at  Encounter  Bay,  and  while 
there  his  wives  forsook  him.  He  called  upon  the  sea  to 
overflow  and  drown  them,  and  it  obeyed.  After  many  such 
adventures,  Nurunderi  went  to  Wyirrewarri,  or  heaven,  where 
he  resides.  They  also  have  an  indistinct  myth  in  which  a 
son  of  Nurunderi  called  Martummeri  is  spoken  of,  but  it  is 
so  misty  that  little  sense  can  be  made  of  it. 

Waiungare  is  said  to  have  been  produced  by  his  mother's 
excrements  without  any  father.  He  was  a  red  man  (narumbe). 
His  brother  was  Nepelle.  Nepelle's  wives  one  day  saw 
Waiungare  at  the  lake  and  desired  him  for  a  husband.  So 
they  went  to  his  hut  at  PuUuwewal,  and  finding  him  asleep 
made  a  noise  like  emus  running  outside.  He  awoke  and 
came  out,  when  they  burst  out  laughing,  and  rushing  to  him 
clasped  their  arms  round  his  neck  and  insisted  upon  becom- 
ing his  wives.  The  unfortunate  hero  appears  to  have  yielded. 
Nepelle,  enraged,  went  to  Waiungare's  hut,  and  found  that 
he  and  the  wives  were  absent,  hunting.  So  he  put  fire  in 
the  hut  and  told  it  to  wait  until  they  returned,  and  then, 
when  they  were  asleep,  to  get  up  and  burn  them.  The  fire 
obeyed,  and  the  sleepers  were  aroused  by  the  vengeful  flames. 
They  fled  to  the  swamps  on  the  shores  of  the  lake  and 
plunged  in  and  escaped.  After  this  Waiungare  threw  a 
spear  at  the  sky  with  a  line  tied  to  it.  At  first,  when  he 
hauled  upon  it,  the  weapon  came  out.  Then  he  threw  up  a 
barbed  spear.  This  held  fast,  so  he  pulled  himself  up  to 
heaven  and  afterwards  hoisted  up  the  two  women.  Certain 
stars  are  pointed  out  as  Waiungare  and  his  wives.  NepeUe 
afterwards  was  driven  to  the  top  of  the  hills  by  a  great  flood. 
So  he  got  to  heaven  by  the  same  means  as  Waiungare,  and 
drew  up  his  canoe  after  him.     This  vessel  is  still  to  be  seen 


FEOM  MURRAY  RIVER  TO   LACEPEDE   BAY.  251 

floating  in  the  sky  in  the  "  milky  way."  These  persons  are 
said  to  have  lived  at  a  time  when  enormous  kangaroos  and 
fish  existed.  The  former  were  so  large  that  the  skin  of  one 
covered  acres  of  ground.  Waiungare  and  Nepelle,  after 
their  apotheosis,  sought  to  make  these  animals  smaller. 
The  former  tore  a  kangaroo  in  pieces,  and,  strewing  them 
on  the  earth,  each  piece  became  a  small  kangaroo,  such 
as  we  now  have.  Nepelle  did  the  same  with  a  fish,  and 
produced  small  fish. 

The  following  is  a  native  myth  in  the  vernacular  of  the 
Narrinyeri : — "  Norar  ngertir  ulangk,  kar  morokkir  an 
mamar.  Kar  tuppir  an  mamar  Tipping.  Wanyar  muldurar 
ngungyin  namuramb  an  mamar.  Wunyar  pulkeri  muldurar 
pettir  an  mami.  Wunyar  norar  ngrakkuwallir.  Wunyar 
norar  muldurar  mendir.  Kar  pingkir  muldurar  brugungai 
wunyar  Eanemin.  Wunyar  norar  balpewallin  lun  ellin 
tukkeri."  Translation — "The  pelicans  fished  in  the  lake 
and  caught  some  tukkeri  fish.  They  carried  the  fish  to 
Point  Sturt.  Then  the  magpies  made  a  fire  to  cook  the 
fish  with.  The  greedy  magpies  then  stole  the  fish.  The 
pelicans  were  angry  with  the  magpies,  and  they  fought. 
The  magpies  were  rolled  in  the  ashes,  which  made  them 
black.  Then  the  pelicans  became  white  like  the  tukkeri 
fish,  which  they  had  eaten." 

22.  It  seems  to  be  very  probable  that  the  Narrinyeri  are 
a  mixture  of  two  races.  Most  likely  the  tribe  which  came 
with  Nurunderi  were  of  Eastern  Polynesian  race,  derived 
from  some  people- who  may  have  been  drifted  in  canoes  on 
the  north-eastern  coast  of  Australia  from  the  South  Sea 
Islands.  They  discovered  that  there  was  a  tribe  already  in 
possession  of  portions  of  the  country,  which  seems  to  have 
been  Papuan.  It  is  a  fact  that  some  of  the  Narrinyeri  are 
straight-haired  and  of  a  lighter  complexion,  while  others  are 
curly-haired  and  very  black.  All  the  native  traditions 
agree  with  the  above  theory.* 

•  Except  that  our  Black  race  is  the  outcome  of  a  cross,  the  writer 
differs  from  Mr.  Taplin  in  the  above  particulars,  as  has  been  seen  in 
Chapters  6  and  7.— E.  M.  C. 


252  .  THE    AUSTEALIAJSr    EACE : 

23.  No  doubt  the  Narrinyeri  descended  from  a  more 
civilized  state  of  society.  They  possess  laws,  customs, 
implements,  and  wea.pons  which  they  are  quite  unable  to 
invent  now,  and  elaborate  ceremonies  of  which  they  do  not 
know  the  meaning,  although  they  adhere  to  them  strictly. 
The  remains  of  a  kind  of  sacrifice  is  found  amongst  them. 
When  they  go  on  a  great  kangaroo  hunt  they  knock  over 
the  first  wallaby  which  comes  near  enough  to  the  hunters. 
A  fire  is  then  kindled  and  the  wallaby  placed  on  it,  and  as 
the  smoke  ascends  a  kind  of  chant  is  sung  by  the  men, 
while  they  stamp  on  the  ground  and  lift  up  their  weapons 
towards  heaven.  This  is  done  to  secure  success  in  hunting, 
but  the  reason  of  the  custom  they  know  not. 

24.  The  Narrinyeri  are  not  cannibals,  and  express  a  great 
horror  of  cannibalism. 

25.  Their  weapons  are  clubs  and  waddies ;  heavy  wooden 
spears,  barbed  and  unbarbed.  These  are  made  of  very  hard 
wood,  got  from  the  river  tribes,  and,  through  being  hardened 
in  the  fire,  become  as  hard  as  bone,  and  can  be  made  very 
sharp.  The  most  dangerous  and  efiective  weapons  are  the 
spears  called  kaike  and  yarnde.  The  shafts  of  these  are 
made  of  reed  for  the  kaike,  and  dry  grasstree-fiower  stem 
for  the  yarnde.  Both  have  a  point  consisting  of  about  a 
foot  of  hard  wood.  Sometimes  the  yarnde  is  barbed  with 
splinters  of  quartz,  stuck  on  with  grasstree  or  pine  gum. 
These  spears  are  thrown  with  a  throwing-stick  or  taralye. 
They  can  hit  a  mark  at  fifty  and  sixty  yards.  They  are 
quite  as  effective  as  arrows  from  a  bow.  They  also  have 
boomerangs,  but  they  are  not  much  used  in  war — more  for 
striking  water-fowl  on  the  wing.  They  have  also  two  shields 
— the  broad  bark  shield  and  a  narrow  wooden  one.  The 
former  is  called  wakkalde,  the  latter  murukanye. 

26.  They  make  nets,  twine,  fishing-lines,  mats,  and 
baskets.  The  mats  and  baskets  are  made  of  two  or  three 
kinds  of  rushes  and  fiags.  The  twine  and  lines  are  made  of 
rushes,  or  of  the  root  of  the  menokkuri  flag  boiled  and 
chewed  and  then  twisted  by  hand. 


FROM  MURRAY  RIVER   TO  LACEPBDE   BAY.  253 


27.  Their  only  implements  in  the  way  of  tools  were 
stone  tomahawks  and  shells.  They  often  nse  the  edge  of 
a  split  reed  for  cutting  flesh. 

28.  Several  ceremonies  have  been  described  in  the 
foregoing  answers.  It  is  only  necessary  to  say  that  the 
natives  are  particular  to  adhere  to  them.  They  have  a 
certain  kind  of  courtesy  amongst  them.  The  formal  good- 
bye of  one  departing  is  "  Nginte  lew"  ("  Do  thou  sit  still"), 
and  the  reply  of  one  remaining  is,  "  Nginte  ngoppun"  ("  Do 
thou  walk").  It  is  regarded  as  very  rude  to  converse  or 
speak  privately  to  a  person  in  the  presence  of  others.  The 
women  are  always  kept  separate  immediately  after  parturi- 
tion and  during  the  time  of  menstruation.  Boys  are 
forbidden  to  eat  certain  kinds  of  game,  and  young  men  other 
kinds,  and  again  women  others. 

The  following  is  the  list  of  the  kinds  of  game  forbidden 
to  boys,  and  also  to  young  men  during  the  ceremonies  of 
introduction  to  manhood: — 


Young  Men. 

Boys. 

Native  Name. 

English. 

1.  Nakkare 

■  Black  duck 

2.  Ngerake 

-  Teal   -         -         -        - 

- 

3.  Einkindele    - 

I    Turtle  of  two  kinds    - 

-     1. 

Wheri 

4.  Wheri 

5.  Ponde   - 

-  Murray  cod 

- 

6.  Pankelde 

-  Black  and  white  goose 

- 

7.  Tyeri    - 

-  Golden  perch 

-    2. 

Tyeri 

8.  Piinkeri 

-  Widgeon    - 

-    3. 

Punkeri 

9.  Kalperi 

-  Shoveller  duck  - 

-     4. 

Kalperi 

10.  Parge    - 

-  Wallaby     - 

-    5. 

Parge 

11.  Tilmuri 

-  Female  musk  duck     - 

-    6. 

Tilmuri 

12.  Pomeri  - 

-  Catfish 

-    7. 

Pomeri 

13.  KupuUi 

-  Blue  mountain  parrot 

-    8. 

Kupulli. 

U.  Rekalde 

-  Water  rat  - 

- 

15.  Puldyokkuri- 

-  Water  hen 

16.  Talkinyeri     - 

-  Native  turkey    - 

-    9. 

Talkiayeri 

17.  Prolge  - 

-  Native  companion 

-  10. 

Prolge 

18.  Wanye  - 

-  Mountain  duck  - 

-  11. 

Wanye 

19.  Tarke    - 

-  Lake  perch 

-  12. 

Tarke 

20.  Komeok 

-  Pink-eyed  duck  - 

-  13. 

Komeok 

So  that  twenty  kinds  are  forbidden  to 
thirteen  kinds  to  boys.     It  is  supposed 


the  young  men  and 
that  if  they  eat  of 


264  THE   AUSTRALIAN  RACE: 

these  tliey  will  grow  ugly  and  break  out  in  sores,  and  also 
become  prematurely  grey.  A  curious  custom  of  the  abori- 
gines is  called  " ngiangiampe."  It  is  carried  on.  thus: 
When  a  child  is  born,  its  navel-string  is  preserved  and  tied 
up  in  a  bunch  of  feathers  called  "  kalduki."  The  father  of 
the  child  gives  this  to  the  father  of  some  other  child. 
From  henceforth  neither  of  those  children  nor  their  parents 
must  speak  to  or  hold  any  kind  of  intercourse  with  each 
other.  The  mutual  relationship  brought  about  by  this  is 
called  "ngiangiampe";  and  although  the  two  must  not 
speak  they  must  not  see  each  other  want.  If  one  "  ngian- 
giampe" sees  another  in  need  of  anything,  he  or  she  must 
send  a  supply  of  it  if  possible;  but  yet  there  must  never  be 
any  direct  personal  intercourse  between  the  two.  I  never 
could  find  out  the  reason  for  the  custom;  the  natives  could 
not  tell  me,  so  we  are  left  to  conjecture.  The  children  who 
are  thus  estranged  from  each  other  may  belong  to  the 
same  clan  or  to  another  clan;  this  is  a  matter  of  indifference. 

44,  45.  For  answers  to  these  questions  see  paper  on  the 
Diseases  of  the  Aborigines  appended  hereunto. 

46.  While  a  boy  is  growing  up  his  hair  generally  used  to 
be  allowed  to  go  untouched  by  comb,  or  at  least  it  was 
allowed  to  grow  undressed  and  uncut  for  two  or  three  years 
before  the  time  of  puberty,  which  occurs  at  about  fourteen 
years  of  age.  The  consequence  was  that  it  became  a  perfect 
mat  of  entangled  hair  and  filth.  When  the  time  came  for 
the  youth  to  be  introduced  to  manhood,  the  old  men  of  the 
clan  would  appoint  a  time  with  some  old  men  of  another 
clan  to  meet  together  to  make  "  kainganar,"  or  young  men. 
This  was  kept  secret.  A  youth  from  each  of  the  two  clans 
would  be  selected,  and  on  the  night  fixed  upon  they  were 
suddenly  seized  by  the  men  of  the  clans  and  borne  to  a  place 
apart  from  the  women,  who  set  up  a  great  cry  and  pretended 
to  try  to  rescue  them,  but  were  supposed  to  be  beaten  off  with 
fire-sticks  by  the  men.  The  two  youths  were  thrown  on  the 
ground,  and  all  their  moustaches  plucked  out  and  the  hair  on 
their  bodies ;  the  hair  of  their  heads  was  roughly  combed  out 
with  a  point  of  a  spear,  tearing  it  off  by  handsful ;  they 


PROM  MURRAY  RIVER  TO   LACBPBDE  BAY.  256 

were  tlien  rubbed  over  plentifully  witb  a  mixture  of  fish  oil 
and  red  ocbre.  They  were  compelled  to  fast  three  days; 
drinking  only  water,  and  that  to  be  sucked  up  from  the  lake 
or  river  through  a  reed.  They  were  not  allowed  to  sleep  at 
all  for  about  three  days,  watch  being  kept  over  them  for 
the  purpose.  They  are  now  said  to  be  kaingani  or  narumbe 
— a  word  very  near  to  our  own  word  sacred,  only  without 
any  moral  purity  attaching  to  its  significance.  When  the 
two  kainganis  were  allowed  to  sleep  their  pillow  must 
consist  of  a  couple  of  sticks  stuck  in  the  ground  crosswise. 
For  many  months  the  two  youths  were  compelled  to  go 
naked.  They  were  forbidden  to  eat  certain  kinds  of  game 
while  they  were  narumbe,  and  also  were  not  allowed  to  touch 
any  food  belonging  to  women.  All  the  food  which  they 
touched  or  caught  became  narumbe  like  themselves,  and  was 
forbidden  to  females.  This  state  of  narumbe  lasted  until 
their  beards  and  moustaches  and  body  hair  had  been  pulled 
out  three  times  ;  each  time  the  beard  was  allowed  to  grow 
about  two  inches  long.  They  were  not  allowed  to  take  a 
wife  till  this  period  elapsed,  generally  two  years ;  but  during 
this  time  very  little  fault  was  found  with  them  for  licentious 
conduct.  During  the  time  between  the  first  plucking  and 
the  second  the  youths  were  called  "  narumbe  "  instead  of 
their  real  names;  during  the  time  between  the  second 
plucking  and  the  third  they  were  called  "  takkure  mak,"  or 
"plucked  cheek."  The  second  and  third  plucking  was 
generally  performed  without  any  ceremony  like  the  first. 
The  two  young  men  who  undergo  this  rite  together  are  ever 
after  held  to  hold  a  peculiar  relationship  to  each  other  called 
"  wirake." 

47.  The  Narrinyeri  natives  do  not  knock  out  the  front 
teeth. 

48.  The  Narrinyeri  do  not  practise  circumcision. 

Statement  of  the  Number  of  the  "  Naerinyeei." 

1.  I  have  often  thought  that  it  is  very  desirable  that  we 
should  know  exactly  how  many  of  the  aborigines  there  are, 
so  as  to  be  able  to  form  some  idea  of  their  wants.     I  have 


256 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


several  times  heard  expressions  of  incredulity  when  I  have 
said  how  many  I  thought  there  were;  and,  on  the  other 
hand,  I  have  heard  people  say  they  thought  there  were  more 
than  I  had  any  reason  to  believe  existed.  Such  a  counting 
of  the  aborigines,  if  it  had  taken  place  twenty  years  ago, 
would  have  afforded  some  interesting  information  as  to  their 
rate  of  decrease,  and  would  have  thrown  light  on  the  causes 
of  the  decay  of  the  aboriginal  races.  By  way  of  making  a 
beginning  in  this  direction,  I  prepared  a  list  of  the  names 
of  aU  the  natives  of  the  Narrinyeri  tribe,  or  nearly  aU.  The 
danger  in  taking  such  a  census  is  of  omission,  and  perhaps  I 
may  have  omitted  a  few.  May  I  be  allowed  to  suggest  that 
if  at  every  aboriginal  dep6t  a  register  were  kept  of  every 
man,  woman,  and  child  known  to  the  issuer  of  stores,  and  a 
periodical  return  of  their  numbers  made,  it  would  be  very 
valuable ;  it  would  be  especially  so  in  the  Far  North,  and  on 
the  overland  route,  and  in  the  Northern  Territory. 

2.  In  making  out  the  list,  I  got  the  assistance  of  four 
intelligent  native  men;  I  allowed  them  to  apportion  the 
different  names  of  persons  to  their  respective  clans;  in  one 
or  two  cases  I  found  people  belonged  to  a  different  clan  from 
what  I  had  supposed.  I  have  a  personal  knowledge  of 
three-fourths  of  the  natives  whose  names  are  given;  the  rest 
I  am  assured  are  living,  and  in  some  instances  I  am  told  I 
have  seen  them,  but  have  forgotten  them. 

3.  The  proportions  of  the  different  clans  are  as  follow: — 


Name  of  Clan. 

Men. 

Women. 

Boys. 

Girls. 

Total. 

Goolwa  and  Port  Elliot 

42 

37 

10 

5 

94 

Lake  Albert         .         .        .        . 

12 

10 

3 

5 

30 

Milang  and  Point  Sturt 

14 

19 

13 

3 

49 

Point  Macleay      .        .        .         . 

42 

48 

23 

22 

135 

The  Coorong        .... 

49 

37 

12 

16 

114 

Lower  Murray,  near  Wellington- 

37 

32 

8 

12 

89 

Total  - 

196 

183 

69 

63 

511 

It  will  be  seen  that  the  Point  Macleay   clan  is  the 
largest;  this  is  in  consequence  of  the  natives  here  being  the 


FROM   MURRAY  RIVER  TO   LACEPEDE   BAY.  257 

healthiest.  The  smallest  j)roportion  of  children  are  found  in 
those  clans  which  inhabit  the  settled  districts.  The  Goolwa 
and  Port  Elliot  clan  has  only  fifteen  children,  and  yet  they 
have  as  many  men  as  the  Point  Macleay  clan,  which  con- 
tains forty-five  children.  The  circumstances  attending  the 
life  of  the  aborigines  in  settled  districts  are  adverse  to  their 
having  children.  I  am  sure  that  we  have,  by  getting 
children  from  the  natives  in  the  settled  districts  to  this 
institution,  saved  the  lives  of  many;  the  proportion  at 
Goolwa  and  Wellington  would  be  even  lower  than  this,  were 
not  this  the  case,  and  I  know  that  the  natives  who  reside 
here  have  and  rear  more  children  than  any  others  of  their 
tribe.  The  Coorong  clan  is  a  numerous  one,  and  needs  our 
best  efforts  for  its  welfare.  I  do  trust  that  we  may  be 
enabled,  by  having  a  tract  of  land  allotted  to  us,  to  reach 
these  people,  and  do  them  as  much  good  as  we  have  done 
the  Point  Macleay  clan;  they  have  amongst  them  some 
intelligent  men.  The  Point  Macleay  clan  and  the  Milang 
clan  (a  very  small  one)  are  the  only  ones  where  the  number 
of  women  is  greater  than  that  of  men.  I  can  say  with 
assurance,  that  the  dissipation  and  debauchery  into  which 
many  of  the  natives  fall  is  more  fatal  to  women  than  it  is  to 
men. 

4.  The  preparation  of  this  statement  forcibly  reminds  us 
of  the  decrease  in  the  numbers  of  the  aborigines.  I  myself, 
in  1849,  saw  500  fighting-men  of  these  Narrinyeri;  I  was 
also  told  by  a  former  Government  officer  that  he  saw  800 
fighting-men  in  1842 ;  at  the  present  time  they  might 
muster  150.  This  would  make  the  proportion  of  warriors  at 
present  a  little  more  than  one-third  of  the  whole  number; 
supposing,  as  is  probable,  that  then  the  proportion  was  one- 
fourth,  there  were  in  1849,  2,000  Narrinyeri,  and  in  1842, 
3,200.  I  am  sure  every  one  will  feel  sorry  at  this.  We  have 
deprived  the  natives  of  their  country,  sadly  diminished 
their  means  of  subsistence,  and  introduced  a  state  of  things 
more  fatal  to  them  than  the  barbarism  in  which  they  before 
lived.    We  feel  anxious  to  prevent  such  mournful  results. 

VOL.    II.  R 


258  THE    AUSTRALIAN    BAOE  : 

Our  history  on  this  station  has  been  one  of  seventeen  years' 
resistance  to  their  downward  progress  towards  extinction, 
and  it  has  not  been  altogether  unsuccessful.  We  trust  we 
may  prevent  that  almost  total  disappearance  which  has 
befallen  the  Adelaide  and  Moorundee  tribes. 

5.  As  the  subject  of  disease  among  the  natives  has  a 
close  connection  with  the  causes  of  the  decline  of  the 
aboriginal  races,  I  have  drawn  up  a  statement  of  the 
result  of  my  observations  and  experience  on  this  subject. 

The   Diseases  of  the  Abokigines   of   the  Lakes  and 
Lower  Mueeat  (South  Austealia). 

I  have  resided  among  the  aborigines  inhabiting  the 
Lakes  and  Lower  Murray  for  the  last  twenty  years,  and 
during  that  period  have  observed  that  they  are  subject  to 
the  following  diseases,  viz. : — Apoplexy,  acute  nephritis, 
cataract,  consumption  (tubercular),  dysentery,  diarrhoea, 
epilepsy,  fistula  in  ano,  hydrocephalus,  hepatitis  (acute  and 
chronic),  hydatids  in  the  liver,  hydrothorax,  influenza,  indi- 
gestion, impetigo,  neuralgia,  otalgia,  otorrhoea,  ophthalmia 
(acute  and  chronic),  phrenitis  (one  instance  only),  pneu- 
monia, porrigo,  ranula  (one  case  only,  but  very  bad),  rheu- 
matism (acute  and  chronic),  sunstroke,  syphilis,  sore  throat 
in  its  various  forms,  toothache,  and  tabes  mesenterica. 

1.  My  observations  have  led  me  to  the  following  views 
of  the  principal  disease  from  which  the  natives  sufi'er,  which 
is  evidently  tuberculosis  in  its  different  forms.  I  think  that 
a  large  number  of  deaths  arise  from  this  cause — of  fifty 
deaths  of  adults  which  occurred  here  between  1859  and  1869 
twenty-five  were  caused  by  tubercular  consumption.  In 
infancy  the  tuberculous  diathesis  shows  itself  frequently  in 
the  form  of  hydrocephalus,  generally  occurring  at  the  time 
of  dentition  ;  it  also  very  often  manifests  itself  in  the  form 
of  tabes  mesenterica,  about  the  third  or  fourth  year,  or  even 
later;  I  have  even  known  of  a  very  bad  case  occurring  in  a 
man   of  twenty-five.      This   constitutional  tendency  often 


PEOM  MURRAY  RIVER   TO   LACEPEDE   BAY,  259 

appears  in  a  form  of  induration  and  ulceration  of  the  glands 
of  the  neck;  where  it  comes  out  thus,  it  is  generally  cured, 
and  the  person  becomes  healthy  afterwards ;  but  its  most 
usual  and  fatal  form  is  that  of  tubercular  consumption. 
Any  accident  to  the  chest  seems  to  lead  to  the  deposition  of 
tubercle.  I  knew  a  case  of  a  previously  healthy  young 
woman  who  received  a  blow  on  the  chest  from  her  jealous 
drunken  brute  of  a  husband;  she  vomited  blood  immediately 
after,  then  her  case  gradually  assumed  the  form  of  tubercular 
consumption.  I  had  a  case  of  a  White  woman  on  my  hands 
at  the  same  time  as  this  one.  I  was  struck  with  the  exact 
similarity  of  the  symptoms  in  each  case — the  two  women 
died  within  an  hour  of  each  other  though  living  miles 
apart. 

2.  The  mortality  among  infants  of  the  aborigines  is  very 
great — of  101  deaths,  occurring  between  1859  and  1869, 
thirty-six  were  of  infants  under  two  years  of  age,  fifteen  of 
children  under  the  age  of  puberty,  and  fifty  of  adiilts.  In 
nothing  has  the  result  of  our  labors  been  so  apparent  as  in 
the  saving  of  infant  life.  The  good  effects  of  cleanliness  and 
proper  care  are  so  apparent  that  I  have  heard  the  women  on 
our  station  lecture  young  woman  on  the  necessity  of  keep- 
ing their  children  washed.  Infants  suffer  very  much  from 
the  exposure  of  savage  life.  I  have  known  infants  die  of  the 
scorching  which  their  heads  got  through  being  exposed  on 
their  mothers'  backs  during  a  long  march  on  a  hot  day;  and 
any  severe  disease  which  may  suddenly  seize  a  child,  when 
its  mother  is  in  a  situation  where  help  cannot  be  obtained, 
of  course  runs  on  and  becomes  fatal,  although  at  first  quite 
amenable  to  treatment. 

3.  I  have  frequent  cases  of  both  neuralgia  and  toothache. 
A  peculiar  cause  of  toothache  is  the  chewing  of  fibre  for  the 
purpose  of  making  twine ;  this  wears  the  teeth  down  to  a 
level  and  makes  them  very  tender  to  bite  upon. 

4.  I  have  frequently  seen  cases  of  epilepsy.  I  have 
generally  noticed  that  the  persons  subject  to  it  have  sunk 
into  a  low  state  of  health,  and  soon  died  of  consumption. 

E2 


260  THE    AUSTEALIAN    RACE: 

I  had  recently  a  case  of  a  woman  whose  pregnancy  was 
accompanied  by  attacks  of  hsematemesis  and  epileptic  fits. 
I  have  seen  several  cases  of  lunacy  among  them ;  it  is  not 
uncommon  for  the  intellect  of  old  men  to  give  way,  and 
for  them  to  be  insane.  In  one  instance  an  old  chief  was 
frightened  by  some  people  telling  him  that  the  Whites  were 
going  to  take  him  and  his  tribe  to  Kangaroo  Island ;  he 
immediately  betook  himself  to  the  reeds  and  hid  for  days; 
he  was  then  found  by  his  friends,  and  afterwards  had  an 
apoplectic  attack;  in  a  few  weeks  homicidal  mania  set  in, 
and  he  chopped  a  women  about  with  a  tomahawk  frightfully 
— this  led  to  his  incarceration  in  the  Adelaide  Lunatic 
Asylum.  In  two  or  three  years  he  was  discharged  cured: 
he  is,  however,  yet  strange  in  his  manner.  The  relatives  of 
lunatics  have  no  superstitious  ideas  about  them,  and  treat 
them  very  kindly — they  are  rather  afraid  of  them. 

5.  The  aborigines  do  not  suffer  from  malarious  fevers. 

6.  Before  the  advent  of  the  Whites  a  strange  disease 
came  down  the  Murray  and  carried  off  many  of  the  natives 
— it  was  doubtless  small-pox,  for  some  of  the  old  men  are 
pock-marked.  The  natives  point  to  certain  mounds  where 
the  dead  were  interred  who  fell  victims  to  it.  The  natives 
readily  receive  vaccination.  The  aborigines  here  do  not 
readily  take  measles;  a  few  had  them  when  they  very  pre- 
valent, but  they  were  nearly  all  half-castes.  We  never  had 
the  measles  on  this  station  at  all,  although  settlers  had 
them  within  two  miles  of  us,  and  they  raged  violently  at 
Milang  and  Meningie — and  yet  nearly  all  the  aborigiaes  at 
the  Poonindie  Mission  Station  had  them.  I  cannot  under- 
stand the  reason  why  our  natives  were  exempted.  Although 
a  large  number  of  natives  were  gathered  in  camps  at 
sheep-shearing,  and  some  of  them,  mostly  half-castes,  had 
measles,  yet  they  did  not  spread  generally;  this  is  surprising, 
since  absolutely  no  care  was  taken  to  prevent  infection. 
Neither  are  the  natives  subject  to  scarlatina,  although  the 
disease  has  prevailed  very  much  in  this  colony.  I  never 
knew  natives  have  it,  and  yet  I  have  reason  to  believe  that 


FROM  MURRAY   RIVER  TO   LACEPEDE   BAY.  261 

they  had  the  cast-off  clothes  of  White  sufferers  from  the 
disease  given  to  them. 

7.  The  ahorigines  have  a  skin  disease,  which  is  a 
sort  of  impetigo — it  might  be  called  impetigo  contagiosa; 
it  manifests  itself  in  a  crop  of  pustules  about  the  joints, 
the  ankles,  knees,  hips,  or  elbows  ;  it  is  worst  when 
it  occurs  on  the  hips ;  it  is  accompanied  with  itching, 
swelling,  and  pain,  and  afterwards  excoriation.  I  have 
seen  places  on  a  person's  hips,  occasioned  by  it,  as  raw 
as  beef  and  as  large  as  my  hand ;  it  is  very  contagious 
among  the  pure  Blacks,  and  less  so  among  the  half-castes. 
I  have  known  half-castes  sleep  with  Blacks  who  had  it  and 
yet  not  catch  it.  I  have  known  a  very  White  half-caste 
woman  who  was  married  to  a  Black  husband,  and  yet  she 
never  had  it,  but  her  children  did.  Sulphur  is  a  specific  for 
it.  Some  years  ago  I  was  led  to  ask  the  Aborigines'  De- 
partment for  a  supply  of  soap,  which  I  used  liberally — the 
supply  has  been  continued,  and  the  result  has  been  a  marked  . 
decrease  in  the  number  of  cases  of  impetigo ;  this  fact  is 
very  significant  as  to  the  cause  of  the  disease.  The  natives 
call  this  disease  Wirrullumi. 

The  natives  often  get  ringworms  on  their  bodies,  but  not 
on  the  scalp;  they  catch  them  through  tending  calves  which 
have  them.  No  kind  of  leprosy  is  known  among  the 
aborigines. 

8.  I  have  seen  cases,  even  bad  cases,  of  syphilis  amongst 
the  natives.  I  am  sure  the  disease  was  imported  among 
them ;  they  knew  nothing  of  it  before  the  advent  of  the 
Whites — this  is  the  testimony  of  the  natives.  I  have  known 
fatal  cases,  also  cases  where  the  tibia  was  affected,  and  bony 
excrescences  on  the  skin,  with  atrocious  neuralgic  pain ;  I 
have  also  seen  buboes  in  the  groin.  Venereal  disease  is  not 
very  prevalent;  I  am  persuaded  that  sometimes  cases  of 
impetigo  have  been  taken  for  it. 

9.  I  have  never  seen  a  hunchback  among  the  aborigines, 
and  only  one  case  of  lateral  curvature  of  the  spine  in  a 
half-caste. 


262  THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

10.  The  vital  power  of  the  natives  varies  very  much  in 
different  individuals,  but  taking  the  average,  I  do  not  think 
it  could  be  rated  high ;  they  easily  give  way  to  disease,  and 
hopelessly  yield  themselves  up  to  a  fatal  result.  I  think 
their  diseases  are  more  of  a  sthenic  than  asthenic  type.  They 
endure  both  heat  and  cold  well — they  will  sleep  comfortably 
under  a  much  thinner  covering  than  an  average  European. 

11.  The  question  has  often  occurred  to  me  whether  they 
suffer  as  much  pain  from  injuries  as  Europeans  do.  It  is 
difficult  to  decide ;  let  an  injury  be  caused  by  a  European, 
or  by  work  for  a  colonist,  and  a  great  fuss  will  be  made  of  it, 
while  a  much  more  severe  injury  occurring  through  a  native 
custom  will  be  made  light  of  and  endured  with  fortitude. 
This  leads  me  to  think  that  they  do  not  really  suffer  so 
much  as  we  do ;  however,  the  whole  question  as  to  whether 
one  man  suffers  as  much  as  another  from  a  similar  injury  is 
one  which  I  should  like  to  see  ventilated  by  a  competent 
authority. 

Wounds  made  by  metal  or  stone  implements  or  weapons 
heal  about  the  same  as  similar  wounds  would  do  in  Euro- 
peans, but  wounds  made  by  wooden  weapons  heal  very 
quickly — the  transfixing  of  a  leg  by  a  wooden  spear  is 
regarded  as  a  trifle,  and  soon  heals.  Blows  on  the  head  are 
not  so  dangerous  to  natives,  because  of  the  thickness  of  the 
fatty  tissue  between  the  scalp  and  the  skuU — this  forms  a 
kind  of  pad,  which  in  some  measure  protects  the  head. 

12.  The  aborigines  have  no  medicines  peculiar  to  them- 
selves: they  regard  all  diseases  and  most  injuries  to  the 
person  as  the  result  of  sorcery.  In  order  to  cure  diseases 
they  use  charms,  which  consist  in  the  utterance  of  certain 
words  in  a  kind  of  chant  or  recitative.  They  endeavour. to 
cure  some  complaints,  such  as  rheumatism,  by  a  rude  kind 
of  vapor-bath ;  the  patient  is  placed  on  a  platform  made 
with  sticks,  underneath  are  placed  red-hot  stones,  or  a  few 
live  coals,  a  rug  is  wrapped  round  the  sufferer;  then  some 
water-weed  called  pinggi  is  taken  wet  from  the  lake  shore 
and  put  on  the  hot  stones  or  fire  and  the  steam  allowed  to 


FROM  MURRAY  RIVER  TO   LACEPEDE   BAY.  263 

ascend  aronnd  the  naked  body,  and  a  perspiration  is  pro- 
duced from  which  relief  is  oftentimes  obtained. 

13.  I  have  known  women  get  spots  on  their  eyes  from 
receiving  blows  on  the  back  of  the  head;  these  spots 
enlarge  and  occasion  very  imperfect  vision  in  after-life.  I 
have  known  several  cases  of  blindness,  but  not  only  from 
this  cause. 

14.  The  writer  has  often  been  asked  respecting  the 
fecundity  of  the  natives,  and  the  condition  and  habits  of 
women  in  pregnancy  and  parturition.  It  has  been  stated 
that  amongst  some  tribes  in  the  other  colonies  if  a  woman 
has  a  half-caste  child  she  never  has  another  of  her  own  race. 
This  is  not  the  case  amongst  the  Narrinyeri,  and  the  writer 
doubts  if  it  is  the  case  anywhere.  He  has  known  many 
women  have  large  families  after  having  a  half-caste  child. 
Instances  have  occurred  where  the ,  first  child  was  a  half- 
caste,  and  yet  a  large  family  of  Black  children  followed. 
Also,  there  have  been  cases  where  a  half-caste  child  has 
been  born  after  several  Black  children,  and  then  Black 
children  have  succeeded  it.  Then  women  are  known  to 
have  had  two  half-caste,  and  afterwards  several  Black. 
Indeed  in  every  way  the  statement  that  the  birth  of  a  half- 
caste  injures  the  fruitfulness  of  the  mother  afterwards 
is  proved  to  be  untrue  as  far  as  the  Narrinyeri  are 
concerned. 

The  writer  is  convinced  that  when  native  women  take  to 
the  excessive  use  of  alcoholic  drinks  it  injures  and  often 
entirely  prevents  their  fecundity.  In  no  instance  has  this 
rule  been  found  to  be  incorrect.  Let  a  Black  woman  take  to 
drinking,  and  she  generally  has  no  more  children,  or,  if  she 
does,  they  are  poor  weakly  creatures,  and  soon  die.  There 
is  to  be  taken  into  account  though  that  where  aboriginal 
women  become  drunkards  they  become  prostitutes  too. 

A  remarkable  result  follows  the  free  use  of  tobacco  by 
the  native  women.  The  writer  has  observed  it  for  years  in 
a  large  number  of  instances.  When  a  woman  smokes  a 
great  deal  during  her  pregnancy,  the  child  which  she  bears 


264  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

is  always  excessively  fat.  Such  a  child  will  resemble  one 
of  those  little  fat  Chinese  pigs,  so  abnormally  fat  will  it  be. 
Often  a  native  woman  is  complimented  on  the  plumpness  of 
her  baby  when  it  arises  solely  from  this  cause.  But  to  a 
person  accustomed  to  see  native  children  this  fatness  is 
known  to  be  peculiar  in  its  character.  The  child  is  round 
and  bloated  and  unhealthy,  although  so  fat.  And  in  every 
instance  such  infants  have  died.  I  never  knew  one  that 
survived  the  troubles  of  dentition  and  weaning.  The  effects 
of  tobacco  have  also  often  been  noticed  in  the  case  of  women 
suckling.  I  have  been  called  to  a  child  which  was  ill,  and 
found  it  suffering  from  all  the  effects  of  poisoning  by  tobacco; 
and  no  wonder,  for  its  mother  smoked  heavily,  and  it  was 
nursed  in  a  close  hut  with  half-a-dozen  people  all  blowing  a 
suffocating  cloud  of  tobacco  smoke.  I  am  convinced  that  a 
great  deal  of  the  ill-health  of  the  natives — tendency  to  lung 
disease,  &c. — arises  from  excessive  use  of  tobacco,  They 
use  it  so  immoderately.  I  was  confirmed  in  my  opinion  of 
the  use  of  tobacco  causing  a  peculiar  fatness  in  infants  by 
observing  an  instance  of  the  same  kind  in  a  White  woman. 
During  her  pregnancy  she  suffered  severely  from  toothache, 
and  only  found  relief  by  smoking  tobacco.  This  she  did 
until  the  infant  was  born.  It  was  enormously  fat,  although 
both  the  parents  were  thin  and  spare  in  habit.  I  noticed 
too  that  the  fatness  was  of  exactly  the  same  peculiar  kind 
as  that  in  the  Black  infants.  However,  the  fatal  result  did 
not  follow  in  this  case,  for  the  mother  left  off  smoking,  and 
the  child  survived,  and  got  rid  of  its  excessive  fatness  after 
a  time. 

The  pure  Blacks  are  not  so  healthy  as  the  half-castes. 
Always  the  children  of  two  half-castes  will  be  healthier  and 
stronger  than  either  the  children  of  Blacks  or  the  children 
of  a  Black  and  a  half-caste.  When  a  half-caste  man  and 
woman  marry,  they  generally  have  a  large  and  vigorous 
family.     I  could  point  to  half-a-dozen  such. 

Aboriginal  women  generally  suffer  less  on  the  whole 
during  parturition  than  White  women  do.     I  attribute  this 


FROM  MURRAY  RIVER  TO   LACEPEDE  BAY.  265 

to  their  bodies  being  allowed  to  develop  in  childhood  without 
the  restraints  and  injuries  which  result  from  the  use  of 
stays,  corsets,  and  other  civiUzed  appliances.  The  experi- 
ence of  the  writer  has  not  been  small,  and  he  never  saw  an 
instance  where  deformity  or  malformation  of  the  pelvis  was 
indicated  in  any  native  woman  yet.  May  not  this  result  be 
attributed  to  the  fact  that  their  mothers  never  wore  stays 
during  the  time  when  they  were  chQd-bearing  ?  The  pelvis 
of  a  growing  foetus  must  be  peculiarly  liable  to  malformation 
from  abdominal  pressure  in  the  mother.  At  any  rate,  such 
is  the  fact,  as  stated  above,  with  regard  to  native  women, 
and  obstetricians  will  appreciate  the  vast  decrease  in  danger 
and  suffering  which  is  caused  by  it. 

Aboriginal  females  though  do  suffer  considerably  in 
child-birth,  some  more  and  some  less.  Instances  of  death 
in  child-bed  are  rare.  The  only  three  which  I  know  were 
remarkable.  These  were  two  sisters,  each  named  Petem- 
baitpiri;  they  got  married,  and  each  died  in  child-bed.  One 
died  with  her  second  child,  and  the  other  died  with  her 
third  child.  The  second  one  left  a  daughter  whom  we 
brought  up  from  infancy,  and  she  attained  to  a  mariageable 
<ige.  She  was  married,  and  notwithstanding  every  means 
which  was  used,  died  in  child-bed  with  her  iirst  child.  The 
cause  was  obstinate  metritis,  which  set  up  immediately  after 
the  birth. 

Many  of  the  native  women  are  skilful  midwives,  and 
exhibit  much  tact  and  presence  of  mind.  Aboriginal  women 
always  bear  their  children  while  they  kneel,  and  sit  back  on 
their  heels,  their  feet  being  laid  on  the  ground,  soles  upper- 
most— a  common  posture  always  with  them  when  sitting. 
One  of  the  women  attending  sits  behind  the  woman  in 
labor,  and  puts  both  her  arms  round  her  waist,  thus  form- 
ing a  support  for  her  back.  The  other  widwife  will  attend 
to  her  as  necessity  requires.  Parturition  always  takes  place 
in  this  posture.  The  mother  of  a  newly-born  child  generally 
recovers  rapidly.  I  have  known  a  woman  walk  two  miles 
the  day  after  she  was  confined.     But  this  always  does 


266  THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

harm  ;  and  I  have  heard  their  husbands  reproach  them  with 
their  folly. 

On  emergencies,  native  women  have  sometimes  been 
called  in  to  act  as  midwives  to  the  wives  of  White  men 
living  in  the  bush,  and  have  succeeded  very  well.  I  remem- 
ber one  amusing  instance.  The  wife  of  a  settler  on  Lake 
Albert  was  unable  to  get  the  help  of  one  of  her  own  country- 
woman, so  she  called  in  an  intelligent  half-caste  named 
Emily,  in  her  sore  need  of  help.  In  due  time  the  infant 
was  born,  and  when  she  had  made  the  mother  comfortable 
in  a  very  kind  way,  the  half-caste  Emily  proceeded  to  wash 
the  newly-born  baby.  After  she  had  been  quietly  proceed- 
ing for  a  time,  the  mother  was  attracted  by  hearing  the  click 
of  a  pair  of  scissors,  and  on  looking  at  the  nurse  saw  a  spot 
of  blood  on  her  hand.  "  What  are  you  doing  to  my  baby  ?" 
she  inquired.  "Oh,  missus,"  answered  the  nurse,  "your 
baby  has  got  too  many  fingers,  and  I  only  been  cut  off  one; 
I  will  cut  off  the  other  directly,  and  make  him  all  right." 
Of  course  the  mother  protested  that  she  would  not  have  this, 
and  the  second  operation  was  not  performed.  It  turned  out 
that  the  infant  had  five  fingers  on  each  hand,  and  the  native 
woman  had  clipped  off  with  the  scissors  the  superfluous, 
finger  outside  the  little  finger  on  the  right  hand  to  make  all 
right  as  she  said.  I  only  relate  this  as  indicating  what  would 
be  probably  done  by  aboriginals  themselves  in  such  a  case. 
The  infant  in  this  instance  suffered  very  little,  and  grew  up 
a  fine  boy.  Children  very  much  deformed  were  invariably 
killed  immediately  after  birth.  But  they  must  have  been 
rare,  for,  although  they  are  not  killed  now,  they  rarely 
appear. 

Although  the  Narrinyeri  are  so  often  exposed  to  the 
bite  of  venomous  snakes,  they  have  no  remedy  for  this 
disaster.  Their  superstition  leads  them  to  believe  it  the 
result  of  sorcery.  All  the  snakes  are  more  or  less  deadly. 
Their  poison  brings  on  tetanus,  and  coma,  and  death.  I 
have  seen  a  strong  man  die  in  agonies  from  tetanus  on  the 
third  day  after  being  bitten  by  a  very  small  brown  snake. 


FROM  MURRAY  RIVER  TO   LACEPEDB   BAY.  267 

The  natives  particulary  dread  the  native  slow-worm, 
called  by  them  "  wiitii  turar"  (wittii,  "  stinging  " — turar, 
"teeth").  Whether  it  is  really  venomous  I  never  could 
ascertain.  I  have  cured  five  natives  who  were  bitten  by 
snakes.  The  remedies  used  were  very  large  doses  of  liquor 
ammonia  fortissimus,  administered  in  one-ounce  doses  of 
neat  brandy. 

The  effect  of  the  bite  of  the  snake  is  to  lower  the  pulse. 
It  is  felt  to  be  gradually  going  down.  I  therefore  gave  ten 
drops  of  the  ammonia  in  one  fluid  ounce  of  brandy  every 
quarter  of  an  hour  till  the  pulse  rose.  When  this  takes 
place  the  danger  is  passed.  It  is  astonishing  what  a  number 
of  doses  of  the  above  will  be  taken  before  the  slightest 
effect  is  perceived.  At  the  same  time  I  freely  scarified  the 
wound  made  by  the  snake's  teeth  with  the  point  of  a  lance^ 
and  rubbed  into  the  place  pure  liquid  ammonia  fort. 

The  natives  themselves  have  a  sort  of  treatment  of 
diseases,  but  it  consists  more  in  incantations  than  anything 
else.  There  are  certain  men  amongst  them  sometimes  called 
"  Kuldukkis,"  sometimes  "  Wiwirrarmaldar,"  and  sometimes 
"  Puttherar  " — but  all  mean  doctors,  and  they  profess  to 
cure  the  sick.  They  blow  and  chant  and  mutter  over  the 
sick  person,  all  the  while  squeezing  the  part  affected  by  the 
disease,  and  after  many  efforts  will  produce  a  bit  of  wood, 
or  bone,  or  stone,  which  they  declare  has  been  extracted 
from  the  place,  and  is  the  cause  of  the  ailment. 

The  natives  are  accustomed  to  scarify  a  part  affected  by 
pain  with  a  bit  of  shell  or  glass,  so  that  by  making  it  bleed 
a  cure  may  be  accomplished.  Another  method  which  they 
pursue  in  cases  of  rheumatism  is  this : — They  make  a  lot  of 
stones  red-hot  in  the  fire.  Then  they  erect  a  stage  about 
three  feet  from  the  ground  with  sticks.  On  this  they  place 
the  patient.  Then  they  put  the  hot  stones  underneath,  and 
cover  them  with  wet  water-weed  called  "  pinggi."  The 
patient  and  all  is  then  enveloped  in  rugs  or  blankets,  and 
the  steam  ascending  produces  a  vapor-bath,  which  often 
brings  on  a  salutary  perspiration. 


268  THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

Questions  on  Asokiginal  Folklore,  etc. 
(Answers  to  which  appear  in  the  previous  pages.) 

1.  Name  of  the  person  who  answers  the  questions,  and 
locality  where  he  resides. 

2.  What  is  the  name  of  the  tribe  of  aborigines  to  which 
his  answers  will  relate?  By  "tribe,"  is  meant  all  those 
aborigines  who  speak  one  language.  The  subdivisions  of  the 
tribe  should  be  called  clans. 

3.  What  tract  of  country  is  inhabited  by  the  tribe? 

4.  Is  the  tribe  divided  into  clans  ?  If  so,  how  many  are 
there,  and  what  are  their  names  ? 

5.  Has  each  clan  a  totem  ?  (That  is  some  beast,  bird,  or 
other  living  or  inanimate  thing  which  is  the  symbol  of  the 
tribe.) 

6.  Are  there  class-names,  or  a  kind  of  castes  in  the  tribe  ? . 

7.  Do  the  different  clans  only  intermarry  with  each 
other,  and  do  marriages  never  take  place  between  members 
of  the  same  clan?  Or  are  the  marriages  regulated  by  the 
class-names?  Do  natives  of  different  class-names  only  inter- 
marry ?  If  so,  give  names,  and  state  what  class-names  the 
children  of  such  intermarriages  bear? 

8.  What  are  the  marriage  customs  and  ceremonies?  Who 
gives  away  the  female  to  her  husband?  Are  marriages 
arranged  by  the  clans  ? 

9.  Are  the  children  of  the  father's  tribe  or  the  mother's? 

10.  Is  polygamy  practised? 

11.  What  is  the  system  of  kinship  in  the  tribe?  Give 
names  for  following  relationships  : — 


My  father. 

My  father's  brother. 

My  mother's  sister's  husband. 

My  mother. 

My  mother's  sister. 

My  father's  second  wife. 

My  stepmother. 

My  father's  sister. 


My  mother's  brother's  wife. 

My  mother's  brother. 

My  father's  sister's  husband. 

My  son  or  daughter. 

My  brother's  child  ("I"  being 

male). 
My  brother's  child  ("I"  being 

female). 


FROM  MURRAY  RIVER  TO  LACBPEDE  BAY.  269 


My  sister's  chUd  ("I"  being 

My  father's  mother. 

male). 

Her  brothers  and  sisters. 

My  sister's  child  ("I"  being 

My  mother's  mother. 

female). 

Her  brothers  and  sisters. 

My  brother. 

My  mother's  father. 

My  sister. 

His  brothers  and  sisters. 

My  elder  brother. 

My  father's  sister's  child. 

My  elder  sister. 

My  mother's  brother's  child. 

My  younger  brother. 

A  father  and  child. 

My  younger  sister. 

A  mother  and  child. 

My  father's  brother's  child. 

A  widow. 

My  mother's  sister's  child. 

A  widower. 

My  father's  father. 

A  fatherless  child. , 

My  father's  father's  brothers 

A  motherless  child. 

and  sisters. 

A  person  bereaved  of  a  brother. 

[Note. — Give  the  name  of  the  relatic 

nship  in  each  case,  no  matter  whether 

it  be  the  same  word  as  on 

3  before  mentioned  or  not.] 

12.  Are  blood  relations  allowed  to  intermarry? 

13.  What  is  the  form  of  government? 

14.  How  is  justice  administered?  Is  there  any  form  of 
trial  for  suspected  offenders  ?     If  so,  who  are  the  judges  ? 

15.  What  punishments  are  put  in  force  against  offenders  ? 

16.  What  kinds  of  sorcery  are  practised?  Describe  them. 

17.  What  funeral  customs  are  there? 

18.  How  does  property  descend? 

19.  Have  the  aborigines  any  ideas  of  a  future  state?  If 
so,  what  are  they? 

20.  Have  they  any  belief  in  gods,  demons,  or  supernatural 
beings?    If  so,  what  are  they? 

21.  Are  there  any  legends  or  traditions  amongst  them? 
If  so,  please  relate  some  of  them?  If  possible,  give  one  in 
the  native  language  with  a  literal  translation. 

22.  Whence  do  traditions  lead  you  to  suppose  they  came? 
Where  were  the  original  seats  of  the  race  ? 

23.  Are  there  any  proofs  of  their  having  been  more 
civilized  in  past  ages  than  they  are  now,  and,  if  so,  what  are 
they? 

24.  Are  they  cannibals?  What  is  their  custom  in  can- 
nibalism? 


270  THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

25.  What  are  their  weapons  ? 

26.  Do  they  make  nets,  twine,  fishing  lines,  mats,  or 
baskets  ? 

27.  What  tools  or  implements  do  they  possess — or  did 
they  possess,  before  Europeans  came  here  ? 

28.  Can  you  describe  any  ceremonies  or  peculiar  customs 
practised  by  this  people? 

29.  What  do  they  call  their  language  ? 

30.  Has  their  language  any  articles?  If  so,  what  are 
they?    Are  forms  of  the  pronoun  used  as  articles? 

31.  What  is  the  form  of  the  declension  of  nouns?  In 
the  case  of  the  word  for  "man,"  how  do  they  say  "of  a  man," 
"to  a  man,"  "by  a  man"  (as  an  agent),  "by  a  man" 
(situated  near  a  man),  "from  a  man,"  or  "a  man"  objectively? 

32.  Is  there  a  dual  form  of  the  noun,  i.e.,  is  there  not  only 
a  word  for  man  and  men,  but  a  word  for  two  men? 

33.  What  is  the  form  of  declension  of  pronouns?  Give 
the  full  declension  of  the  personal  pronouns. 

34.  Is  there  an  abbreviated  form  of  the  pronoun,  for  the 
sake  of  euphony,  used  in  composition? 

35.  Is  there  any  gender  to  pronouns? 

36.  Has  the  verb  any  indicative  mood  ?  or  has  the  verb 
only  a  participial  construction  ?  Is  the  form  in  which  the 
verb  is  used  in  the  indicative  the  form  in  which  the  same 
word  is  used  adjectively?     Give  a  specimen. 

37.  What  tenses  has  the  verb  ?  Is  there  not  only  a  past 
tense,  but  a  remote  past  tense  ?  Is  there  a  reciprocal  tense — 
as,  for  instance,  "I  cut  myself,"  "We  two  cut  each  other"? 
Is  there  a  repetitive  tense — as,  for  instance,  not  only  "I 
strike"  but  "I  strike  again"? 

38.  How  is  the  passive  form  of  the  verb  constructed? 

39.  Is  there  any  verb  "to  be"  or  "to  have"  in  the 
language  ? 

40.  Is  the  letter  s  used  in  the  language,  ory,  v,  z? 

41.  What  are  the  numerals?  How  high  can  natives 
count  in  their  own  language  ? 


FROM  MURRAY  RIVER  TO  LACEBEDB  BAY. 


271 


42.  Give  a  few  specimen  sentences  of  tlie  language  with 
a  literal  translation. 

43.  "What  are  the  native  words  for  the  following  English 
words? — 


Sun. 

Moon. 

Star. 

Cloud. 

Heavens. 

Rain. 

Heat. 

Cold. 

Hill. 

Land. 

Stone. 

Water. 

Sea. 

Tree. 


Canoe. 

Fish. 

Dog. 

Kangaroo. 

Fire. 

House. 

Spear. 

Club. 

Wommera. 

Boomerang. 

Day. 

Night. 

Great. 

Small. 


Good. 

Bad. 

Man. 

Woman. 

Boy. 

Girl. 

Father. 

Mother. 

Husband. 

Wife. 

Head. 

Mouth. 

Hand. 

Eye. 


Tongue. 
Teeth. 

I. 

Thou. 

Ear. 

He,  She,  It 

Foot. 

We. 

Nose. 

Ye. 

Hair. 
Blood. 

They". 
This. 

Live. 

Who. 

Die. 

One. 

Hear. 

Two. 

See. 

Three. 

Sit. 

Four. 

Make. 

Dual. 

Give. 

Plural. 

44.  What   diseases   are    most  prevalent    amongst   the 
aborigines  of  the  tribe  where  you  reside  ? 

45.  Have  they  any  methods  of  treating  or  curing  disease 
or  injury  among  themselves,  and  what  are  they? 

46.  What  rites  and  ceremonies  are  used  in  the  initiation 
of  youths  to  the  state  of  manhood  ? 

47.  Do  the  natives  knock  out  any  of  the  front  teeth? 

48.  Is  circumcision  practised  amongst  them  ? 

Note  1. — Native  words  should  be  spelt  according  to  the  following 


rules ; — 


The  consonants  to  be  sounded  as  in  English,  only  the  g  is  always  to 

be  hard. 
The  vowels  are  to  be  sounded  thus  : — 


E  as  in  they. 

I  as  «  in  fatigue. 

U  aa  in  rude,  or  as  oo  in  mood. 


A  as  a  in  father ;  ah 

Ai  has  the  sound  of  long  i. 

0  as  in  old. 

Au  is  sounded  like  ow  in  cow. 
Note  2. — Precise  answers  to  question  No.  11  are  important.  A  correct 
reply  will  determine  the  system  of  kinship  prevailing.  The  word  for  each 
relationship  should  be  carefully  ascertained.  It  is  also  desirable  to  discover 
whether  there  is  not  a  slight  variation  of  the  word  according  as  it  is  borne 
or  attributed  to  the  speaker ;  for  instance,  a  variation  for  my  father,  your 
father,  his  father,  &c. 


272 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  83.— PYTU  REACH. 
By  George  Taplikt. 


Kangaroo     - 

wangami,tulatyi. 

Hand  - 

-  mari. 

Opossum 

-  piltari,  wongguri, 

2  Blacks       -  . 

-  komengk. 

Tame  dog     ■ 
WUd  dog     - 

melluri. 
keli. 

3  Blacks      - 
One     - 

-  neppaldarkornar 

-  yammalaityi. 

Emu    - 

pinyali. 

Two     - 

-  ninkaiengk. 

Black  duck  - 

nakkari. 

Three  - 

■  neppaldar. 

Wood  duck  - 

Four    - 

-  kukkuk. 

Pelican 

nori. 

Father 

-  nanghai. 

Laughing  'jackass 

Mother 

-  nainkowa. 

Native  companion 
White  cockatoo 
Black           „ 

prolggi. 
kranti. 
-  wullaki,pillambe 

Sister-Elder 
„     Younger 

-  maranowi. 

-  tarti. 

Crow   - 

marangaui. 

Brother-Elder 

-  gelanowi. 

Swan   - 

Egg     -        - 
Track  of  a  foot 

kungari,     tuma- 
kowalli. 
pellati. 
yarluki. 

,,         Younger  tarti. 
A  young  man       -  narumbi. 
An  old  man  -        -  yandiorn. 

Fish     - 

mami. 

An  old  woman 

-  yandi-imin. 

Lobster 
Crayfish 

meauki. 

A  baby 

-  kelgalli,  milyali, 

Mosquito 

muruli. 

tyinyero. 

Fly      - 

tyilyi. 

A  White  man 

-  griugkari. 

Snake  - 

The  Blacks  - 

A  Blackfellow      - 

kraiyi. 

narrinyeri. 

korni. 

Children      - 
Head  - 

-  porlar. 

-  kurU. 

A  Black  woman  - 

mimini. 

Eye     - 

-  pUi. 

Nose    - 

kopi. 

Ear      - 

-  plombi. 

PYTU    REACH. 

2T6 

No.  83.— Pyttj  'Reach— continued. 

Mouth 

-  tori. 

Boomerang  - 

-  panketyi. 

Teeth- 

-  turar. 

Hill     -        - 

-  ngurli. 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  kuri. 

Wood  - 

-  lamatyeri. 

Beard  - 

-  menaki. 

Stone  - 

-  marti. 

Thunder      - 

-  muuti. 

Camp  - 

-  mauti,  ngauandi. 

Grass  - 

-  kaiyi. 

Yes     - 

-  katyil,  ng-ng. 

Tongue 

-  tallanggi. 

No       -        - 

-  nowaiy,  ng-ng. 

Stomach 

-  mankuri. 

I- 

-  ngan. 

Breasts 

-  ngumpurengk. 

You     - 

-  ngun-ngenti. 

Leg      - 

-  taruki. 

Bark    - 

-  yorli. 

Foot    - 

■  tumi. 

Good   - 

-  nunkeri. 

Bone    - 

-  partpati. 

Bad     - 

-  wirrangi. 

Blood  - 

-  kruwi. 

Sweet  - 

-  kinpin. 

Skin    - 

-  wankandi. 

Food    - 

-  takuramb. 

Fat      - 

-  bilpuli. 

Hungry 

-  yeyauwi. 

Bowels 

-  mewi,  waltyerar. 

Thirsty 

-  klallin. 

Excrement  - 

-  kunar. 

Eat      - 

-  takkin. 

War-apear   - 

-  wundi. 

Sleep  - 

-  tantin. 

Eeed-spear  - 

-  kaiki. 

Drink  - 

-  murttun. 

Throwing-stick 

-  taralgi. 

Walk  - 

-  ngoppun. 

Shield  - 

-  wakkaldi. 

See      - 

-  nakkin. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  drekurmi. 

Sit       - 

-  lewin. 

Canoe  - 

-  meralti. 

Yesterday   - 

-  watangrau. 

Sun     - 

-  nunggi. 

To-day 

-  hikkai  nunggi. 

Moon  - 

-  markeri. 

To-morrow  - 

-  ngrekkald. 

Star     - 

-  tuldi. 

Where     are   the    yangi  narrinyeri ' 

Light  - 

-  nunkulowi. 

Blacks? 

Dark   - 

-  yonguldyi. 

I  don't  know 

-  nowaiy  ap  ngle 

Cold    - 

-  murunkun. 

min. 

Heat    - 

-  waldi. 

Plenty 

-  ngruwar. 

Day     - 

Night  - 
Fire 
Water  - 
Smoke - 
Ground 

-  nunggi. 

-  yonguldyi. 

-  keni. 

-  nguk,  bareki. 

-  kari. 

-  tuni. 

Big      - 

Little  - 
Dead    - 
By  and-by   - 
Come  on 

-  grauwi. 

-  muralappi. 

-  pornir. 

-  palli. 

-  ngai  our. 

Wind  - 
Eain    - 

-  maiyi. 

-  pami. 

Milk    - 
Eaglehawk 

-  ngumperi. 

-  wulde. 

God     - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

-  talkinyeri. 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife    -        - 

-  nape. 

VOL.    II. 

S 

274 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE; 


No.  84.— FROM  WELLINGTON,   ON    THE   MURRAY 
RIVER,  TO  NORTH-WEST  BEND. 

By  M.  Moorehouse,  Esq. 

The  following  vocabulary  is  extracted  from  a  work,  pub- 
lished in  1846,  by  M.  Moorehouse,  Esq.,  formerly  Protector 
of  Aborigines  on  the  Murray.  That  gentleman  was  under 
the  impression  that  it  was  spoken  from  Wellington  to  the 
Rufus,  whereas  it  prevailed  no  further  than  the  North-west 
Bend.  In  many  instances  I  have  noticed  that  Blacks  ex- 
aggerate the  extent  of  their  territory,  and  also  the  area  over 
which  their  languages  extend,  especially  after  tribes  become 
fused  under  the  pressure  of  our  occupation.  Now-a-days, 
were  an  old  man,  on  the  Darling  say,  asked  the  extent  of 
frontage  his  tribe  occupied  when  he  was  young,  he  would 
probably  in  making  his  statement  add  to  the  possessions  of 
his  own  tribe  those  of  one  or  two  neighbouring  ones,  whose 
few  survivors  had  in  the  break-down  of  aboriginal  polity 
cast  in  their  lot  with  his  people.  From  this  cause  I  have 
frequently  found  descriptions  of  the  boundaries  of  tribal 
lands  overlap  each  other. 

The  prevalence  of  r  as  an  initial,  and  the  recurrence  of 
double  r,  are  remarkable  in  this  language. 


No.  84.- 

-Additional  Woeds. 

A  spirit 

■  idaidl. 

To  count     - 

-  kappekappan. 

Sorcerer 

-  idaidlanko. 

To  speak 

-  kappun,  kaptun 

South  - 

-  karrungadla 

Sunset 

-  karlkallo. 

East    - 

-  ngaldko. 

Rage   - 

-  kedlanko. 

West  - 

-  kaato. 

The  shoulders 

-  kinni. 

Expression  of 

kaii  1 

Finger 

-  kuilpo. 

wonder 

Blood  - 

-  kantur. 

Light  (not  heavy)  kaitkatyo. 

Bloodlike    - 

-  kantukantur 

A  grumbler 

-  kappekappangko 

angko. 

FEOM  WELLINGTON  TO  NORTH-WEST  BEND. 


275 


No.  84.— Additional  Words — continued. 


Eyelid 

kuitme. 

Eyelash 

kuityoink. 

The  thigh    - 

makuru. 

Trousers 

makurarru. 

Liver  - 

ngaldkur. 

Little  finger 

ngelko. 

Thumb 

ngoako. 

Forefinger   - 

ngonongunnun. 

Flesh  - 

parrangaldko. 

Knee  - 

parrurup. 

Skin  of  an  animal  tanko.                      | 

Elbow - 

tatto. 

Rib     - 

tennir. 

Cheek - 

tunkatto. 

Brain  - 

yurlurro. 

To  love 

kirredlamun. 

To  make  love 

■  kirripun. 

A  magpie    - 

-  k6ularru. 

To  evacuate   the  korntun,  kun-        | 

bowels 

dun. 

A  reed 

-  kordlo. 

To  charm    - 

-  kungkun. 

Sorcerer 

-  kungkungkangko 

Urine  - 

-  kuppur. 

To  out 

-  lappun. 

A  tear 

-  Uowo. 

Don't  cry    - 

-  lloallo. 

A  wife 

-  loangko. 

To  see  one's  sha 

-  luttannun. 

dowin  the  water 

Likeness,  shadow  lutto. 

A  liar  - 

■  maaungum- 

angko. 

Wallaby      - 

-  madlongo. 

Animal  food 

-  mam. 

The  milky  way 

-  mamramko. 

To  believe,  think  meinin.                    | 

Paternal     grand 

-  metei. 

father 

Grandchild  - 

-  metto. 

To  kiss 

-  mooruun. 

Many  - 

-  uailko. 

Uncle  -        -        -  nukko. 
A  female  kangaroo  ngaako. 
The  liver     -        -  ngaldkur. 
Maternal    grand-  hgatta. 
father 

Vegetable  food    -  ngemmo. 
The  breath  -  ngenginni. 

A  louse        -         -  paanko. 
A  corpse      -        -  padnamko, 

puintyelmunko. 
Nephew       -        -  pammo. 
Stepfather  -        -  pangur. 
Husband      -         -  pewi. 
To  kill         -        -  puilyerrun. 
To  die-        -         -  puintyan. 
A  widow      -        -  rangngu. 
A  hut  -        -         -  rap. 
A  married  couple  rap-tad-lakko. 
Wrath         -        -  rawuyip. 
Pleasure,  joy       -  ratti. 
Bone  worn  rommum. 

through  septum 
of  nose 
Cousin         -         -  rongko   or  ronn" 

gur. 
Red     -        -         -  rumrum. 
Door    -        ■        -  taakurru. 
Where;       -        -  tadla? 
A  grave       -        -  tappullo,  tap 

purlo. 
A    ball    used    in  tiitko. 
play 

Sneezing      -        -  tintingen. 
To  laugh     -         -  tirrikeblin. 
To  slander  -         -  tungngun. 
Young  woman  or  warkarrau. 
girl 
An  adult  female  -  wityange. 
A  black  cockatoo  womokkadlu. 
To  swim      -        -  yagun. 
A    maggot,     also  yeltirri. 


The  sea 


yerlungo. 


276 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  84.— WELLINGTON. 


Kangaroo    - 

Hand  - 

- 

-  mannuruko. 

Opossum     - 

peldki. 

2  Blacks 

- 

_ 

Tame  dog    - 

kedlu,  kellu. 

3  Blacks 

_ 

, 

Wild  dog    - 

murrang  kedlu. 

One     - 

- 

-  metatta. 

Emu    - 
Black  duck  - 
Wood  duck  - 
Pelican 

ranganyu. 
yeldko. 

Two    - 
Three  - 

Four  - 

- 

-  tangkul. 

-  tangkul  meto, 

metko. 

Laughingiaokass- 

kukatka. 

Father 

- 

-  nukkuwur, 

Native  companion 

White  cockatoo  - 

Crow  - 

Swan  - 

Egg     -        ■        - 

Track  of  a  foot 

kawakko. 
kunnamamu. 

toldomko. 

Mother 
Sister-Elder 

,,       Younger 
Brother-Elder 

„          Young 
A  young  man 
An  old  man 
An  old  woman 
A  baby 

petuwurra. 

-  ngawur. 

-  maiko. 

-  marruko. 

Fish    -        -        - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito     - 
Fly     - 

kuyongo. 
yukalto. 
■  dlertluinmo. 

er 
-  ngadlongo. 

Snake 

A  White 

man 

- 

The  Blacks  - 

Child  - 

- 

-  nguilpo,  reyu. 

A  Blackfellow 

Head  - 

- 

-  pertpukko. 

A  Black  woman 

ngammaityu. 

Eye     - 

- 

-  korllo. 

Nose  - 

roonko. 

Ear     - 

- 

-  marlo. 

FROM  WELLINGTON  TO  NORTH-WEST  BEND. 


277 


No.  84. — Wellington — continued. 

Mouth 

-  munuo,  taako. 

Boomerang  - 

Teeth  - 

-  ngentko. 

Hill    - 

-  tepko. 

Hair  of  the  head- 

Wood  - 

Beard 

-  ngulko. 

Stone  - 

-  parlo,  parlko. 

Thunder      - 

-  rrarlo. 

Camp  - 

Grass  - 

-  wungk. 

Yes     - 

-  ngaiai,  ngaiye. 

Tongue 

-  ngantudle. 

No       - 

Stomach 

-  papu. 

I 

-  ngapo,  ngarma. 

Breasts 

-  mumpurro,    pai- 

You    - 

-  ngurra,  ngurru. 

puite. 

Bark   - 

-  pUli. 

Thigh 

-  makuru. 

Good  - 

-  mudloityo. 

Foot    - 

-  tudgni. 

Bad     - 

-  paiyu. 

Bone  - 

-  kamko. 

Sweet  - 

Blood  - 

-  kantur. 

Food   - 

Skin    - 

-  pilli. 

Fat     - 

-  mudla. 

Hungry 

Bowels 

Thirsty 

Excrement  - 

-  kunna,  kunngo. 

Eat     - 

-  nguntun,  taan. 

War- spear  - 

-  kakurru. 

Sleep  - 

-  murrurri,     yum 

Reed-spear  - 

-  kaiyur. 

mun. 

Throwiag-stick 

-  ngeweaugko. 

Drink  - 

Shield 

-  tarramo. 

Walk  - 

Tomahawk  - 

-  marrupung. 

See     - 

-  naan. 

Canoe  - 

-  manno. 

Sit      ■ 

-  Uewin. 

Sun     - 

-  nangke. 

Yesterday  - 

-  karldkun. 

Moon  - 

-  kakur,  kagurre. 

To-day 

Star    -        - 

-  pedli. 

To-morrow 

-  pallarak. 

Light  - 

- 

Where    are  the 

Dark  - 

- 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    - 

-  taako. 

I  don't  know 

Heat   - 

Plenty 

Day    - 

- 

Big      -        - 

-  yemko. 

Night  - 
Fire    - 

-  nimmi. 

Little  - 
Dead  - 

-  poilyongko. 

Water 
Smoke 

-  ngukko. 

-  multko. 

By-and-by  - 

-  yuatta. 

Ground 

, 

Come  on 

-  kauwo. 

Wind  -       - 

-  murroko. 

MUk  - 

-  yuUurru. 

Rain   - 

-  bukatarru. 

Eaglehawk  - 

God     - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

-  peralla. 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife  - 

-  loangko. 

278 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  85.— NORTH-WEST  BEND  OF  THE  RIVER  MURRAY. 

By  F.  W.  Fdlpord,  Esq. 

It  is  noticeable  that  several  words  in  this  vocabulary  begin  and  others  end 
with  r,  ar,  unusual  characteristics  in  our  languages. 


Kangaroo    - 

poorool,  toltar. 

Hand  - 

-  koolpoo. 

Opossum 

booltoo. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  rankool  maree. 

Tame  dog    - 

3  Blacks      - 

-  rankool     mata 

Wild  dog     -        ■ 

chelli. 

maree. 

Emu    - 

rangun. 

One     - 

-  mata. 

Black  duck  - 
Wood  duck- 
Pelican 

Laughingjaokass- 
Native  companioii 
White  cockatoo  - 
Crow  - 

narkur. 

kooar. 

nankoorar. 

kokaka. 

toorkul. 

chowuk. 

Waal. 

Two     - 
Three  - 
Four    - 
Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

-  rankool. 

-  rankool-mata. 

-  rankool-rankool 

-  pweechar. 

-  nukar. 

-  meeka. 

Swan  - 
Egg     -        - 

nankyer. 
.  milewrup. 

„      Younger 
Brother-Elder 

-  murrkar. 

Track  of  a  foot 

•  toonar. 

„          Young 

er  bungar. 

Fish    - 

A  young  man 

-  leeree. 

Lobster 

An  old  ma;n 

-  koombak. 

Crayfish 

ukot. 

An  old  woman 

-  meechung. 

Mosquito     - 
Fly      - 

Snake  - 
The  Blacks  - 

mautar. 
nakemilli. 
too-oo. 
maree. 

A  baby 

A  White  man 

Children     - 

-  kimbill. 

-  towar. 
-"  mootar. 

A  Blackfellow 

-  maree. 

Head  - 

-  pempee. 

A  Black  woman 

•  pookloo. 

Eye      - 

-  meeyee. 

Nose   - 

■  mroontoo. 

Ear     - 

-  marwarl. 

NORTH-WEST  BEND   OF   RIVER  MURRAY. 


279 


No.  85. — NoKTH-WEST  Bend  of 

THE  River  Murray — continued. 

Mouth 

tookoo. 

Boomerang  - 

Teeth  - 

tarakiit. 

HUl     - 

Hair  of  the  head 

winnee. 

Wood  - 

narook. 

Beard  - 

-  wakkoo. 

Stone  - 

-  koiming. 

Thunder      - 

-  poorok. 

Camp  - 

rowoo. 

Grass  - 

-  wunkar. 

Yes     - 

niyar. 

Tongue 

-  nundoolar. 

No       - 

-  ya-ya. 

Stomach 

-  moontoo. 

Breasts 

-  moombooroo. 

I- 

-  narpoo. 

Thigh  - 

-  muntar. 

You     - 

nooroo. 

Foot    - 

-  bungoorar. 

Bark    - 

-  nardlung. 

Bone   - 

-  kumpoo. 

Good   - 

-  moolike. 

Blood  - 

-  kondur. 

Bad     - 

mookar. 

Skin    - 

-  tooltoo. 

Sweet  - 

-  moolike. 

Fat     - 

-  bartoor. 

Food   - 

miyer. 

Bowels 

-  wunbaroobar. 

Hungry 

-  booung. 

Excrement  - 

Thirsty 

-  tarwin. 

War-spear  • 

Eat      - 

-  tarklaka. 

Reed-spear  - 

Sleep   - 

-  umkunar. 

Wommera    or 

Drink  - 

-  nooluka. 

throwing-stick 

Walk  - 

-  punar. 

Shield  - 

- 

See 

-  nowar. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  maraboong. 

Sit 

-  lowunar. 

Canoe  - 

-  munnur. 

Sun     - 

-  klear. , 

Yesterday   - 

-  kulkulk. 

Moon  - 

-  kukarar. 

To-day 

-  peeyowar. 

Star    - 

-  billee. 

To-morrow  - 

-  peeatukar. 

Light  - 

-  wyuekur. 

Where    are   the 

there  markuk  ? 

Dark  - 

-  rookool. 

Blacks? 

Cold    - 

-  lookur. 

I  don't  know 

-  Winyar(?  where) 

Heat   - 

-  nirrkee. 

Plenty 

-  warpoo  warpoo. 

Day     - 

-  nitechar. 

Big      - 

-  beekuk. 

Night  - 

-  rookul. 

Little  - 

-  riwoone. 

Fire     - 

-  nalkoo. 

Dead  - 

-  boongiU. 

Water 

-  nookoo. 

By-and-by   - 

- 

Smoke 

-  mooltoo. 

Come  on 

-  koowee. 

Ground 

-  tootoo. 

Milk    - 

Wind- 

-  yarool. 

Rain    - 

-  markarar. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God     - 

. 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

. 

Wife 

280 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  86— NED'S  CORNER  STATION,  MURRAY  RIVER. 
By  A.  H.  Peglbr,  Esq. 


Kangaroo   - 

broolach. 

Opossum     - 

bultcha. 

Tame  dog  - 

wilking. 

Wild  dog    - 

Emu  - 

rungine. 

Black  duck 

nucha. 

Wood  duck 

chawra. 

Pelican 

muckwan. 

Laughing  jackass  kookooka. 

Native  companion  tharo. 

White  cockatoo 

jackwa. 

Crow  - 

woncher. 

Swan  - 

nuncha. 

Egg    -        - 

thuUan. 

Track  of  afoot 

Eish    - 

Lobster 

thupul. 

Crayfish 

Mosquito    - 

-  muntha. 

Fly     - 

Snake 

The  Blacks- 

-  nutoha. 

A  Blackfellow 

-  merrely. 

A  Black  woman 

-  bolko. 

Nose  - 

-  roonchana, 

Hand  - 

chalpo. 

2  Blacks     - 

3  Blacks     - 

One    - 

metha. 

Two   - 

ra,Tiko. 

Three 

ranko  metha 

Pour  - 

Father 

ruchaa. 

Mother 

nutchaa. 

Sister-Elder 

„      Younger 

thulcha. 

Brother-Elder 

,,       Younger  bunoha. 

A  young  man 

lighcher. 

An  old  man 

koobatch 

An  old  woman 

yechong. 

A  baby 

murtcha. 

A  White  man 

■  thougha. 

Children     - 

Head  - 

bumpie. 

Eye    - 

■  mechil. 

Bar    - 

munchuna. 

NED'S   CORNER   STATION,    MURRAY   RIVER. 


281 


No.  86. — Ned's  Cornbb  Station,  Mttrway  River — continued 

Mouth 

-  thuraka. 

Boomerang- 

- 

Teeth 

-  lutcha. 

Hill    - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head  winine. 

Wood- 

-  lecher. 

Beard- 

-  wak-oha. 

Stone  - 

-  kumcha. 

Thunder 

-  poorache. 

Camp  - 

- 

Grass - 

-  yoxmgcha. 

Yes     - 

-  hiehia. 

Tongue 

-  nungchul. 

No      - 

-  mematt. 

Stomach 

-  poungbong. 

I-       - 

- 

Breasts 

•  buntricha. 

You    - 

Thigh 

-  nunoha. 

Bark  - 

-  nichline. 

Foot  ■ 

-  thunga. 

Good  - 

-  mulach. 

Bone  - 

Bad    - 

Blood - 

-  koundcha. 

Sweet- 

-  nuchlach. 

Skin  - 

■  thulcha. 

Fat     - 

-  patura. 

Pood  - 

-  thighin. 

Bowels 

-  kudna. 

Hungry      - 

- 

Excrement 

-  kudna. 

Thirsty 

- 

War-spear 

Eat     - 

- 

Reed-spear 

-  kechia. 

Sleep  - 

- 

Wommera 

or 

Drink- 

- 

thro  wing- 

stick 

Walk - 

-  puncha. 

Shield 

-  thram. 

See     - 

-  nungha. 

Tomahawk 

- 

Sit      - 

Canoe 

-  munga. 

Yesterday  - 

. 

Sun    - 

-  lechie. 

To-day 

Moon- 

-  kachiera. 

Star   - 

-  billier. 

To-morrow- 

- 

Light  - 

-  nechega. 

Where     are 

the 

Dark  - 

-  nimincha. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold  - 

-  dukka. 

I  don't  know 

-  winacha. 

Heat  - 

-  nuncka. 

Plenty 

- 

Day    - 

Big     -        - 

- 

Night 

-  nulka. 

Little - 

- 

Fire    - 

-  thepia. 

Dead  - 

Water 

-  multcho. 

By-and-by  - 

Smoke 

- 

Come  on     - 

Ground 

- 

Milk  - 

Wind 

- 

Rain  - 

. 

Eaglehawk  - 

God    - 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

Wife  - 

282 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE; 


No.  87.— FEOM  MALLEE  CLIFFS  STATION  TO 
WENTWORTH. 

By  —  McFablane,  Esq. 

The  following  vocabulary  and  other  matter  connected  with 
the  Kemendok  tongue  were  kindly  but  hurriedly  dictated  to 
me  by  Mr.  McFarlane,  the  owner  of  the  MaUee  Cliff  Station, 
who  speaks  the  language  fluently  : — 

By  —  McPablanb,  Esq. 


Kangaroo   - 

buloker. 

Hand  - 

-  wa,in. 

Opossum     - 

bult. 

2  Blacks     - 

-  raangool  ngult. 

Tame  dog   - 

kalli. 

3  Blacks     - 

-  raangool  meta 

Wild  dog   - 

ngult. 

Emu  - 

rungin. 

One    - 

-  meta. 

Black  duck 

toorlum. 

Two    - 

■  raangool. 

Wood  duck 

wondre. 

Three - 

-  raangool  met. 

Pelican 

belangri. 

Four  - 

-  raangool  raan- 

Laughing jackass 

kokak. 

gool. 

Native  companion  tort. 

Father 

bUth. 

White  cockatoo  ■ 

runth. 

Mother 

ngaak. 

Crow  - 

waak. 

Sister-Elder 

-  mai-ik. 

Swan  - 

koolthawa. 

„      Younger 

Egg    - 

bert. 

Brother-Elder 

-  kook. 

Track  of  a  foot 

thin. 

,,       Younger 

Fish   - 

A  young  man 

-  lomith. 

Lobster 

An  old  man 

-  pikwaar. 

Crayfish 

moak. 

An  old  woman 

■  pik-korump. 

Mosquito    - 

munth. 

A  baby 

-  thalump  (male), 

Fly     -        -         - 

baroeit  (female) 

Snake 

thok. 

A  White  man 

-  thow-wur. 

The  Blaoks- 

ngultetel. 

Children     - 

reep-reep. 

A  Blackfellow 

ngult. 

Head  - 

tururt. 

A  Black  woman  - 

korump. 

Eye     - 

-  mi. 

Nose  - 

kaap. 

Ear     - 

-  mur. 

MALLEE  CLrFPS  STATION   TO  WENTWORTH. 


283 


No.  87. — Mallbe  Cliffs — continued. 


Mouth 

thak. 

Boomerang - 

Teeth - 

drirk. 

Hill    - 

Hair  of  the  head 

drirk  kitch. 

Wood- 

-  boop. 

Beard- 

ngoolk. 

Stone  - 

-  mok. 

Thunder     - 

bethung. 

Camp  - 

-  raap. 

Grass  - 

thellum. 

Yes     - 

-  ai-ai. 

Tongue 

mat. 

No      - 

-  pintha. 

Stomach     - 

monda. 

I 

-  ngaie,  ngaia. 

Breasts 

You    - 

-  wooroo. 

Bark  - 

-  kaart-kaart. 

Thigh 

naunt. 

Good  - 

-  warrink. 

Foot  - 

thin. 

Bone  - 

birump. 

Bad     - 

baathup. 

Blood - 

koork. 

Sweet  - 

-  burmum. 

Skin  - 

-  metchook. 

Food  - 

-  maam  (animal), 

Fat     - 

-  mint. 

thaap     (vege- 

Bowels 

table). 

Excrement  - 

Hungry 

-  ngow-ngow- 
mum. 

War-spear  - 

-  thill. 

Thirsty 

-  konoolun. 

Reed-spear - 

-  nerit. 

Eat     - 

-  thaicha. 

Wommera  or 

ngowathuk. 

Sleep  - 

-  muttri. 

throwing-stiok 

Drink - 

-  ngooka. 

Shield 

-  benmaL 

Walk- 

-  yinna. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  tharing. 

See     - 

-  maima. 

Canoe 

-  longup. 

Sit      - 

-  lewa. 

Sun     - 

-  nunk. 

Yesterday  - 

-  kaalkun. 

Moon  - 

-  baitch. 

To-day 

-  bianunga. 

Star    - 

-  burl. 

To-morrow - 

-  pint-wangorong. 

Light  - 

■  nungan. 

Where    are 

the  winya  ngultetel 

Dark  - 

-  wangoran. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold  - 

-  tirowl. 

I  don't  know 

-  pinta  ngaia 

Heat  - 

-  numura. 

• 

yoorun. 

Day    - 

-  nungan. 

Plenty 

-  nur. 

Night- 

-  wangora,n. 

Big     - 

-  yoorong. 

Fire    - 

-  nik. 

Little - 

-  baie. 

Water 

-  ngook. 

Dead  - 

-  yootmal. 

Smoke 

-  thoor. 

By-and-by  - 

-  mondja. 

Ground 

-  naitch. 

Come  on     - 

-  yinne  ap. 

Wind 

-  wirith. 

Milk  - 

Rain   - 

-  makkri. 

Eaglehawk- 

God    - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

Wif,e  - 

284 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


CONJUGATION  OF  VERBS  IN  THE  KEMBNDOK  LANGUAGE. 
To  Steikb. 

PRESENT. 


I  strike 

-  ngaie  wokka. 

We  strike    - 

-  ngfnna  wokka. 

Thou  strikest 

-  ngoora  wokka. 

You  strike  - 

-  ngooroom  wokka. 

He  strikes  - 

-  inna  wokka. 

They  strike 

-  ngowo  wokka. 

PERFECT  TENSE. 

I  struck 

-  ngaie  wokkul. 

We  struck  - 

-  nginum  wokkul. 

Thou  struokest 

ngoora  wokkul. 

You  struck  - 

-  ngooroom     wok- 
kul. 

He  struck   - 

inna  wokkul. 

They  struck 

-  ngam  wokkul. 

EUTTJEE  TENSE. 

I  will  strike 

-  mondja  ngaie 

We  will  strike 

-  nginna  mondja 

wokka. 

wokka. 

Thou  wilt  strike 

-  mondja  ngoora 

You  will  strike 

-  ngooroom  mondja 

wokka. 

wokka. 

He  will  strike 

-  inna  mondja 

They  will  strike 

-  ngowo  mondja 

wokka. 

wokka. 

IMPERATIVE  MOOD. 

Strike 

-  wokka. 

Let  us  strike 

-  ngurra  nginna 

Let  him  strike 

-  ngurra  inna 

wokka. 

wokka. 

Let  them  strike 

-  ngurra  ngowo 
wokka. 

To  Go. 

PRESENT  TENSE. 

go     - 

-  nup  yennin. 

We  go 

-  nginna  yennin. 

Thou  goest  - 

-  ngoora  yennin. 

You  go 

-  ngooroom  yenna. 

He  goes 

-  inna  yennin. 

They  go       - 

-  ngowo  yennin. 

PRETERITE  TENSE. 

I  went 

-  nup  yennool. 

He  went,  &c. 

-  nginna   yennool, 

Thou  wentest 

-  ngoora  yennool. 

&c. 

FUTURE  TENSE. 

I  will  go,  &c. 

-  nup  mondja 

yenna. 

ngoora  mondja 

yenna. 

inna  mondja 

yenna,  &o. 

IMPEBATIVB   MOOD. 

Go  thou 

-  yenna. 

Let  us  go     - 

Let  him  go  - 

-  ngarainnayeima. 

Let  them  go 

BETWEEN  THE  LACHLAN,  MURRAY,  &  DARLING.      285 


-  ngiima  lurt 
yemia. 

-  ngara  ngowo 
yemia. 

He  will  go  by-and-by         ....    inua  mondja  yemiola. 
There  are  no  Blacks  at  Youngera       -        -    pinta  ngok  coda  Youngeran. 
There  is  no  water  at  Youngera  -        -        -    pinta  ngulk  coda  Youngeran. 
I  have  no  opossum pinta  ngaia  bult. 

not     I  opossum. 

I  don't  see  him pinta  ngaia  maimin  inna. 

not     I         see         him. 
That  girl  has  a  pretty  face         -        -        -    inna  morin  warink  ngining. 

she    girl     good     face. 


No.  88.— FROM  THE  JUNCTION  OF  THE  LACHLAN 
AND  MURRAY  TO  THE  JUNCTION  OF  THE 
DARLING  AND  MURRAY. 

By  J.  A.  Maodonald,  Esq. 

Of  the  language  of  tlie  tribe  which  inhabits  the  country 
specified  above  1  have  three  specimens,  one  drawn  up  by 
Mr.  J.  A.  Macdonald,  another  by  Mr.  John  Miller,  of 
Kulnine,  and  the  third  by  myself.  Though  they  differ  some- 
what, I  have  only  inserted  the  first,  together  with  some 
phrases  and  tenses  of  verbs  obtained  from  Mr.  Macdonald, 
who  speaks  the  language  well.  The  numerals  1,  2,  and  3 
a  woman  gave  me  very  distinctly  as  mok^  thoral,  thoral  no, 
mok.     Families  often  differ  a  little  in  pronunciation. 

Though  its  language  shows  this  tribe  to  be  an  off-shoot 
of  the  Narrinyeri,  and  hence  of  Central  Australian  descent, 
yet  it  calls  itself  and  its  language  Yit-tha,  which  is  its 
negative  adverb. 

This,  as  the  reader  is  aware,  is  a  custom  which  may  be 
said  to  be  confined  to  Eastern  Australia.     Its  occurrence  in 


286 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE; 


this  tribe  (the  only  exception  I  know)  is  explained  by  the 
fact  that  it  is  the  last  of  the  Central  series,  and  has  for 
its  neighbour  up  the  Murray  a  tribe  of  Eastern  descent, 
which  calls  itself  by  its  negative,  and  has  no  doubt  named 
the  Yit-tha  in  the  same  way.  As  I  have  said  before, 
tribes  often  influence  the  languages  and  customs  of  their 
neighbours. 

From  this  point  as  far  as  Expedition  Range,  in  Queens- 
land, this  practice  of  calling  a  tribe  by  its  negative  prevails 
generally. 

The  Yit-tha  have  territory  on  both  sides  of  the  Murray. 


Additional  Phrases,  etc. 

There  is  no  water  at  Youngera;  lit. :  -     Yittha  ngok  gooia,  Youngeran, 

No  water  there,  Youngera 
There  are  no  Blacks  at  Youngera 
I  have  no  money;  lit.:  Not  me  money 
I  don't  see  him;  lit.  :    No  I  see  that 

Black 
That  girl  is  pretty ;    lit.  :   That  girl 

good 


Yittha  nunna  gooia  Youngeran. 

Yittha  ngunak  money. 

Yit-tha  ngaie  naiin  yanda  nunna. 

Yanda  moorooin  kaangil. 


Ngaie  wokka      yanda  nuima  koorndi       nunga. 
I  (will)  kUl  that      Black     to-morrow  sun. 


I  go. 

Thou  goest. 
He 


Ngaap  nukka  - 
Ngoora  nukka  ■ 
Yanda  nukkun  - 


Ngaap  nukkarnt    -  I  went. 
Ngoora  nukkarnt   -  Thou  wentest, 
Yanda  nukkarnt    -  He  went. 


To  Go. 

PRESENT   TENSE. 

Ngainne  nukkun      -  We  go. 
Ngoona  nukka  -  You  go. 

Yanda  bugga  nukka    They  (or  that 
lot)  go. 

PERFECT  TENSE. 

Ngainne  nukkarnt        -  We  want. 
Ngoona  nukkarnt         ■  You  went. 
Yanda  bugga  nukkarnt  They  went. 


FUTUEE  TENSE. 

Ngaap  lokka  nukka  ■  -  -  -  I  will  go. 

Ngoora  lokka  nukka  -  -  -  .  Thou  wilt  go. 

Yanda  lokka  nukka  -  ■  -  -  He  will  go,  &c. 
And  so  on. 


BETWEEN  THE  LACHLAN,  MURRAY,  &  DARLING.      287 

Striking- 


WooKooRN — To  Strike. 
wokkilant.  |  Struck   - 


-  wok-koornt. 


Ngaie  wokka 
Ngoora  wokka 
Yiima  wokka 


PRESENT  TENSE, 

-  I  strike. 

-  Thou  strikest. 

-  He  strikes. 


Nganni  wokka  -  -  We  strike. 
Ngooua  wokka  -  -  You  strike. 
Yanda  lokka  wokka  -  They  strike. 


PERFECT  TENSE. 


Ngaie  wokkoornt 
Ngoora  wokkoornt 


I  struck. 
Thou  struckest, 


Ngaie  ngoora  wokka  koorndi       nungung. 
I  you        strike    to-morrow  sun. 


God  made  man.       God  said  not         good        man      alone 

—     koityoomt  nunna.      —     moothoort  yittha    kaangil  nunna  mowa 

to  dwell.      Then  (at  the  time)  God  made  woman.     First        woman 


lewin. 


Ngoomantha  rooan 


Eve. 

Eve. 


Eve  was  wife      of  Adam. 
Eve  —   malool  —  Adam. 


—    kooiyoornt  pirup.       Mipurn     pirup 

Adam  is  father  of  the  Blackfellow : 

Adam  —  beith  wemum  da  Nunna : 

father  of  the  Whites.  Eve  the  mother  of    the  (belonging  to) 

beith    wemum  da    Waipella.        Eve  —    ngaak      wernum  da 

Blacks;   mother  of  the         Whites;      mother  of  all. 
Nmma;  ngaak    wernum  da  Waipella;  ngaak     kurgurnum. 


288 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE; 


No.  88.— YIT-THA. 


By  J.  A.  Maobonald,  Esq, 


Kangaroo   - 

-  boolyoker. 

Hand- 

-  waing. 

Opossum    - 

wok-kuai. 

2  Blacks    - 

thral  nunna, 

Tame  dog  ■ 
Wild  dog   -• 

ngeining    or 
ngcinth. 

3  Blacks     - 

thoral  nunna. 
-  thral  mo  nunna 

Emu  - 

bungaia  or  trun- 

One    - 

-  mo. 

gain. 

Two   - 

-  thral. 

Black  duck 

kurabuug. 

Three 

-  thral  mo. 

Wood  duck 

woorna. 

Four  - 

-  thral  thral. 

Pelican       -        -  nenangoo. 
Laughing  jackass  thoopunk. 
Native  companion  quirk. 
White  cockatoo  -  kunth. 

Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

-  beith. 

-  ngaaka. 

-  maiook. 

Crow 

toolang. 

„     Younger 

. 

Swan 

Egg    - 

Track  of  a  foot  - 

koolthoo. 

belt. 

yerimp. 

Brother-Elder    -  kom,  komma. 
,,        Younger 

Fish   - 

A  young  man 

-  olquong  nunna. 

Lobster 

An  old  man 

-  beuk. 

Crayfish 
Mosquito    - 

-  thappool. 
bungiank,  bun- 
gerang 

An  old  woman 
A  baby 

-  koram-koram. 

-  pelai. 

Fly     - 

-  thill. 

A  White  man 

-  kommaitch. 

Snake- 
The  Blacks 
A  Blackfellow 

-  nalmo,  nulma. 
ker  nunna. 
nunna. 

Children     - 
Head- 

-  pelai-pelai, 

-  derrart. 

A  Black  woman 

■  pirurp. 

Eye    - 

■  laong  or  laank 

Nose- 

■  kaap. 

Ear    - 

-  maorl. 

BETWEEN  THE  LACHLAN,  MURRAY,  &  DARLING. 


289 


No.  88. — Yit-tha — contmued. 


Mouth 

moorn. 

Boomerang 

Teeth 

treurk. 

Hill   - 

Hair  of  the  head  derart.                       | 

Wood- 

woodtha,  nga 

Beard 

kaart. 

rong. 

Stone  - 

maak. 

Thunder    - 

mundara. 

Grass 

thelim. 

Camp  - 

traarp. 

Tongue 
Stomach     - 

mert. 
-  mirt. 

Yes     - 
No      - 

eiye  or  ye-ye. 
yit-tha. 

Breasts 

-  paap. 

I- 

ngaap. 

Thigh 

-  nunt. 

You    - 

-  ngooro. 

Foot  - 

-  thinna. 

Bark  - 

-  ngoort. 

Bone  - 

-  kaam,  biim. 

Good  - 

■  kaangil. 

Blood - 

-  korook. 

Bad    - 

-  look. 

Skin  - 

-  look. 

Sweet 

-  kaangil. 

Fat     - 

-  kirt. 

Food  - 

-  thaap. 

Bowels 

-  baagmirt. 

Hungry 

-  ngow-ngow-mun. 

Excrement  - 

-  koorn. 

Thirsty 

-  konooluu. 

War-spear  - 

-  maileba. 

.  Eat    - 

-  thaia 

Reed-spear 
Wommera  or 
throwiug-stick 
Shield 

-  ngoroot. 
ngaak. 

-  murkaang,  boo- 

Sleep  - 
Drink- 
Walk - 

-  yimma. 

-  ngokoloo. 

-  nikka. 

rar. 

See     - 

-  look,  nithe. 

Tomahawk - 

-  thariing. 

Sit      - 

-  lewa. 

Canoe■ 

-  yoongui,  ko- 

Yesterday  - 

-  kaalkun. 

kwunk. 

To-day 

-  yinnark   nunk 

Sun    - 

-  nunk. 

(this  sun). 

Moon  - 

-  baidjh. 

To-morrow- 

-  koorndi  nunk. 

Star  - 

-  dingi. 

Where   are  the 

winya  nunna  ? 

Light  - 

-  biak,  birarka. 

Blacks  ? 

Dark  - 

-  roin. 

I  don't  know 

-  winya  (?)       .    or 

Cold  - 

- 

yitta  ngai  yewin 
not    I      know. 

Heat  - 
Day    - 

-  wilyar. 

-  nunk. 

Plenty 
Big     - 

-  kurgur. 

-  yoorong. 

Night 

-  roin. 

Little- 

-  marlong. 

Fire   - 

-  ngaroong. 

Dead  - 

-  yootmurn. 

Water 

-  ngok. 

By-and-by  - 

-  moinjalla,       wai 

Smoke 

-  toomp. 

ar-ing. 

Ground 

-  ngait. 

Come  on     - 

-  nukUa. 

Wind- 

-  wiirrit. 

Milk  - 

- 

Rain  - 

-  maggur. 

Eaglehawk 

- 

God    - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

1     Wife  - 

VOL.    II. 

T 

BOOK    THE    EIGHTH. 


T  2 


BOOK  THE  EIGHTH. 

PREFATORY  REMARKS. 

This  book  contains  what  I  have  to  record  in  connection  with 
the  tribes  in  the  eastern  portion  of  the  Central  Division. 
Whether  the  tribes  described  at  Nos.  138,  139,  and  140 
ought  to  be  included  in  this  instead  of  in  the  Eastern 
Division  it  is  impossible  to  determine  on  the  small  amount 
of  information  I  have  been  able  to  obtain  concerning  them, 
for  I  have  no  accounts  of  their  manners,  and  besides  in  both 
language  and  manners  neighbouring  tribes  often  take  some- 
thing from  each  other.  The  matter,  however,  is  not  of  much 
importance. 

As  one  can  examine  no  considerable  section  of  the  Aus- 
tralian race,  homogeneous  though  it  be,  without  meeting 
something  of  interest  peculiar  to  it,  we  are  not  surprised  to 
discover  a  few  novel  features  in  the  manners  of  the  tribes 
described  in  this  book.  The  first  to  be  noticed  is  the 
existence  on  the  banks  of  the  Gregory  of  a  neutral  ground, 
150  miles  long  by  50  miles  wide,  which  has  been  reserved, 
by  the  common  consent  of  several  tribes,  for  the  purpose  of 
holding  their  meetings.     This  seems  a  happy  arrangement, 


294  THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

for  the  Blacks,  who  delight  in  large  gatherings,  are  usually- 
obliged  to  curtail  them  on  account  of  the  quantity  of  food 
it  costs  a  tribe  on  whose  territory  a  meeting  takes  place. 
And  here  it  may  be  noticed  that  when  a  tribe  entertains 
another  it  does  not,  save  in  exceptional  cases,  supply  food; 
but  allows  its  guests  to  help  themselves  to  what  is  obtain- 
able on  its  lands. 

Another  still  more  remarkable  feature  in  the  manners  of 
some  of  these  tribes  is  the  prevalence  of  monogamy,  a  cir- 
cumstance not  heretofore  mentioned  in  any  of  the  works 
which  treat  of  our  Blacks.  The  existence  of  this  practice 
was  first  touched  on  in  my  description  of  a  small  tribe  on 
the  west  coast  called  Yercla  Meening.  In  the  present  book 
we  find  it  prevailing  in  the  two  tribes,  one  described  at  No. 
106,  and  the  other  at  No.  107.  Hence  the  fact  is  men- 
tioned by  three  independent  witnesses.  That  one  of  my  two 
contributors  to  No.  107  has  reported  the  present  existence 
of  polygamy  in  the  Birria,  one  of  the  tribes  in  question, 
does  not  surprise  me,  as  it  is  stated  that  a  large  proportion 
of  the  males  were  shot  down  before  they  were  allowed  to 
"  come  in  "  to  the  station,  when  the  men,  finding  themselves 
less  in  number  than  the  females,  would  certainly  betake 
themselves  to  polygamy.  That  monogamy  did  exist  in  this 
tribe  prior  to  the  disturbance  caused  by  the  advent  of  our 
settlers  I  have  no  doubt. 

As  regards  the  portions  of  the  territories  of  most  of 
the  first  ten  tribes  dealt  with  in  this  book,  it  has  been 
found  impossible  to  map  them  with  any  accuracy,  the 
accounts  received  being  irreconcilable  in  this  particular.  It 
seems  probable  that  some  tracts  of  country  were  hunted 
over  by  more  than  one  tribe. 

I  have  heard  mentioned  as  a  well-known  fact,  that  either 
one  or  two  old  cocoanut  trees,  I  forget  which,  have  been 
found  growing  on  the  mainland  of  Australia,  and,  if  I 
remember  rightly,  in  the  country  of  the  tribes  which  are 
treated  of  in  this  book.     Since  then  our  settlers  have  made 


PREFATORY    REMARKS.  295 

some  plantations  of  these  trees.  What  story  is  connected 
with  the  one  or  two  trees  which  grew  previous  to  our  occu- 
pation ?  Had  the  nuts  from  which  they  sprung  arrived  in 
some  canoe  with  castaways,  and,  if  so,  what  became  of  its 
human  freight ;  or  had  they  simply  drifted  to  our  coast, 
been  washed  ashore,  and  grown  ?  At  any  rate  a  passing 
interest  attaches  to  these  trees,  as  they  are  the  only  proof 
we  have  of  anything  having  reached  this  continent  from  the 
outside  world,  possibly  during  the  lapse  of  many  centuries. 


296 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  89.— EASTWAED  OF  THE   NICHOLSON  RIVER 
AND  BETWEEN  THAT  RIVER  AND  THE  COAST. 

YANGARELLA     TRIBE. 
By  Edward  Cukb,  Esq. 


The  reader  will  notice  that  hair  and 
numbers  93  and  94, 


grass  in  this  vocabulary,  as  well  as  in 
have  some  affinity. 


Kangaroo    - 

jaco-jaco. 

Hand  - 

malda. 

Opossum      - 

-  maleanda. 

2  Blacks      - 

Tame  dog    - 
Wild  dog     - 
Emu    - 
Black  duck  - 

"nawooa. 

wangir. 

■  chabadoo. 

3  Blacks      - 
One     - 
Two     - 

chadra. 
chiarnga. 

Wood  duck  - 

- 

Three  - 

tamgilda. 

Pelican 

parooa. 

Pour    - 

Laughing  jackass 

Pather 

candado. 

Native  companion  giradilgoora. 
White  cockatoo  -  ngamala. 
Crow  -        -        -  wongoola. 
Swan  - 

Mother 
Sister-Elder 
„      Younger  - 

namado. 
kemagi. 

Egg     -        - 

crowa. 

Brother-Elder 

taboogoo. 

Track  of  a  foot 

tyarra. 

,,          Youngei 

kimagi. 

Pish    - 
Lobster 
Crayfish      - 
Mosquito     - 
Ply       . 

Snake  - 

yakooli. 

kalaranga. 

yirgooda. 

palangali. 

A  young  man 

An  old  man 

An  old  woman     ■ 

A  baby 

A  White  man 

ooroonda. 

padolo. 

moolgoori. 

cognara. 

kando-kando 

The  Blacks  - 
A  Blaokfellow 

wompoora. 
choigno. 

Children      - 
Head  - 

moolia. 

A  Black  woman  - 

magooa, 

Eye     - 

miboolda. 

Noge   - 

kirca, 

Ear 

maralda. 

EASTWARD    OF    THE   NICHOLSON   RIVER. 


297 


No.  89 

— Eartwakd  of  Nicholson  Rivee    < 

Mouth         -    , 

wollara. 

Boomerang  - 

Teeth  - 

tarmauda. 

Hill     - 

Hair  of  the  head 

boolda. 

Wood  - 

Beard  - 

tookanda. 

Stone  - 

Thunder      - 

Camp  - 

Grass  - 

-  boolda. 

Yes     - 

Tongue 

tchamganunga. 

No      - 

Stomach 

pardaga. 

I 

Breasts 

moonira. 

You     - 

Thigh  - 

■  kooldoora. 

Bark    - 

Foot    - 

-  chama. 

Good  - 

Bone   - 

chulda. 

Bad     - 

Blood  - 

kando. 

Sweet  - 

Skin    - 

■  tarara 

Food   - 

Fat      - 

ooira. 

Hungry 

Bowels 

tulda. 

Excrement  - 

toilda. 

Thirsty 

War-spear  - 

miloori. 

Eat 

Reed-spear  - 

kooboorama. 

Sleep  - 

Wommera    or 

pirri. 

Drink  - 

throwing-stick 

Walk  - 

Shield- 

-  chardia. 

See      - 

Tomahawk  - 

■  karawa. 

Sit 

Canoe  - 
Sun     - 

-  warkooa. 

Yesterday  - 

Moon  - 

-  kooroba. 

To-day 

Star    -      ,  - 

koogigi. 

To-morrow  - 

Light  - 

Where  are   the 

Dark   - 

Blacks? 

Cold    - 

goorinda. 

I  don't  know 

Heat   - 

-  nirtanita. 

Day     - 

-  yanda. 

Plenty 

Night  - 

-  karwigi. 

Big      - 

Fire     - 

ngiada. 

Little  - 

Water- 

-  mookooa. 

Dead  - 

Smoke 

-  noorara. 

By-and-by  - 

Ground 

-  doolga. 

Come  on 

Wind  - 

-  womgalda. 

Milk    - 

Rain    - 

_ 

Eaglehawk  - 

God     - 

-  pargigi. 

Wild  turkey 

Ghosts 

■  worldala. 

Wife   - 

298 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  90.— BUEKETOWN. 

By  Thomas  Coward,  Esq.,  Inspector  of  Native  Police. 

The  gentleman  to  whose  kindness  I  am  indebted  for  this 
vocabulary  of  the  language  spoken  at  and  near  Burketown 
informs  me  that  he  obtained  it  from  Police-trooper  Vicq,  a 
native  of  the  locality.  Burketown  is  distant  about  450  miles 
from  the  Adelaide  Eiver,  being  at  the  head  of  the  Gulf  of 
Carpentaria,  lat.  17°  30'  south,  long.  139°  40'  east  or  there- 
abouts. 

The  equivalents  of  the  words  eye,  teeth,  beard,  tongue, 
fire,  and  walk  point  to  the  connection  of  this  with  the  other 
Australian  languages  in  general. 


No.  90.— BURKETOWN. 

By  Thomas  Coward,  Esq.,  Inspector  op  Native  Police. 

Kangaroo     - 

-  boongaua. 

Hand  - 

-  nungurra. 

Opossum     - 

wahbera. 

2  Blacks      - 

- 

Tame  dog    - 

3  Blacks      - 

_ 

Wild  dog     - 

goodo. 

One     - 

-  tualnu. 

Emu    ■■ 
Black  duck 

boolongena. 
beangora. 

Two    - 

■  digana. 

Wood  duck 

yabbra  -  mondon- 

Three  - 

-  tangilla. 

gera. 

Four  - 

•  ticantallio  duaUio 

Pelican 

yokkorara. 

Father 

-  kihadgy. 

Laughing  jackass 

talgora. 

Mother 

-  gondonga. 

Native  companion  dilla-dulkoora. 

Sister-Blder 

-  ongoora-bunga. 

White  cockatoo  ■ 

dialpoarra. 

„      Younger 

, 

Crow  - 
Swan  - 

wongoola. 
goonangoda. 

Brother-Elder 

-  nuugai. 

Egg    - 

yabbeba. 

Younger 

Track  of  a  foot 

gungy. 

A  young  man 

-  koolangaUy. 

Fish    - 

warra. 

An  old  man 

-  birdyniarra. 

Lobster 

_ 

Crayfish 

-  mintoola. 

An  old  woman 

-  wirdigarry. 

Mosquito     - 

-  kallanarra. 

A  baby 

-  bildingoora. 

Fly       . 

•  wooniarra. 

A  White  man 

-  birda. 

Snake - 

-  balangara. 

Children     - 

-  woorara. 

The  Blacks  - 

-  yungunna. 

Head  - 

-  wirda. 

A  Blackf ellow 

-  nurka. 

A  Black  woman 

-  ma,go. 

Eye     - 

-  midialla. 

Nose  - 

-  kuira. 

Ear     - 

-  murra. 

BURKETOWN. 

ayy 

No.  90. — BuRKETOWN — Continued. 

Mouth- 

■  burka. 

Boomerang  - 

Teeth  - 

-  lia. 

Hill     - 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  booloomba. 

Wood  - 

wiUadalhundy. 

Beard  - 

-  yarrania. 

Stone  - 

kabirda. 

Thunder 

-  birdmirra. 

Camp  - 

nidda. 

Grass  - 

-  guma. 

Yes      - 

-  ne-a. 

Tongue 

-  talnia. 

Stomach 

-  boolgee. 

No 

-  wirninga. 

Breasts 

-  nookoola. 

I 

kooronya. 

Thigh  - 

-  bilba. 

You     - 

-  unna. 

Foot    - 

-  ganga. 

Bark    - 

-  kooroomba. 

Bone    - 

-  dimara. 

Good   - 

-  boorooga. 

Blood  - 

-  duckana. 

Bad      - 

-  toorka. 

Skin    - 

-  backeroo. 

Sweet  - 

-  karal-karella. 

Fat      ■ 

-  buranga. 

Food    - 

-  larcoola. 

Bowels 

-  durra. 

Hungry 

-  noUo. 

Excrement  - 

-  malina. 

Thirsty 

-  normundo. 

War-spear  - 

-  warinwarrina. 

Bat      - 

-  diehdie. 

Reed-spear  - 
Wommera     or 

-  woring. 
peery. 

Sleep   - 

-  yongoyou. 

throwing-stick 

Drink 

-  owondinny. 

Shield  - 

-  tardoona. 

Walk  - 

-  yankia. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  tardiabona. 

See      - 

-  nowaba. 

Canoe  - 

-  kamera. 

Sit       - 

-  ninya. 

Sun      . 

-  tiringana. 

Yesterday    - 

-  kouondua.  ■ 

Moon  - 

-  ballanichi. 

To-day 

-  yananinga. 

Star     - 

-  barinia. 

To-morrow  - 

-  kaontoongara. 

Light  - 

-  kaondonarai. 

Where    are    the 

dame  nar 

Dark   - 

-  kavondi. 

Blacks  ? 

kommo? 

Cold    - 

-  woorine. 

Heat    - 
Day      - 

-  yalooloo. 

-  balmau  -  malla- 

I  don't  know 

-  wandong   nangy 
goorda. 

malla. 

Plenty 

-  yonkoona. 

Night  - 

-  milHmarda, 

Big      -        - 

-  koonamera. 

Fire     - 

-  willa. 

Little  - 

-  bilgingoora. 

Water - 

-  wudha. 

Dead    - 

-  bookiana. 

Smoke 

-  toomburna. 

By-and-by  - 

-  gedanda  niadja. 

Ground 

-  koorda. 

Come  on 

-  nidja. 

Wind  - 

-  wirramirra. 

Milk    - 

- 

Rain    - 

-  boollolungana. 

Eaglehawk  - 

God     - 

- 

WUd  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

. 

Wife    - 

- 

300  THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  91.— THE  MOUTH  OF  THE  LEIGHAEDT  EIVER. 

By  W.  E.  Armit,  Esq. 

The  following  vocabulary  and  information  relative  to  the 
tribe  which  occupies  the  country  on  the  eastern  side  of  the 
embouchure  of  the  Leichardt  River  I  owe  to  the  kindness  of 
Mr.  W.  E.  Armit,  Sub-inspector  of  Native  Police,  as  also 
some  particulars  concerning  several  other  tribes. 

Mr.  Armit  says  that  children  in  this  tribe  inherit  the 
names  of  their  fathers,  a  statement  which,  I  think,  requires 
confirmation,  as  such  a  practice  would  often  conflict  with 
what  seems  to  be  the  general  custom  of  not  naming  the  dead. 
He  also  says  that  many  tribes  have  crests  or  totems,  and 
gives  the  following  instances,  viz. : — 

Ngarra  is  the  name  of  a  tribe  on  the  Leichardt  Eiver 
whose  crest  is  a  shell  on  each  cheek. 

The  Eugoola  Tribe,  on  the  Nicholson  River,  paint  a  suc- 
cession of  hooks  on  each  arm. 

The  Myabi  tribe,  on  the  Saxby,  paint  a  snake  on  their 
shields. 

The  Mayagoondoon,  between  the  Leichardt  and  Gilbert 
Rivers,  wear,  as  their  crest,  a  band  with  pendulous  kangaroo 
teeth  round  the  forehead. 

The  Mayatagoorri  wear  a  belt  painted  with  red  ochre,  in 
imitation  of  the  meshes  of  a  net. 


MOUTH    OP    THE   LEICHARDT    RIVER.  301 

The  Naungaun,  a  tribe  between  the  Norman  and  Gilbert 
Rivers,  wear  beneath  the  biceps  of  each  arm  an  armlet  made 
of  opossum  hair,  with  pendants  of  the  same  material. 

The  Mygoolan,  a  tribe  on  the  sea-coast,  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Ennasleigh,  wear  two  rings  of  opossum  hair,  with  pen- 
dants on  each  leg,  one  above  the  knee  and  the  other  on  the 
calf. 

Eeturning  to  the  particular  tribe  treated  of,  Mr.  Armit 
remarks  that  to  denote  any  number  above  four,  the  hands 
are  opened  and  shut  until  the  desired  number  has  been  in- 
dicated, the  person  exclaiming  at  the  same  time  Ounbala- 
gala  !  Gunbalagala  ! — i.e.,  good  many. 

When  the  eldest  son  is  old  enough  to  be  considered  a 
man,  the  father  leaves  the  camp,  nor  does  he  return  for 
about  three  months,  when  the  whole  tribe  meet  him  at  the 
place  from  which  he  took  his  departure,  and  a  grand  cor- 
roboree  ensues.  They  say  that  the  eldest  son  is  "  no  good." 
This  custom  is  evidently  but  partially  understood.  This 
tpibe  believe  in  a  Good  Spirit,'  and  that  after  death  they  will 
become  White  men;  but  as  they  have  only  lately  known  of 
the  existence  of  White  men,  this  belief  must  be  of  very 
modern  date. 

The  ceremony  of  making  young  men  is  carried  on  in 
camps  marked  in  a  peculiar  way,  and  at  these  Mr.  Armit  has 
seen  painted  on  a  conspicuous  tree,  with  red  ochre  or  blood, 
the  figure  of  a  hand.  The  same  sign  he  has  also  seen 
chopped  on  the  bark  of  a  tree.  To  mark  a  clean  surface  with 
a  dirty,  greasy,  or  painted  hand  is  a  common  practice  of  our 
Blacks,  and  I  have  se6n  them  do  it  on  several  places  long 
distances  apart.  It  seems  to  me  a  practice  of  no  significance, 
unless  it  be  the  first  step  in  imitative  art. 

During  the  period  of  menstruation  the  woman  removes 
a  little  way  from  the  camp,  and  remains  in  seclusion. 
Should  a  man  cross  her  track  at  such  a  time  it  would  be 
considered  an  evil  omen,  and  the  woman  probably  be  brained 
to  appease  the  anger  of  the  Evil  Spirit.     In  like  manner 


302  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

men  have  a  dread  of  women  stepping  over  them  when  lying 
down,  for  it  is  believed  that  sickness  or  death  follows. 

Mr.  Armit  concludes  his  very  interesting  letter  in  this 
way: — "  You  may,  however,  glean  a  few  scraps  here  and  there 
which  I  trust  will  repay  you  for  reading  my  long  epistle, 
which,  however,  I  must  still  elongate  to  touch  on  another 
alleged  custom,  or  rather  society,  which  some  gentlemen 
believe  exists  amongst  the  aborigines  of  Queensland.  I 
allude  to  their  freemasonry,  or  words  and  signs  known  to 
each  other.  In  this  I  am  a  total  disbeliever.  That  they 
have  signs  and  signals  by  which  they  may  recognize  one 
another  at  a  distance,  or  signal  danger,  such  as  'Police  about,' 
I  thoroughly  know,  as  I  have  often  witnessed  them;  but 
these  are  very  different  things  from  a  systematic  arrange- 
ment of  signs,  symbols,  and  words,  by  which  a  man  from  one 
tribe  could  find  immunity  from  outrage  in  passing  through 
another  tribe's  territory.  The  former  are  simply  necessary 
things  which  every  animal  makes  use  of  to  warn  its  mates. 
The  latter  I  do  not  believe  to  exist,  nor  do  I  think  the 
intellectual  powers  of  the  aboriginal  sufficiently  developed  to 
invent  such  a  system.  That  the  Blacks  up  here  can  and  do 
understand  certain  words  from  southern  dialects  is  very 
true,  but  the  transition  from  one  dialect  to  another  is  so 
gradual  that  many  words  are  retained  common  to  all, 
though  very  possibly  of  totally  different  signification  in  any 
two  or  three  dialects.  Thus  we  see  a  Black  show  signs  of 
pleasure  on  hearing  a  trooper  from  the  Maranoa  using  a 
word  which  he  understands  in  his  own  sense  and  becomes 
quite  delighted  at  the  sound,  which  he  will  repeat  two  or 
three  times.  This  has  been  termed  a  system  of  freemasonry, 
and,  in  conjunction  with  the  crests  they  use,  has  been  pointed 
out  as  a  sign  of  intellectual  power  which  they  never  pos- 
sessed. The  two  should  be  kept  separate,  for  I  see  no  affinity 
between  them  whatever." 

In  Mr.  Armit's  vocabulary  the  equivalents  for  ear,  teeth, 
beard,  foot,  throwing-stick,  tomahawk,  and  fire  resemble 
those   in    the  Normantown   or   Micoolan    language,  some 


MOUTH   OF    THE   LEICHARDT   RIVER.  303 

seventy  miles  to  tlie  eastward.     He  also  gives  the  following 
names  of  tribes  on  the  Leichardt  River: — 

Djargirra,  or  People  belonging  to  the  fresh-water. 
Djinumarra,  or  People  belonging  to  the  salt-water. 
Gooran,  or  People  belonging  to  the  scrub. 

The  following  words  are  additional: — 

Demon  -  -  -  Dibir. 

Good  Spirit  -  -  -  Mandja. 

Southern  Cross  -  -  -  Ganyi-ganyi. 

Venus  -  -  .  Boogar. 


304 


THE   AUSTRALIAli   RACE: 


No.  91.— MOUTH  OP  THE  LEICHAEDT  RIVER. 


By  W.  E.  Aemit, 


Kangaroo    - 

majumba. 

Opossum 

kardilla. 

Tame  dog    - 

yalba. 

Wild  dog     - 

Emu    - 

Black  duck  - 

bindtirra. 

Wood  duck  - 

Pelican 

Laughing  jackass 

jarungool. 

Native  companioi) 

parumba. 

White  cockatoo  - 

Crow  -        -        - 

wya. 

Swan  -        -        - 

Egg     - 

tandoo. 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

wooya. 

Fish    - 

wokkai. 

Lobster 

ruja. 

Crayfish 

Mosquito     - 

wungui. 

Fly      - 

Snake 

dulburru. 

The  Blacks - 

A  Blackfellow     - 

yirrman. 

A  Black  woman  - 

baula. 

Nose   - 

gunyi. 

Hand  - 

-  maUa. 

2Blacks      - 

-  kurbayia      yirr 

man. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  matta  yirrman. 

One     - 

-  wongarri. 

Two    - 

-  kurbayia. 

Three  - 

-  matta. 

Four    - 

-  murgoo. 

Father 

-  kumalla. 

Mother 

-  mujoo. 

Sister-Elder 

- 

,,      Younger 

Brother-Elder 

- 

„         Young 

3r 

A  young  man 

-  kalbi. 

An  old  man 

-  muddoo-muddoo 

An  old  woman 

-  moa. 

A  baby 

-  pajamuUa. 

A  White  man 

-  moombi. 

Children 

-  murgoo. 

Head  - 

-  tchigi. 

Eye     - 

-  tibarri. 

Ear     - 

-  binna. 

MOUTH    OF   THE    LEICHARDT    RIVER 


305 


No.  91. 

— MO0TH    OF  THE    LeICHAEDT   RiVEE 

—continued. 

Mouth 

-  lerra. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

-  yerngandi. 

Hill     - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  wallooln. 

Wood  - 

-  mada. 

Beard  - 

-  yanba. 

Stone  - 

. 

Thunder      - 

- 

Camp  - 

Grass 

-  kadir. 

Yea     - 

-  kullilli. 

Tongue 

-  mooni. 

Stomach      - 

-  koodna. 

No      - 

-  yaddi. 

Breasts 

-  mundji-mundji. 

I 

-  yundou. 

Thigh - 

-  langiu. 

You    - 

-  uayou. 

Foot   - 

-  tinna. 

Bark   - 

-  yagarri. 

Bone  - 

-  mada. 

Good  - 

-  manja. 

Blood  - 

-  majaugo. 

Bad     - 

■   kakai. 

Skin    - 

-  yogale. 

Sweet  - 

-  tamban. 

Fat     - 

-  gamirr. 

Food   - 

-  yaddii. 

Bowels 

-  turburr. 

Excrement  - 

-  dulla. 

Hungry 

-  yadda. 

War-spear  - 

-  kungoon. 

Thirsty 

-  yaddingayoo 

Reed-spear  - 

-  tabarra. 

Eat      - 

-  yadda. 

Wommera  or 

eurman. 

Sleep  - 

-  woogamba. 

throwing-stick 

Drink  - 

-  wooga. 

Shield 

-  wallauja. 

Walk  - 

-  kurrai. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  marrea. 

See      - 

•  namalbadda. 

Canoe  - 

- 

Sit       - 

-  inai. 

Sun     - 

-  burril. 

Yesterday  - 

-  birringa. 

Moon  - 

-  barngan. 

To-day 

-  nilla. 

Star    - 

-  yalli. 

Light  - 

-  wudja. 

To-morrow  - 

~ 

Dark  - 

-  mulla. 

Where    are 

the  yirrmandan 

Blacks? 

dana? 

Cold    - 

■  yirringa. 

Heat  - 

-  tammoon. 

I  don't  know 

-  yaddi  galao. 

Day    - 

-  mandja. 

Plenty 

- 

Night  -        - 

- 

Big     -        - 

- 

Fire    - 

-  yangoo. 

Little  - 

-  niun-niun. 

Water 

-  yabboo. 

Dead  - 

-  moriana. 

Smoke 

-  tooba. 

By-and-by  - 

-  wurru. 

Ground 

-  magi. 

Come  on 

-  kabbiyao. 

Wind- 

- 

Milk  - 

- 

Rain    - 

-  kalga. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God    -        - 

-  wongaringe. 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife  - 

VOL.    II. 

U 

306  THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  92.— MOUTH  OF  THE  EIVEE  NOEMAN. 

By  W.  E.  Abmit,  Lstspectok  of  Native  Mounted  Police. 

The  country  of  the  Karrandee  tribe  is  on  the  Grulf  of 
Carpentaria,  commencing  at  the  mouth  of  the  Eiver  Bynoe, 
and  continuing  along  the  coast,  after  passing  the  embouchure 
of  the  Norman,  to  a  salt-water  creek  within  fifteen  miles  of 
the  mouth  of  the  Gilbert :  inland  it  extends  to  Magowra 
Station,  and  on  to  Walker's  Creek,  and  contains  about  two 
thousand  square  miles.  This  country,  or  a  part  of  it,  was 
first  occupied  by  the  "Whites  in  about  1866.  In  1875,  when 
my  informant  first  knew  the  tribe,  it  numbered  some  250 
persons,  but  is  now  reduced  by  the  rifle  and  syphilis  to  160 
souls,  made  up  of  50  men,  70  women,  and  40  children. 
Women  rarely  being  shot,  it  seems  from  these  figures  that 
90  men  of  this  tribe  fell  before  the  rifle. 

This  tribe  go  naked,  like  all  others  in  Northern  Australia, 
and  a  fair  proportion  of  them,  for  the  most  part  females,  seem 
to  be  sixty  years  of  age.  They  erect  during  certain  seasons 
dome-shaped  huts  made  of  grass  and  sticks,  which,  mosqni- 
tos  being  numerous,  they  completely  fill  with  smoke  before 
retiring  for  the  night,  and  entering  quickly  fill  up  the  aper- 
ture with  grass.  By  degrees  the  smoke  escapes.  Their 
ornaments  present  no  peculiarities,  and  like  all  other  tribes 
we  know  of,  they  smear  their  persons  with  fat  and  red  ochre 
when  dancing  the  corroboree.  The  wommera  and  a  two- 
handed  club,  which  they  color  red,  white,  or  yellow,  are  in 
use,  as  also  the  boomerang.  They  have  besides  the  common 
koolaman,  or  wooden  water-trough.  Their  principal  articles 
of  food  are  rats,  snakes,  wallaby,  and  sharks,  also  dngong, 
turtle,  and  other  sorts  of  fish,  and  besides  several  sorts  of 


MOUTH    OF    THE    RIVER   NORMAN. 


307 


roots  and  the  fruit  of  the  mangrove;  all  of  which  are  cooked 
on  the  coals  or  in  ovens.  In  the  southern  portions  of  Aus- 
tralia it  is  common  to  cook  at  certain  favorite  spots, 
hence  our  ovens  or  ash-heaps  ;  but  such  is  not  the  case  in 
the  North.  Eestrictions  as  regards  certain  sorts  of  food 
obtain,  and  food  being  very  abundant,  cannibalism  does  not 
exist  in  this  tribe.  Marriage  in  the  Karrandee  tribe  is 
endogamous,  and  regulated  by  classes,  some  of  which  are 
called  Mooroob,  Heyanbo,  Lenai,  Koanga,  and  Yelet.  A  few 
of  the  men  have  as  many  as  four,  and  one  six,  wives. 
Females  become  wives  when  mere  children,  and  mothers  at, 
it  is  said,  twelve  years  of  age.  Married  couples  often  seem 
much  attached.  Lung  disease  appears  to  have  been  common 
before  our  occupation,  and  syphilis  is  now  exterminating  the 
tribe.  The  customs  of  scarring  the  skin  and  piercing  the 
septum  of  the  nose  prevail,  and  some  have  teeth  knocked 
out.  The  general  height  of  the  men  is  a  little  under  5  feet 
8  inches,  but  some  reach  6  feet  3  inches.  The  rights  of 
manhood  are  conferred  by  means  of  secret  ceremonies. 
Message-sticks  accompany  vivA  voce  messages  of  importance 
between  portions  of  the  tribe  camped  a  distance  apart.  The 
following  Additional  Words  are  given  by  Mr.  Armit : — 


Crab    -        - 

-    gomi. 

Tree    - 

-     bilbar. 

Ray    - 

-    rowal. 

Water-trough 

-     yerkal. 

Uncle 

-    miartuk. 

Steamer 

-     yerkal. 

Aunt  - 

-    nuUata. 

Tobacco-pipe 

-.    beyal. 

Cousin 

-    pata. 

Red  ochre   - 

-    perra. 

Hawk  - 

-    reangal. 

308 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  92.— MOUTH  OP  THE  NORMAN. 


By  W.  E.  Akmit,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

gooalek. 

Hand  - 

maar. 

Opossum 

ungorr. 

2  Blacks      - 

aam  buggar 

Tame  dog    - 

irruag. 

3  Blacks      - 

aam  orinoh. 

Wild  dog     - 

One     - 

lum. 

Emu    - 

■  tarmar. 

Two     - 

buggar. 

Black  duok  - 

-  neur. 

Three  - 

orinch. 

Wood  duck  - 

-  char. 

Pour   - 

Pelican        -        -  nyumiaggar. 
Laughing  jackass  kerreg. 

Father 

nyet. 

Native  companion  kor-kor. 

Mother 

mooruk.  _ 

White  cockatoo 

Sister-Elder 

nuUatr. 

Crow  - 

-  polleet. 

„      Younger 

Swan  - 

Brother-Elder 

paata. 

Egg     -        - 

-  taum. 

,,         Younger 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  ain. 

A  young  man 

karnert. 

Pish     - 

-  kurmbaiar. 

Lobster 

-  laamballay. 

An  old  man 

kiniart. 

Crayfish 

-  ndaag. 

An  old  woman 

mungiaert. 

Mosquito     - 

-  lal. 

A  baby 

chuckor. 

Ply      - 

-  nyal. 

A  White  man 

-  morub. 

Snake  - 

-  teU. 

Children 

-  ngongorr. 

The  Blacks  - 

-  ngaan. 

A  Blackf ellow 

-  aam. 

Head  - 

-  lagal. 

A  Black  woman 

-  nok-nok. 

Eye     - 

-  ale. 

Nose   - 

-  owoo. 

Ear     - 

-  nulliak. 

MOUTH   OP    THE   RIVER   NORMAN. 


309 


No.  92.— Mouth  of  the  Nokman— coniJmaecZ. 

Mouth 

-  aag. 

Boomerang  - 

-  ngel. 

Teeth  - 

-  ngaal. 

Hill     - 

_ 

Hair  of  the  head-  taak. 

Wood  - 

-  bayal. 

Beard  - 

•  Ibar. 

Stone  - 

-  urrayam. 

Thunder      - 
Grass  - 

-  urray. 

-  guan. 

Camp  - 

-  toaak. 

Tongue 

-  ndara. 

Yes     - 

-  yiel. 

Stomach 

-  worr. 

No 

-  ar. 

Breasts 

-  yoong. 

I          - 

-  mirriangle. 

Thigh  - 

-  lar. 

You    - 

-  nomoon. 

Foot    - 

-  aaen. 

Bark   - 

-  ungorr. 

Bone   - 

■  mog. 

Good  - 

-  babrar. 

Blood  - 

-  yaang. 

Bad     - 

-  umwal. 

Skin    - 

-  baab.' 

Sweet  - 

-  erryangool. 

Fat      - 

-  yambara. 

Food   - 

-  goondoolgoon- 

Bowels 

-  laamba. 

"doo. 

Excrement  - 

-  oong. 

Hungry 

-  terrinjoin. 

War-spear  - 

-  aalga. 

Thirsty 

-  rowal. 

Reed-apear  - 

-  oerma. 

Eat      - 

-  errealk. 

Wommera  or 

throwing-stiok 

ngiel. 

Sleep  - 

-  ngoeur. 

Shield 

-  kullyar. 

Drink  - 

-  baal. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  tchuggar. 

Walk  - 

-  rowarmungle. 

Canoe 

-  nye. 

See      - 

-  yielgang. 

Sun     - 

-  rarm. 

Sit       - 

-  yebaag. 

Moon  - 

-  ulkyan. 

Yesterday  - 

-  errowar. 

Star    - 

-  laohe. 

To-day 

-  ngurrowar. 

Light  - 

-  lullumgor. 

To-morrow  - 

-  nurrowar- 

Dark 

-  arreal. 

poppoi. 

Cold    -        - 

-  lawn. 

Where    are 

the  amettaa  telloo  ? 

Heat  - 

-  arelberelb. 

Blacks  ? 

Day    - 

-  kiingel-kungel. 

I  don't  know 

-  errag  naye. 

Night  -        - 

-  ny. 

Plenty 

-  wakootal. 

Fire    - 

-  umbyal. 

Big      - 

-  aihn. 

Water 

-  baal. 

Little  - 

-  chukkoor. 

Smoke 

-  goan. 

Dead  -     '   - 

-  garter. 

Ground 

-  tooak. 

By-and-by  ■• 

-  yagunga. 

Wind  - 

-  tara. 

Come  on 

-  rurri  jarganga. 

Rain   - 

-  urpure. 

Milk    - 

- 

God     -        - 

-  mbyal  wakoot- 

Eaglehawk 

- 

alga. 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

-  poiin. 

Wife    - 

- 

310  THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  93.— MIDDLE  NORMAN. 

By  W.  E.  Armit,  Esq.,  Inspectob  op  Police,  and  Lyndon  PoiaNDESiEE, 
Esq.,  Sub-inspectob  of  Police. 

Of  the  language  of  the  WoUongurmee  tribe  I  have  received 
two  vocabularies,  one  from  Mr.  William  E.  Armit,  Inspector 
of  Police,  the  other  from  Mr.  Lyndon  Poigndestre,  Sub- 
inspector  of  Police,  of  which  the  former  is  inserted.  Mr. 
Armit  informs  me  that  this  tribe  inhabit  the  country  from 
the  embouchure  of  the  Norman  to  the  ranges  below  Cam- 
bridge Creek.  As,  however,  he  has  already  assigned  the 
mouth  of  the  Norman  to  the  Karrandee  tribe,  I  am  at  a  loss 
where  to  locate  the  WoUongurmee  on  the  map,  and  have 
placed  it  on  the  Middle  Norman  as  most  probably  the 
correct  position.  The  men  of  this  tribe,  said  Mr.  Armit 
when  he  wrote  to  me  in  1882,  are  bold  and  hostile,  fine 
athletic  fellows,  of  a  coppery  color,  with  curly  hair,  who 
make  frequent  raids  on  their  neighbours,  and  murder  a 
White  man  now  and  then  when  opportunity  offers.  When 
pushed  for  food  they  practise  cannibalism.  Their  neighbours 
on  the  south  side,  says  Mr.  Armit,  are  the  Mikkoolan,  and 
on  the  south-west  the  tribes  of  the  Leichardt,  statements 
which  are  irreconcilable  with  others  which  have  reached  me. 
It  is  most  unusual  to  find  a  language  which  differs  so 
much  from  its  neighbours  and  those  of  Australia  generally 
as  this.    Except  in  the  equivalents  oi  fish,  teeth,  and  you,  I 


MIDDLE    NORMAN.  311 

find  no  words  which  occur  in  other  vocabularies.  The 
agreement  in  night  and  dark  is  almost  the  only  other 
Australian  characteristic  which  I  observe.  The  manners 
and  implements  of  the  tribe,  as  far  as  I  am  informed  of 
them,  are  those  common  on  the  continent. 

In  addition  to  the  vocabulary,  Mr.  Armit  gives  me  the 
following  phrases  : — 

Where  did  you  sleep  last  night  ?     -  Inda  takell  munna  ? 

Where  are  you  going  to  sleep  to-  Indo  takell  munnar  gar  ? 

night? 

Don't  sing  out  .        .        .        .  Indo  arra  kepmer  mundar. 

Where  is  Tommy  ?  -        -        -        -  Takke  Tommio  ? 

I  am  hungry Mairrairrur  naidje. 

Don't  be  frightened         -        -        -  Mart  marroor  apmell  jendoor. 

Take  me  to  your  camp     -        -        -  Innoo  arroorroor  lemeneri  daiger. 

Come  down Indo  arrurrunular. 

Where  water?         .        .        .        .  Arkkawer  tikkeUow ? 

With  regard  to  the  equivalents  of  you,  indo,  inda,  innoo, 
and  other  terms,  I  have  been  particularly  careful  to  see  that 
they  are  given  as  I  received  them. 


312 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  93.— MIDDLE  NORMAN. 


By  W.  E.  Armit,  Esq. 


Kangaroo 

orthur. 

Hand  - 

-  orunnoor. 

Opossum      - 

woombur. 

2  Blacks      - 

- 

Tame  dog    - 

uoughtnoommer. 

3  Blacks      - 

. 

Wild  dog     - 

One     - 

-  orter. 

Emu    - 

heerkoolar. 

Black  duck  - 

ooltukkuUer 

Two    - 

-  gauUoor. 

Wood  duck 

kur-kur-kur. 

Three  - 

-  orrinjay. 

Pelican 

arthurur, 

Four    - 

- 

Laughing  jackass 

rulgeear. 

Father 

-  uwer. 

Native  compauioD 

koorur-koorur. 

Mother 

-  albeyarroor. 

White'  cockatoo 

painduller. 

Crow  - 

arther. 

Sister-Elder 

-  annellar. 

Swan  - 

(does  not  occur). 

„      Younger 

- 

Egg     - 

-  kowper. 

Brother-Elder 

-  allLngother. 

Track  of  a  foot 

,,         Younger  koyer. 

Fish    - 

-  balpee. 

A  young  man 

-  dairurkoona. 

Lobster 

-  yandurrer. 

An  old  man 

-  arquenna. 

Crayfish 

-  elparra. 

An  old  woman 

-  toinjure. 

Mosquito 

-  etnawlyer. 

A  baby 

-  koichittoo. 

Fly     - 

-  anur. 

Snake  - 

-  orugur. 

A  White  man 

-  oinger. 

The  Blacks  - 

-  arpmoor. 

Children 

-  gonegoorur. 

A  Blackfellow 

- 

Head  - 

-  attaiger. 

*A  Black  woman  mongine. 

Eye     - 

-  eller. 

Nose    - 

-  oorkellar,warrur. 

Ear     - 

-  woraellar. 

*  1.  Pc 

igndestre, 

MIDDLE  NORMAN. 


313 


93. — Middle  Norman — corairmed. 


Mouth 

-  oowerur. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

-  yeerur. 

Hill     - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  elgooennoor. 

Wood  - 

-  koorur. 

Beard  - 

-  alpaira. 

Stone  - 

-  roongoolur. 

Thunder      - 

-  chalquar. 

Camp  - 

-  allerooroor. 

Grass  - 

-  quennur. 

Yes      - 

-  eeyo,  yee,  ee. 

Tongue 

-  dalrroor. 

No       - 

-  arro. 

Stomach 

-  noomber. 

I 

-  eeyoor. 

Breasts 

-  yungur. 

You     - 

-  inda,  innoo. 

Thigh  - 

-  arwoorroor. 

Bark    - 

-  ortter. 

Foot    - 

-  eatnoor. 

Good   - 

-  moonyerror. 

Bone   - 

-  orkur. 

Bad     - 

-  karnyer. 

Blood  - 

-  eerroor. 

Sweet  - 

- 

Skin    - 

- 

Food  - 

- 

Fat      - 

-  yambairrer. 

Hungry 

-  mairrairrur. 

Bowels 

-  nambairrer  (?). 

Thirsty 

-  bengur,  murrule 

Excrement  - 

. 

mundoor. 

War-spear  - 

-  alkur. 

Eat      - 

-  arweeroor,  tyur 

Reed-spear  - 

-  allgorur. 

goondoor. 

Wommera      or 

engellar. 

Sleep  - 

-  quenditmayer. 

throwing-stick 

Drink  - 

-  arkwayennoor. 

Shield 

-  koonburrar. 

Walk  - 

-  arattwaner- 

Tomahawk  - 

-  gwarringyur. 

bunda. 

Canoe  - 

-  orrukkur 

See      -      ■  - 

-  lenderelder. 

Sun     - 

-  yennoor. 

Sit       - 

-  nocknoonnoon- 

Moon  - 

-  arkkenna. 

dur. 

Star     - 

-  arllyyer. 

Yesterday   - 

-  tarhn. 

Light  - 

-  amdellur. 

To-day 

-  laymer. 

Dark  - 

-  ballpuller. 

To-morrow  - 

-  yennar. 

Cold    - 

-  kerramerrer 

Where    are 

the    tak-ke-arpmoor 

Heat   - 

-  alwoonergoongee 

Blacks  ? 
I  don't  know 

-  ambitcka. 

Day     - 

-  yendunenmun- 

der. 

Plenty 

-  walkoor. 

Night  - 

-  ballpuUergetter. 

Big      -        - 

-  armoorur. 

Fire     - 

-  tenner. 

Little  - 

-  jura. 

Water 

-  ark-kawar. 

Dead  - 

-  arrembunnur. 

Smoke 

-  orknoor. 

By-and-by  - 

-  laymoorgoorar. 

Ground 

-  arroorroor. 

Come  on 

-  kow-way. 

Wind- 

_ 

MUk    - 

- 

Rain    - 

-  roanunuller. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God     - 

. 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

. 

Wife   - 

- 

314 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  94.— ON  THE  WEST  BANK  OF  THE  LEICHAEDT 
EIVEE,  NEAE  THE  SEA. 

MDTGIN  TRIBE. 
By  Edwabd  Cube,  Esq. 

In  this  vocabulary  we  have  tullula  =  star,  and  milla=fire 
and  wood,  and  in  the  Ngorraialum  language,  almost  at 
the  other  extremity  of  the  continent,  we  have  toort  and 
wiin  in  the  same  senses.  Note  also  the  rendering  of  stone 
and  hill ;  bad  and  dead. 


No 

.  94.— WEST  OP 

LEICHARDT  RIVER. 

By  Edwabd  Cuek,  Esq. 

Kaugaroo    - 

jaco-jaco. 

Hand  - 

-  na-nga-ra. 

Opossum 

wapoora. 

2  Blacks       - 

_ 

Tame  dog    - 
WUd  dog     - 
Emu  - 
Black  duck  - 
Wood  duck 

koodoo. 

megilpurra. 

poolunganna. 

3  Blacks       - 
One     - 
Two     - 
Three  - .       - 

-  choamg-ngo 

-  tigina. 

-  tamgiltna. 

Pelican 

piteldoo. 

Pour    - 

■ 

Laughing  jackass 

Father 

-  kiagi. 

Native  companion 

pooralga. 

Mother 

-  koondoonoo. 

White  cockatoo  - 

Crow  - 

Swan  - 

Egg     -        -        - 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

karimbala. 
wongoola. 

ooabiba. 
tyana. 

Sister-Elder        -  yillolunga. 

„      Younger  - 
Brother-Elder     -  nancile. 

,,         Younger  birgenkoora. 

Fish     - 

worra. 

A  young  man 

-  ooroonda. 

Lobster 

An  old  man 

-  pardingara. 

Crayfish 

An  old  woman 

-  ooardigiri. 

Mosquito     - 
My      - 
Snake  - 
The  Blacks  - 
A  Blackfellow     - 

kalaranga. 
koorina. 
paganbaba. 
wompoora. 

A  baby 
A  White  man 
Children 
Head  - 

-  pelginooora. 

-  takandana, 

-  wedda. 

A  Black  woman  - 

magoo. 

Eye     - 

-  migilla. 

Nose    - 

kiwira 

Ear      - 

-  mara. 

WEST   BANK   OF   THE  LEICHARDT  RIVER. 


315 


No. 

94.— West  or  Leicb 

-ABDT  BiiYEB,— continued. 

Mouth 

-  parka. 

Boomerang  - 

-  wangiUa. 

Teeth 

-  lia. 

Hill     - 

-  kabada. 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  boormba. 

Wood  - 

-  willa. 

Beard  - 

-  yarin-nga. 

Stone  - 

-  kabada. 

Thunder     - 

- 

Camp  - 

-  nadda. 

Grass  - 

-  boolba. 

Yes     - 

. 

Tongue 

-  cham-nga. 

No 

Stomach 

-  pardaga. 

I 

Breasts 

-  makola. 

Thigh  -        - 

-  bilba. 

You    - 

- 

Foot   - 

-  changa. 

Bark  - 

-  pakooroo. 

Bone    - 

-  dimira. 

Good   - 

-  poorooga. 

Blood - 

-  tagana. 

Bad     - 

-  pooga, 

Skin    - 

-  pagooroo. 

Sweet  - 

-  paranga    {i.e., 

Fat     - 

-  paranga. 

honey). 

Bowels 

-  turra. 

Food  - 

- 

Excrement  - 

-  turra. 

Hungry 

-  nuUu. 

War-spear  - 

-  mulgendara. 

Thirsty 

-  noormoondo. 

Beed-spear  - 

-  ngoormi. 

Eat     - 

-  tara. 

Wommera     or 

pirri. 

Sleep  - 

-  yungooyoo. 

throwing-stick 

Drink  - 

-  chi-chi. 

Shield 

-  oharpi. 

Walk  - 

-  yappoo. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  churiwindilla. 

See      - 

. 

Canoe  - 

. 

Sun     - 

-  chirinanna. 

Sit      - 

-  koonooyoo. 

Moon  - 

-  biringa. 

Yesterday  - 

-  yalundie. 

Star    - 

-  tuUula. 

To-day 

■  yanalinga. 

Light  - 

. 

To-morrow  • 

-  kowoondoo. 

Dark  - 

. 

Where     are 

the  tano  ara  mingoo  ? 

Cold    -        - 

-  goorina. 

Blacks  ? 

Heat  - 

-  ooaloola. 

I  don't  know 

- 

Day    - 

-  yanalinga. 

Plenty 

-  wonapoora. 

Night  - 

-  kowoondi. 

Big     -        - 

-  poolana. 

Fire     - 

-  willa. 

Little 

-  pilgingoora. 

Water 

•  wadda. 

Dead 

-  pooga. 

Smoke 

-  quia-quia. 

By-and-by  - 

- 

Ground 

-  koorda. 

Come  on 

- 

Wind  - 

-  wormora. 

Milk  - 

-  nogoola. 

Rain   - 

- 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God    - 

-  churbooyo. 

Wild  turkey 

-  piringoora. 

Ghosts 

-  parda. 

Wife  - 

- 

316 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  95.— LEICHARDT  EIVEE,  TWENTY  MILES 
BELOW  KAMILAROI  STATION. 

This  vocabulary  of  a  language  spoken  on  the  Leichardt 
River,  twenty  miles  below  the  Kamilaroi  Station,  was  sent 
to  me  by  my  son,  Mr.  Edward  Curr.  Kamilaroi  is  not  the 
aboriginal  name  of  the  station,  but  merely  a  fancy  name 
given  by  its  owners. 

The  sound  of  the  letter  v  is  found  in  this  language; 


No.    95.— LEICHARDT    RIVER. 

Hand  - 

2  Blacks      - 

3  Blacks  - 
One  - 
Two  - 
Three  - 
Four 
Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

„        Younger  - 
Brother-Elder     ■ 

„         Younger- 
A  young  man 
An  old  man 
An  old  woman 
A  baby 
A  White  man 
Children 
Head  - 
Eye     - 
Ear     - 


Kangaroo    - 

my-u-bee. 

Opossum 

ka-goin. 

Tame  dog    - 

mo-rool. 

Wild  dog     - 

Emu    - 

gon-do-lo. 

Black  duck  - 

toor-gu. 

Wood  duck- 

Pelican 

Laughing  jackass 

Native  companion 

White  cockatoo  - 

koo-lo-ra. 

Crow  - 

toon-ou-vrai. 

Swan  - 

Egg     -        -        - 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

chin-na 

Fish    - 

balbi. 

Lobster 

Crayfish 

choorn-gu. 

Mosquito     - 

wan-gouin. 

Fly      - 

ni-mo-loo. 

Snake  - 

ma-no-wag-gi. 

The  Blacks  - 

in-goom. 

A  Blaokf ellow     - 

A  Black  woman  - 

poin-u. 

Nose   - 

koo-ni. 

-  muUa. 


war-m-gu. 
koo-youn. 
ny-yill-ey. 

na-boor. 

ya-bar-ri. 

mo-a. 

mo-do-mo-do. 

ty-gall. 

mi-goo-loo. 

gi-gi- 
ti-ba-ri. 

phir-nur. 


LEICHARDT    RIVEE. 


317 


No.  95. — LlIOHARD 

r  'RxTETi^-continued. 

Mouth 

-  na-gu. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

-  yar-gan-di. 

Hill     - 

. 

Hair  of  the  head  -  war-am-boo. 

Wood  - 

-  nor-goor. 

Beard  - 

-  yan-bar. 

Stone  - 

-  mo-rin-gi. 

-  mag-gi. 

Thunder      - 
Grass  - 

-  yam-ber-ri. 

-  yal-goon. 

Camp  - 

Yes     - 

Tongue 

-  moo-ni. 

-  ga-vi-a. 

Stomach 

-  na-boo-ra. 

No 

-  yad-di. 

Breasts 

-  tam-boo. 

I- 

- 

Thigh - 

-  tar-ra. 

You    - 

- 

Foot    - 

-  chin-na. 

Bark   - 

-  bimba. 

Bone   - 

-  mud-da. 

Good  - 

-  myn-ga. 

Blood  -        - 

-  my-yung. 

Bad     - 

-  moor-da. 

Skin    -        - 

-  ya-karr-li. 

Sweet  - 

Fat     - 

-  tan-goo. 

Food    - 

Bowels 

-  tam-doo. 

Hungry 

. 

Excrement  - 

-  moon-ni. 

Thirsty 

. 

War-spear  - 

-  chin-do-verri. 

Bat      - 

Reed-Bpear  - 

-  koongoon. 

Sleep  - 

-  oo-kom-bi 

Wommera   or 

youl-man. 

Drink - 

-  na-bil-la. 

throwing-stick 

Shield - 

-  yam-boo-roo. 

Walk  - 

-  a-gi-la-gi. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  ma-re-a. 

See     - 

- 

Canoe  - 

- 

Sit       - 

- 

Sun     - 

-  po-rill. 

Yesterday   - 

-  iriem. 

Moon  - 

■  ge-ge-ra. 

To-day 

-  ya-ta-li. 

Star    - 

-  chin-by. 

To-morrow  - 

-  uoo-la-ran 

Light  - 

-  pir-in-girr. 

Where     are 

the 

Dark  - 

-  war-ran-ga. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    - 

•  yen-ga. 

I  don't  know 

. 

Heat   - 

-  por-rid. 

Plenty 

. 

Day     - 

Night  -        - 

; 

Big      - 

- 

Fire    - 

-  yan-ou. 

Little  - 

-  gar-noo. 

Water 

-  ya-boo. 

Dead  - 

-  mo-re. 

Smoke 

-  koo-mi-ri. 

By-and-by  - 

Ground 

-  ma-ge-a. 

Come  on 

-  kabio. 

Wind- 

-  koo-bin. 

Milk   - 

- 

Rain   - 

-  na-bi  la. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God    -        - 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife   - 

. 

318   .  THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE; 


No.  96.— KAMILAEOI  STATION. 

LEICHARDT  RIVER.— (Lat.  19°  South,  Long.  140°Eaat.) 

Bt  Mk.  Montagtj  Cube. 

This  vocabulary  was  forwarded  to  me  by  my  brother,  Mr. 
Montagu  Curr.  In  his  accompanying  letter  he  informs  me 
that  the  male  Blacks  in  the  Carpentaria  country  are  well 
grown  and  stout,  and  that  instances  of  good  looks  amongst 
them  are  not  wanting;  but  that  the  women  are  ill-favored 
as  compared  with  the  men  and  their  sisters  of  the  South,  but 
not  undersized.  The  hair  in  this  tribe  is  worn  long,  collected 
in  a  knob  on  top  of  the  head.  Spears,  tomahawks,  boomer- 
angs, wommeras,  &c.,  are  like  those  commonly  found 
throughout  the  continent.  The  status  of  young  man  is 
conferred  by  secret  ceremonies.  On  the  occasion  of  a  death 
the  women  daub  themselves  with  clay  and  howl,  as  in  other 
parts.     Cannibalism  prevails  in  a  mitigated  form. 

Several  contrivances  are  in  use  for  protection  against 
mosquitos  at  night,  which  to  a  naked  population  like  that 
of  Northern  Australia  are  a  perfect  scourge.  Amongst  them 
are  coverlets  made  of  grass,  which  are  used  occasionally,  rude 
bedsteads  with  a  fire  underneath,  and  beehive-shaped  huts, 
the  doorways  of  which  are  closed  to  some  extent  by  the 
smoke  of  the  fire. 


KAMILAROI  STATION.  319 

This  vocabulary  has  much  in  common  with  the  foregoing 
one,  and  some  words  general  throughout  the  continent  such 
as  bulla,  which  appears  amongst  the  numerals. 


320 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  96.— KAMILAROI. 


By  Montagu  Ctter,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

ngulanoo. 

Hand  - 

-  mala-roo. 

Opossum     - 

ka-goo-in. 

2  Blacks      - 

_ 

Tame  dog    - 

yambe. 

3  Blacks      - 

Wild  dog     - 

Emu   - 

d-pingo-burri. 

One     - 

-  goreen. 

Black  duck 

bin-dur-ra 

Two    - 

-  bulla. 

Wood  duck 

wool-ad-dthoo. 

Three  - 

-  buUa-go-go-mn 

Pelican 

Four  - 

-  in-ca-moo. 

Laughing  jackass 

d'char-run 

-gul. 

Father 

-  mudjo. 

Native  companion  d'tharwo-booga. 
White  cockatoo  -  koolera. 

Mother 

-  yag-e-roo. 

Crow 

d'thong-oo 

■boore. 

Sister-Elder 

-  kool-a-moo. 

Swan  -        -        - 

„      Younger 

- 

Egg    -        -        - 

d'thandoo. 

Brother-Elder 

- 

Track  of  a  foot   - 

d'janna. 

,,          Younger  nga-boor. 

Fish    - 
Lobster 

bulbi. 

A  young  man 
An  old  man 

-  yab-bi-ree. 

-  mo-a. 

Crayfish 

jin-ju. 

An  old  woman 

-  wom-me-ra. 

Mosquito     - 

ong-go-in. 

Fly      -        -        - 

melg-na. 

A  baby 

-  good-a-dthoo. 

Snake  - 

A  White  man 

-  mud-dtha. 

The  Blacks  - 

Children 

- 

A  Blackfellow     - 

bungil. 

Head 

-  nganggul. 

A  Black  woman  - 

bunya. 

Eye     - 

-  mills. 

Nose   - 

goouyeen. 

Ear      - 

-  kun-dtha. 

KAMILAROI   STATION. 


321 


No.  96. — Kamilaro 

I  Station— con«i«Merf. 

Mouth 

-  yar-jeen. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth 

-  yar-ra. 

Hill     - 

_ 

Hair  of  the  head  -  war-room-bo. 

Wood 

-  bug-goo-roo 

Beard 

-  yan-bur. 

Stone  - 

-  mim-dee. 

Thunder 

-  yun-bur-ri. 

Camp  - 

-  wunjil-bo. 

Grass  - 

-  kud-tha. 

Tongue 

-  mool-lun. 

Yes     - 

-  ngeea. 

Stomach 

-  wy-yeer. 

No      - 

-  n'gumbi. 

Breasts 

-  d'thunboo. 

I 

-  ngiego. 

Thigh  -        - 

-  mogo. 

You    - 

-  yundo. 

Foot   -        - 

-  jenna. 

Bark  - 

-  bimba. 

Bone  - 

-  mo-goo-in. 

Good  -        - 

- 

Blood  -        - 

-  go-ar-roo. 

Bad     ■ 

. 

Skin    - 

-  beya. 

Sweet  - 

_ 

Fat     - 

-  d'thun-go. 

Food   - 

. 

Bowels 

-  one-bun-go. 

Hungry 

-  bulg-gnee. 

Excrement  - 

-  one-d'tho. 

War-spear  - 
Reed-spear  - 

-  kon-goon. 

Thirsty 
Eat      - 

-  yur-be. 

Wommera    or 

yule-man. 

Sleep  - 

-  wanjilbo. 

thro  wing-stick 

Drink - 

-  barndthe 

Shield 

- 

boodtha.   . 

Tomahawk  - 

-  marlba. 

Walk  - 

-  wabe. 

Canoe  - 

- 

See      - 

- 

Sun     - 

■  kum-ba. 

Sit       - 

- 

Moon  - 

-  gug-a-ra. 

Yesterday    - 

-  boo-ru-gul. 

Star    - 

-  mindee. 

To-day 

-  g'nowl. 

Light  - 

-  ber-u. 

To-morrow  - 

-  bering-a. 

Dark  -        - 

-  wo-rang-a. 

Where    are 

the 

Cold    - 

-  ye-ring-a. 

Blacks? 

Heat  - 

-  mow-ing. 

I  don't  know 

Day    . 

_ 

Night 

, 

Plenty 

-  in-ca-moo. 

Fire    - 
Water 

-  yang-oo. 

-  yab-boo. 

Big      - 
Little  - 

-  wunyee. 

-  djal-loo. 

Dead  - 

-  moo-gun. 

Smoke 

-  koom-e-ree. 

By-and-by  - 

-  uUa. 

Ground 

-  mug-air. 

Come  on 

-  kub-bee. 

Wind- 

-  goo-bin. 

Milk    -        ■■ 

- 

Rain    - 

-  yab-boo.' 

Eaglehawk 

- 

God     -        - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife  - 

- 

VOL.    II. 

!£ 

322  THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.    97.— BETWEEN    THE     GREGORY    AND 
LEIOHARDT  RIVERS. 

By  M.  S.  Lamond,  Sub-inspeotob  of  Native  Mounted  Police. 

A  FEW  particulars  concerning  the  Mykoolan  tribe,  together 
with  the  attached  vocabulary,  were  kindly  forwarded  to  me 
by  Mr.  M.  S.  Lamond.  The  country  occupied  by  this  tribe 
is  between  the  Gregory  and  Leichardt  Rivers.  It  was  first 
settled  by  the  Whites  in  1864,  and  the  tribe,  which  then 
numbered  about  400,  is  now  reduced  to  200 — the  causes 
assigned  for  the  decrease  being  the  rifle  and  syphilis.  The 
term  Mykoolan  means  wild  turkey,  which  my  informant  says 
is  the  crest  of  the  tribe,  but  gives  no  further  information  on 
the  point.  The  knives  and  tomahawks  in  use  are  made  of 
flints,  chipped,  ground,  and  fitted  with  handles  in  the  usual 
way.  This  tribe  also  use  two-handed  clubs,  wommeras, 
spears  of  the  common  kinds,  shields,  and  the  war  boomerang, 
but  not  the  toy  one.  Novelties  amongst  their  possessions 
are  wooden  bowls  and  water-bottles  made  of  dogskin.  Can- 
nibalism prevails  to  a  considerable  extent,  and  has  been 
witnessed  more  than  once  by  my  informant.  Infanticide  is 
an  ancient  custom  which  still  prevails,  and  the  child  killed 
is  frequently  eaten.  The  age  at  which  it  is  killed  is  not 
stated.  Message-sticks  are  in  use.  Circumcision  and  the 
terrible  rite  are  not  practised.  The  Mykoolan  ornament 
themselves  with  scars.  They  knock  out  the  left  front  upper 
tooth,  and  paint  rude  figures  on  rocks  and  trees. 


THE  GREGORY    AND    LEIGHARDT  RIVERS.  323 

In  the  vocabulary,  in  which  Mr.  Lamond  seems  to  have 
been  more  interested  than  in  manners  and  customs,  the 
reader  will  notice  the  affinities  between  stone  and  hill,  and 
also  between  Jire  and  wood.  That  there  is  only  one  term 
to  express  elder  and  younger  sister  and  another  for  elder 
and  younger  brother  I  very  much  question. 


324 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   EACE  : 


No.  97.— BETWEEN  THE  GREGORY  AND  LEICHARDT 
RIVERS. 

By  M.  S.  Lamond,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

nargoon. 

Hand  - 

-  mambilla. 

Opossum 

kardella. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  blakarra  eerman. 

Tame  dog    - 

yalbal. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  goordbye  eerman 

Wild  dog    - 
Emu 

Black  duck  - 
Wood  duck- 
Pelican 

yalbal. 

doongoobarri. 

beendoora. 

wolgaribarri. 

One      - 
Two    - 
Three  - 
Pour   - 

deinba,  moar. 

-  blakarra. 

-  goordbye. 

-  blakarra-blak- 

Laughing  jackass 
Native  companion 

(none), 
toorga. 

Pather 

arra. 
-  yadoo. 

White  cockatoo  • 

yaoorawarri. 

Mother 

-  miraga. 

Crow  - 

wookan.  . 

Sister-Elder 

-   ■  all  sisters, 
koolakalla. 

Swan  - 

(none). 

„      Younger 

Egg     -        -        - 

tandoo. 

Brother-Elder 

-    1  all  brothers, 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

jeena. 

,,          Younger    I  kadgakoora. 

Pish    - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito     - 
Ply      - 
Snake  - 

gemalla. 

begool. 
meka. 
milna. 
woonan. 

A  young  man 
An  old  man 
An  old  woman 
A  baby 
A  White  man 

-  oobaringee. 

-  boolgin-boola. 

-  wamoora. 

-  billa-billa. 

-  mekoolan. 

The  Blacks - 

eerman. 

Children 

-  tambooroo. 

A  Blackfellow     - 

eerman. 

Head  - 

-  kandarr. 

A  Black  woman 

dindebarri. 

Eye     - 

-  mille. 

Nose   - 

eengar. 

Ear     - 

-  benarr. 

THE  GREGORY  AND   LEICHARBT    RIVERS. 


326 


No.  97. 

— Geegoey  and  Lei 

Mouth 

tangoola. 

Teeth  - 

yargan. 

Hair  of  the  head 

waroomboo. 

Beard  - 

yanbarr. 

Thunder 

-  yoordooyoo. 

Grass  - 

katirr. 

Tongue 

moonee. 

Stomach 

-  teeba. 

Breasts 

-  tamboo. 

Thigh  - 

-  dooal. 

Foot    - 

-  deina. 

Bone   - 

-  demul. 

Blood  - 

-  ngarroo. 

Skm    - 

-  bea. 

Pat      - 

-  tangoo. 

Bowels 

-  goonna. 

Excrement  - 

-  goonna. 

War-spear  - 

-  deenibarri. 

Eeed-spear  - 

-  koongoon. 

Wommera  or 

yeihnan. 

throwing-stick 

Shield  - 

-  metir. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  marree. 

Canoe  - 

-  (none). 

Sun     - 

-  booril. 

Moon  ■ 

-  kakurra. 

Star  -  - 

-  teirga. 

Light  - 

-  banbal. 

Dark   - 

-  waranga. 

Cold    - 

-  yeiranga. 

Heat   - 

-  ooirbur. 

Day     - 

-  neila. 

Night 

-  waranga. 

Kre     - 

-  yangoo  eekalaa. 

Water 

-  nabilla. 

Smoke 

-  koomiree. 

Ground 

-  mgea  (?). 

Wind  - 

-  koobin. 

Rain    - 

-  kalginoonabilla. 

God     - 

- 

Ghosts 

-  noonga. 

HAEDT   RlVEES- 

-continued. 

Boomerang  - 

-  moora. 

Hill     - 

-  wyeila. 

Wood  - 

-  eekalla. 

Stone  - 

-  wyeila. 

Camp  - 

-  maggea. 

Yea      - 

-  kooloogalla. 

No       - 

-  nambi. 

I 

-  nyeegoo. 

You     - 

-  yooandoo. 

Bark    - 

-  mooroongoo. 

Good    - 

-  makarra. 

Bad     - 

-  moorda. 

Sweet  - 

-  barragoo. 

Food    - 

-  yatilbilla. 

Hungry 

-  boolning. 

Thirsty 

-  mootingoo. 

Eat      - 

-  tangoola. 

Sleep  - 

-  ookambirr. 

Drink 

-  nookalbilda. 

Walk  - 

-  yadger. 

See      - 

-  woUomillebilda. 

Sit       - 

-  eeningoo. 

Yesterday    - 

-  bringar. 

To-day 

-  neilar. 

To-morrow  - 

-  noolar. 

Where  are  the 

eerman  goodoo  1 

Blacks  ? 

I  don't  know 

-  woUoomanbadda 

Plenty- 

-  moorgoo. 

Big      ■ 

-  bookarr. 

Little  - 

-  chaUoo. 

Dead   - 

-  mokan. 

By-and-by  - 

-  nalla. 

Come  on 

-  karrai. 

Milk    - 

-  tamboo. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  koondilla. 

Wild  turkey 

-  mykoolan. 

Wife    - 

-  geela. 

326  THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  98.— SEYMOUK,  TEMPLETON,  AND  CLONCUREY 

EIVEES. 

By  F.  Ubqtthabt,  Esq.,  and  Joseph  O'Reilley,  Esq. 

From  both  of  the  above-named  gentlemen  I  have  received 
vocabularies  of  the  Kulkadoon  tribe,  which  in  the  main 
agree  very  well.  Still  the  difference  between  the  two 
translations  of  the  term  Blackfellow,  one  of  which  is  yerro 
and  the  other  moodena,  leads  to  the  inference  that  there  was 
some  tribal  distinction  between  the  men  from  whom  my 
informants  took  down  the  vocabularies.  Mr.  Urquhart  gives 
me  the  following  particulars  concerning  the  customs  of  the 
tribe. 

The  Kulkadoon  people  inhabit  the  country  o:^  the  Sey- 
mour Eiver,  a  tributary  of  the  O'Shanassy.*  The  extent  of 
their  territory  is  roughly  estimated  at  6,000  square  miles, 
and  their  numbers  it  is  thought  amount  to  about  2,000. 
They  have  both  boomerangs  and  wommeras,  and  also  the 
weapons,  implements,  bags,  nets,  &c.,  common  in  most  tribes. 
The  following  names  of  persons  are  given: — Males:  Burngar 
and  ISTundjiwarri.  Females:  Wantralla  and  Koralim.  Orna- 
mental scars  are  in  use,  and  circumcision  and  the  practice 
of  the  terrible  rite  prevail.     The  tribes  said  to  bound  the 

*  Information  received  from  other  sources  has  caused  the  writer  to 
assign  to  this  tribe  a  much  larger  territory  than  Mr,  Urquhart  has  done. 


SEYMOUR,  TEMPLETON,  &  CLONCURKY  RIVERS.       327 

Kulkadoon  are  the  Miappi,  Goa,  Mykoolon,  Oborindi, 
Waukaboonia,  and  Oonamurra.  My  first  correspondent  says 
in  reply  to  one  of  my  printed  questions  that  this  tribe  has 
masonic  signs.  As  only  one  other  of  my  correspondents 
makes  this  assertion  in  connection  with  our  Blacks,  it  seems 
certain  that  Mr.  Urquhart  has  been  mistaken,  as  such  an 
institution  would  not  be  confined  to  a  few  tribes,  nor  have 
escaped  the  notice  of  the  many  masons  who  have  written 
to  me  on  the  subject. 

In  the  desert  which  lies  to  the  west  of  the  country  of  the 
Kulkadoon,  and  is  supposed  to  extend  nearly  as  far  as  the 
Overland  Telegraph  Line,  the  Blacks  dig  wells.  They  are 
funnel-shaped,  large  at  the  top  and  small  at  the  bottom,  and 
their  sides  unsupported  by  wood  or  other  material.  The 
water  is  reached  by  rude  steps  extending  all  round  the  well, 
each  about  3  feet  perpendicular.  The  depth  of  these  excava- 
tions varies  from  3  to  30  feet.  Captain  Sturt  in  his 
Narrative  of  an  Expedition  into  Central  Australia,  vol.  1, 
page  386,  gives  the  following  account  of  a  work  of  this 
sort: — 

"On  reaching  the  spot,  we  discovered  a  well  of  very 
unusual  dimensions,  and  as  there  was  water  in  it  we  halted 
for  the  night.  On  a  closer  examination  of  the  locality,  this 
well  appeared  to  be  of  great  value  to  the  inhabitants.  It 
was  22  feet  deep,  and  8  feet  broad  at  the  top.  There  was  a 
landing-place,  but  no  steps  down  to  it,  and  a  recess  had 
been  made  to  hold  the  water,  which  was  somewhat  brackish, 
the  rim  of  the  basin  being  encrusted  with  salt.  Paths  led 
from  this  spot  to  almost  every  point  of  the  compass,  and  in 
walking  along  one  to  the  left  I  came  on  a  village  consisting 
of  nineteen  huts,  but  there  were  not  any  signs  of  recent 
occupation."  Hence,  when  much  needed,  the  tapping  of 
local  springs  is  occasionally  practised  by  the  Blacks.  In 
some  cases  our  rivers  and  creeks  run  dry  shortly  after  the 
cessation  of  rain,  but  for  years  after  the  Blacks  obtain  water 
enough  for  their  wants  by  scraping  holes  or  digging  wells  in 
their  sandy  beds, 


328 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  98.— SEYMOUR,  TEMPLETON,  AND  GLONCURRY  RIVERS. 


By  F.  UEQtTHAET,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  narragoon. 

Hand  - 

-  mugodthi. 

Opossum 

-  marimba. 

2  Blacks      - 

- 

Tame  dog   - 
Wild  dog    - 
Emu   - 

-  toogoo. 

-  toogoo. 

-  woodiga,  wood- 

ingat. 

3  Blacks       ■ 
One     - 
Two    - 

-  iera,  iar. 

-  moo-doona. 

Black  duck 

- 

Three  - 

- 

Wood  duck 

- 

Pour   - 

_ 

Pelican        -        -  toolgeriberri. 
Laughing  jackass  marcoUa. 
Native  companion  mieera. 
White  cockatoo  -  kooloda. 

Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

-  koola. 

-  murtoo. 

-  wabatha. 

Crow  - 

-  wogalong,  wa- 

„      Younger 

- 

Swan  - 
Egg     -        - 

gala. 
-  goothoo. 

Brother-Elder     -  thaboo. 
,,        Younger  nowell. 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  taburudoo. 

A  young  man 

- 

Fish    - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito     - 

-  waukray. 

-  miggi,  meeka. 

An  old  man 
An  old  woman 
A  baby 

-  yalelora. 

-  morubi. 

-  kedgeekloo. 

Fly       . 

-  milka. 

A  White  man 

-  yooroo. 

Snake  - 
The  Blacks - 
A  Blackfellow 

-  thooarre. 

-  mido. 

-  yerro. 

Children 
Head  - 

-  koori. 

-  kunda. 

A  Black  woman 

-  murrabi. 

Bye     - 

-  milthe. 

Nose   - 

-  yegingi. 

Ear     - 

'  yintha,  benna 

SEYMOUR,  TEMPLETON,  &  CLONCUERY  RIVERS. 


329 


No.  98. — Seymoue,  Templeton, 

Mouth         -  -  unda. 

Teeth  -        -  -  iidintha. 
Hair  of  the  head-  ooraboo. 

Beard  -        -  -  yenpur. 

Thunder      -  -  murga-murga. 

Grass  -  -  beetha,  kudda. 

Tongue        -  -  muUi. 

Stomach      -  -  bothoo. 

Breasts        -  -  munda. 

Thigh  -        ■  -  althor. 

Foot    -        -  -  wogidra. 

Bone   -        -  -  koonga. 

Blood  -        -  -  oolgi. 

Skin    -        •  -  woggoo. 

Pat      -        -  -  koonthalli. 

Bowels         -  -  oondoondoo. 

Excrement  -  -  woonoo. 

War- spear  -  -  yooko 
Reed-spear  - 
Wommera  or 

throwing-stiok 

Shield  -        -  -  mida. 

Tomahawk  -  -  marrea. 
Canoe  - 

Sun     -        -  -  wunnaga. 

Moon  -        -  -  korilliyan 
Star     - 
Light  - 

Dark   -        -  -  warra. 

Cold    -        -  -  woonangarri. 

Heat   -        -  -  waukan. 
Day     -        - 

Night  -  -  warra. 

Fire     -  -  jando,  hoojen. 

Water          -  -  goon. 

Smoke         -  -  palloo. 

Ground        -  -  moo. 
Wmd  - 

Rain    -  -  goon. 
God     - 

Ghosts         -  -  yunyee. 


AND  Clonciteby  RrvEBS — continued. 


Boomerang  - 

-  yulgawerri,  yal 

kabray. 

Hill     - 

Wood  - 

koonger. 

Stone  - 

diur. 

Camp  - 

-  moa. 

Yes      - 

No       - 

I 

You     - 

Bark    - 

Good  - 

Bad     - 

Sweet  - 

Food   - 

Hungry 

-  pi- 

Thirsty 

- 

Eat      - 

- 

Sleep  - 

- 

Drink  - 

Walk  - 

See      - 

Sit       - 

- 

Yesterday   - 

- 

To-day 

To-morrow  - 

- 

Where  are  the 

yingar  oothoo  ? 

Blacks? 

I  don't  know 

Plenty- 

Big      - 

Little  - 

Dead   - 

-  wolldin. 

By-and-by  - 

Come  on 

Milk    - 

Eaglehawk  - 

Wild  turkey 

-  boranda. 

Wife   - 

330  THE    AUSTRALIAN   EACE 


No.  99.— THE  CLONCURRY  RIVER. 

By  Edwabd  Palmer,  Esq.,  and  an  Anonymous  Contributok. 

I  HAVE  obtained  two  vocabularies  of  the  language  of  the 
Miappe  tribe,  from  the  sources  named  above,  both  of  which 
are  inserted.  Each  of  my  informants,  whose  vocabularies 
agree  well  in  the  main,  gives  also  an  account  of  the  tribe. 
My  anonymous  contributor,  who  is  evidently  well  acquainted 
with  his  subject,  but  whose  writing  is  difficult  to  decipher, 
informs  me  as  follows: — 

"  The  Miappe  inhabit  a  portion  of  the  Cloncurry  River 
country.  Their  territory  is  about  80  miles  square,  and 
Conan  Downs  station  forms  part  of  it.  The  adjoining  tribes 
are  the  Mikkoolan  and  Koonkurri."  My  informant  says 
that  the  Miappe  are  thonght  to  have  numbered  a  thousand 
souls  when  first  the  Whites  settled  in  their  country.  When, 
however,  he  first  knew  them  in  1868,  only  a  few  years  after, 
they  only  amounted  to  250  persons.  Their  number  at 
present  (1879)  is  about  80.  This  falling  off  he  attributes  to 
the  murderous  onslaughts  of  the  mounted  Native  Police  and 
to  venereal  diseases  and  measles,  which  were  introduced  by 
the  Whites,  also  to  prostitution  and  infanticide,  which  have 
enormously  increased.     Prior  to  our  coming,  sunstroke  and 


THE    CLONCURRY    RIVER.  331 

snake-bites  were  amongst  the  most  common  causes  of  deaths 
in  the  tribe. 

In  their  native  state  the  Miappe  wore  no  clothes,  and, 
except  occasionally  some  cast-off  articles  obtained  from  the 
Whites,  wear  none  still.  Few  of  them  seem  to  reach  seventy 
years  of  age,  my  informant's  impression  being  that  the  men 
are  old  at  fifty  and  the  women  at  thirty.  When  the 
mosquitos  are  bad,  the  men  construct  with  forked  sticks 
driven  into  the  ground  rude  bedsteads,  on  which  they  sleep, 
a  fire  being  made  underneath  to  keep  off  with  its  smoke  the 
troublesome  insects.  No  bedsteads,  however,  fall  to  the 
share  of  the  women,  whose  business  it  is  to  keep  the  fires 
burning  whilst  their  lords  sleep. 

Both  men  and  women  wear  necklaces  of  shells ;  and  my 
informant  affirms  that  the  wild  Blacks  in  his  neighbourhood 
will  not  harm  a  White  man  who  holds  up  to  them  one  of 
these  ornaments.  When  preparing  for  a  corroboree,  they  paint 
their  cheeks  and  foreheads  with  red  ochre,  and  also  the  sides 
of  their  legs  in  a  way  which  reminds  one  of  the  stripes  down 
the  outside  of  a  soldier's  trousers.  As  usual,  they  manufac- 
ture fishing-nets  of  very  good  quality  and  koolaman  (wooden 
troughs)  to  hold  water  in  at  the  camp.  Their  tomahawks 
are  of  stone,  ground  sharp,  and  shaped  like  an  American 
axe.  The  handle  is  formed  of  a  withe,  well  daubed  with 
gum,  passed  round  the  stone  head,  as  is  common  more  or  less 
throughout  the  continent.  For  cutting  and  carving  they  use 
their  tomahawks,  and  flints  when  they  can  get  them,  but 
most  commonly  a  mussel-shell  ground  to  a  point.  For 
weapons  they  have  carved  spears,  which  they  throw  with  the 
wommera  or  throwing-stick,  also  the  boomerang  which 
returns  when  thrown,  and  clubs  of  course. 

Their  chief  articles  of  food  are  fish,  iguana,  snakes, 
turkeys,  ducks,  emu,  and  wild  dogs,  which  they  roast  on  the 
coals,  putting  heated  stones  into  the  insides  of  the  larger 
animals.  Until  the  advent  of  the  Whites  they  used  also  to 
eat  their  dead  in  all  cases,  no  matter  what  the  cause  of  death, 
disease  or  accident.     To  cook  a  corpse,  a  trench  was  dug  in 


332  THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

the  ground,  a  fire  made  in  it,  and  some  stones  thrown  into 
the  flames  to  heat.  When  the  fire  had  burnt  down,  the 
heated  stones  were  placed  in  the  cavity  from  which  the 
viscera  had  been  removed ;  half  of  the  embers  were  then  put 
on  one  side,  and  the  corpse  laid  on  those  which  were  left. 
Then,  those  which  had  been  withdrawn  were  placed  on  top, 
and  the  whole  being  covered  with  earth,  the  cooking  went 
on.  Young  men  and  women  were  not  allowed  to  partake  of 
this  sort  of  food.  When  all  was  over,  the  bones  were  burnt 
and  the  spot  was  deserted.  This  scene,  members  of  the 
tribe  who  make  no  secret  of  the  matter  have  often  described 
to  my  informant.  When  he  first  knew  the  Miappe,  there 
were  some  amongst  them  lightly  pitted  with  small-pox,  and 
he  thinks  a  few  are  still  alive. 

The  Miappe  men  often  obtain  wives  from  other  tribes, 
especially  from  the  Mitroo-goordi.  As  usual,  the  largest 
share  of  the  females  falls  to  old  or  oldish  men,  many  of 
whom  have  two  and  some  four  wives.  Female  children  are 
promised  in  marriage  soon  after  they  are  born.  On  an 
average,  the  women  are  said  to  have  three  or  four  children 
each.  Infanticide  is  very  prevalent.  Occasionally  men 
carry  off  girls  by  force  and  keep  them  as  wives. 

The  men  scar  themselves  on  the  arms,  and  the  women 
round  the  top  of  the  shoulders  in  the  form  of  a  necklace ; 
also  across  the  breasts.  Circumcision  is  not  practised.  A 
tooth  is  knocked  out  at  about  sixteen  years  of  age.  It  is 
done  by  placing  one  end  of  a  pointed  stick  against  the  tooth 
and  giving  the  other  end  a  blow  with  a  stone  ;  an  old  man 
being  always  the  operator.  The  septum  of  the  nose  is 
pierced  for  the  reception  of  a  bone,  feather,  or  stick. 
Traditions  exist  of  floods  more  extensive  than  those  which 
now  occur  in  their  country.  Pitcheree  is  not  known.  A 
messenger  from  one  tribe  to  another  is  often  the  bearer  of  a 
stick  of  the  size  of  a  pen-handle,  on  which  are  notches  cut 
by  the  sender.  These  are  thought  by  the  simple  Blackfellow 
to  be  a  sort  of  formal  guarantee  of  the  statements  or 
promises  made  by  the  messenger.     Kangaroo,  I  learn,  are 


THE    CLONCUERY    RIVER. 


333 


scarce  in  the  country  of  the  Miappe,  but  they  spear  many 
emu.  Their  corroborees  are  few.  They  are  a  tall  people; 
many  of  the  men  reaching  six  feet,  and  the  women  five 
feet  eight  inches,  and  upwards.  Some  of"  them  have  straight 
hair  and  some  curly.  When  a  man  dies,  his  widows  mourn 
with  plasters  of  clay  on  their  heads.  Their  wars  generally 
spring  from  disputes  about  the  women  or  from  neighbours 
trespassing  on  their  country.  Women  when  they  meet  after 
a  long  absence  embrace  each  other  round  the  neck;  men 
hug  round  the  waist.  They  have  no  government  of  any  sort, 
but  the  principal  warriors  have  a  good  deal  of  influence  with 
the  tribe.  They  have  no  cures  for  sickness,  but  wounds  are 
either  plastered  with  earth  or  covered  with  gum-leaves 
dipped  in  water. 


ADDITIONAL  WORDS. 

Anontmous. 

Son 

-  cooyearee. 

Feather 

coodee. 

Daughter     - 

-  munguine. 

Cloud  - 

woorrool. 

Arm    - 

-  boogul. 

Leaf  of  a  tree 

cootgaboo. 

Elbow 

-  oulo. 

Branch 

bamma. 

Thumb 

-  mulbungeree. 

Pipe-elay     - 

thurkera. 

Heart  - 

-  mundegar. 

String 

walgoor. 

Liver  - 

-  mudjear. 

Creek  - 

tharro. 

Great  toe     - 

-  marrabungo. 

Scrub  - 

jingella. 

Toes    - 

-  jerri-jerri. 

Plain  - 

wolna. 

Face   - 

-  codjear. 

Sand   - 

munguUa. 

Neck  - 

-  munna. 

Tail  of  an  animal 

tabbegora. 

Knee  - 

-  boongool. 

Lightning    - 

mungum. 

Heel    ■ 

-  jandoongara. 

Meat   - 

cudde. 

Navel  - 

-  choongo. 

Angry 

eula. 

Cheek  - 

-  naua  or  nana  (?). 

Leave  it  alone 

idger-idger. 

Anus  - 

-  teppe. 

Get  up 

woUai. 

Finger-nails 

-  marUdgee. 

Deaf,  stupid 

-  thirba-cumbo 

Urine  - 

-  keepur. 

To  kill 

-  bunge. 

Mad    -        - 

-  womma. 

To  fight 

-  boonjabbe. 

334 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


Additional  Words — i 


To  give 

-  burly-burly. 

Go  away 

cooraboin. 

To  spit 

-  weeka. 

Flea,  louse  - 

yabbin. 

To  fall 

-  culgo'e. 

Frog    -         - 

-  nogoia. 

To  make 

-  jan-mugear. 

Red     - 

putheragwine. 

To  run 

-  looran. 

White 

bonearrow. 

To  dung 

-  wanna. 

Black  - 

maigin. 

To  speak     - 

-  mi-hi-ya. 

Green  - 

cooregon. 

To  vomit     - 

-  coolme. 

Blind  - 

mitmojoo. 

To  out 

-  parrelun. 

Shade,  shadow 

mimgo. 

To  laugh      - 

-  idjambe. 

A  liar,  nonsense 

codjebunno. 

To  jump 

-  poorooodalle. 

To  stink       - 

buggoin. 

To  sing 

-  pea-al-e. 

Evil  spirit  - 

thoi-onga-goola 

To  strike     - 

-  cowe. 

Black  snake 

cooremun. 

To  cry  or  weep 

-  parre. 

Tiger  snake 

curtalboon. 

To  scratch 

-  yarrabulbo. 

Any  number  ovei 

cudgello. 

Lazy   - 

-  lerike. 

three 

Where 

-  nantra. 

This  side     - 

wallegul. 

Here 

-  coona,  ma. 

The  other  side 

narrakeia. 

Mr.  Palmer's  account  of  the  tribe  (which  he  obtained  on 
the  spot  from  a  Black  on  his  station  named  Yulegerri) 
supports  my  anonymous  correspondent  in  most  respects. 
From  it  I  glean  the  following  additional  particulars : — 

There  are  in  force  several  restrictions  as  to  the  use  of 
certain  articles  of  food.  The  young  men,  for  instance,  are 
forbidden  to  eat  the  native  companion  and  emu's  eggs. 
Small-pox,  with  which  the  tribe  were  affected  within  the 
last  half  century,  is  called  nyamooroo.  When  the  Whites 
first  settled  on  the  Oloncurry  class-marriage  was  in  full 
force,  and  the  male  of  the  class  Marringo  married  a  female 
of  the  class  Goothamungo.  The  names  of  the  other  classes 
are  not  given.  Consumption  is  at  present  the  prevailing 
disease ;  canoes  are  not  in  use ;  fish  is  caught  with  hooks 
made  of  bone,  and  corpses  are  sometimes  hung  in  trees. 
When  the  tribe  is  to  be  collected,  the  message-stick,  called 
jakkoon,  is  sent  round.  The  neighbouring  tribes  are  the 
Mykoolan,  Mygoodan,  Mythaguddi,  and  Wallankammer. 
No  hard  and  fast  boundary  lines  of  the  several  territories 


THE   CLONCURRY   RIVER.  335 

are  fixed  says  Mr.  Palmer.  The  Miappi  hunted  over  the 
Conobie  Station  (which  was  the  property  of  Mr.  Palmer  in 
1865)  on  both  sides  of  the  river  and  nearly  to  Donor's 
HiUs. 


336 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  99.— CLONCURB.Y. 
Anonymoits.    ■ 


Kangaroo    - 

-  kooroo. 

Hand  - 

-  mullero. 

Opossum 

-  kooquine. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  blagura  bungil. 

Tame  dog   - 

.  yambe. 

3  Blacks       - 

-  blagura  noola 

Wild  dog     - 

-  yambe. 

bungil. 

-  ingomar. 

-  blagura. 

Emu    - 

-  chongoberry. 

One     - 

Black  duck 
Wood  duck 

-  garraba. 

-  ngalawul. 

Two    - 

Pelican 

-  thalgobun. 

Three  - 

-  muda  nuda. 

Laughing  jackass  charroongul. 

Pour    - 

-  cudgello. 

Native  companion  thoroboko. 

Father 

-  mojure. 

White  cockatoo 

-  morine. 

Mother 

-  yagoora. 

Crow  - 

-  wire. 

Sister-Elder 

-  coobamoo.* 

Swan  - 

- 

,,       Younger 

-  coobamoo. 

Egg     - 

-  tando. 

Brother-Elder 

-  ngaboon. 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  janna. 

,,        Younger  ngaboon. 

Fish    - 

-  balbee. 

A  young  man 

-  yabbiyerria. 

Lobster 

- 

An  old  man 

-  mowa. 

Crayfish 

-  piccool. 

An  old  woman 

-  yappoora 

Mosquito     - 

-  wongoin. 

Ply    - 

-  nguimmool. 

A  baby 

-  coot-too-doo. 

Snake  - 

-  (all  soi'ts  different 

A  White  man 

-  muddtha,  par- 

names). 

rago. 

The  Blacks 

-  bungil. 

Children 

-  podjonger. 

A  Blaokfellow 

-  bungil. 

Head 

-  condil,  munda. 

A  Black  woman 

-  bunyah. 

Eye     - 

-  mille. 

Nose   - 

-  ningar. 

Ear     - 

-  binnare. 

This  and  the  next  three  words  are  probably  incorrect. 


THE    CLONCUREY    RIVER. 


337 


No.  99. — Cloncurkt — continued. 

Mouth  ~ 

-  yarra. 

Boomerang  - 

-  elgoberre. 

Teeth 

-  yarrangundoo. 

Hill     - 

-  minde. 

Hair  of  the  heac 

-  waroombo. 

Wood  - 

-  coongai. 

Beard  - 

-  yanbar. 

Stone  - 

-  minde. 

Thunder      - 

nooncup. 

Camp  - 

-  boornga. 

Grass  - 

-  yalguin. 

Yes      - 

-  ngear. 

Tongue 

-  tomingil. 

No 
I 

-  umpee. 

Stomach 

-  ngabbara. 

■  ngio. 

Breasts 

-  tambo. 

You     - 

-  undoo 

Thigh 

-  tharro. 

Bark    - 

-  cimbin. 

Foot    - 

-  janna. 

Good   - 

-  yathi. 

Bone 

-  thimmool. 

Bad     - 

-  martingaro. 

Blood  - 

-  cobble. 

Sweet  - 

- 

Skm    - 

-  beer. 

Pood    - 

-  pattalge. 

Fat      - 

-  thango. 

Hungry 

-  pulngee. 

Bowels 

-  wau-wur-noon(?). 

Thirsty 

- 

Excrement  - 

-  wa-a-na. 

Eat      - 

-  pattalge. 

War-speair  - 

-  boonjabbee. 

Sleep  - 

-  wongUgee. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  piljai. 

Wommera    or 

ulemun. 

Drink  - 

-  nookalge. 

throwing-stick 

Walk  - 

-  jan    (foot)    mug 

Shield 

-  yambooro. 

gear  (ground). 

Tomahawk  - 

-  chookledoonga. 

See      - 

-  numilla. 

Canoe  - 

- 

Sit       - 

-  yinna. 

Sun     - 

-  pinjama. 

Yesterday   - 

-  pirregool. 

Moon  - 

■  oockera. 

To-day 

-  cowal. 

Star    - 

-  chinpee. 

To-morrow  - 

-  pirrager. 

Light  - 

-  pirre. 

Where    are    the    wautra  bungil  ? 

Dark   - 

-  ngoola. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    - 

-  yerrenge. 

I  don't  know 

-  unipeenummello 

Heat   - 

-  woolbarre, 

Plenty 

-  oudgello. 

Day     - 

-  winja. 

Big      - 

-  yaggoon. 

Night  - 

-  ngoola. 

Little  - 

-  challoo. 

Fire    - 

-  yango. 

Dead  - 

-  moochum. 

Water 

-  commo. 

Smoke 

-  coomera 

By-and-by  - 

- 

Ground 

-  muggear. 

Come  on 

-  cubbe. 

Wind  -        - 

-  copin. 

Milk    - 

-  tambo. 

Rain   - 

-  commo  culge. 

Baglehawk  - 

-  cooradilla. 

God     -        - 

-    ■ 

Wild  turkey 

-  thuringa. 

Ghosts 

-  parrago. 

Wife    - 

-  ngaddear. 

VOL.  n. 

r 

338 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  99.— OLONCURRY  RIVER. 


By  Edward  Palmer,  Esq. 
See  the  words  cam/p  and  ground. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  ngalana. 

Hand  - 

-  malaroo. 

Opossum      - 

-  kogoin. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  puUagarra  bunjil. 

Tame  dog   - 

-  mecum  caramra. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  puUgarra-goroine 

Wild  dog    - 

-  yamby. 

bunjil. 

Emu'  - 

-  junkerberry. 

One     - 

-  goroiiie. 

Black  duck 

-  binderra. 

Two    - 

-  puUagarrah. 

Wood  duck 

-  ngul-owan. 

Three  - 

-  puUagarrah- 

Pelican 

-  thalooban. 

goroine. 

Laughing  jackass  jarrangool. 

Four   - 

-  inkammo. 

Native  companion  tharra-boogah. 

Father 

-  moocho. 

White  cockatoo 

-  moor-ine. 

Mother 

-  yakoro. 

Crow  - 

-  thoongaberry. 

Sister-Elder 

-  koolamo. 

Swan  - 

-  yalke. 

„      Younger 

-  bichamon. 

Egg     -        - 

-  thando. 

Brother-Elder 

-  ngabone. 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  wean. 

Young 

er  bichamon. 

Fish    -        - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito     - 
Ply     - 
Snake  - 
The  Blacks  - 
A  Blackfellow 

-  wog-ie. 

-  junju. 

-  oonggoin. 

-  nyimool. 

-  mokoa. 

-  bunjil. 

-  bunjil. 

A  young  man 

An  old  man 

An  old  woman 

A  baby 

A  White  man 

Children 

Head  - 

-  yap-ary. 

-  moa. 

-  warmoora. 

-  goitho-thoo. 

-  barrago. 

-  cudda-kuduUa. 

-  ngunkool. 

A  Black  woman 

-  bunya. 

Eye     - 

-  milly. 

Nose   - 

-  roomyeen. 

Ear     - 

-  beenar. 

THE    CLONCURRY    RIVEE. 


339 


No.  99. — Cloncurky  River — continued. 


Month 

-  yarra. 

Teeth  - 

-  yarhjine. 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  warramboo. 

Beard - 

-  yanbah. 

Thunder      - 

-  barry  (to  make 

noise  or  cry). 

Grasa  - 

-  yalkoine. 

Tongue 

-  ngoolon. 

Stomach 

-  wanbungo. 

Breasts 

-  thambo. 

Thigh - 

-  mogo. 

Foot    - 

-  jannah. 

Bone  - 

-  thimmool. 

Blood  -        - 

-  goowarro. 

Skin    -        - 

-  beeah. 

Fat     - 

-  thanko. 

Bowels 

-  waukitcher- 

kurro. 

Excrement  - 

-  wanna. 

War-spear  - 

-  koong-koon. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  neenjerry. 

Wommera    or 

yulemun. 

throwing-stick 

Shield 

-  yamboro. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  marrea. 

Canoe  - 

-  nungkore. 

Sun     - 

-  rauntharra. 

Moon  - 

-  kogarrah. 

Star    - 

-  jinby. 

Light  - 

-  yurah. 

Dark  - 

-  ngoro-lo. 

Cold    -        - 

-  yerringer. 

Heat   - 

-  mow-een. 

Day    -        - 

-  muntharra. 

Night - 

-  warrunga. 

Fire     - 

-  yango. 

"Water 

-  yappoo. 

Smoke 

-  koomeree. 

Ground 

-  muggeer. 

Wind-        - 

-  koobeen. 

Rain  - 

"  oonjune. 

God    - 

- 

Ghosts 

-  limbeenjargo- 

long. 

Boomerang  - 

-  mirry  kammo. 

Hill     - 

-  minde. 

Wood  - 

-  bokore. 

Stone  - 

-  mimdy  oj- mindy 

Camp  - 

-  muggeer. 

Yes     - 

-  ngeah. 

No      - 

-  ngumpy. 

I          - 

-  ngiego. 

You     - 

-  yundo. 

Bark   - 

-  beemba. 

Good  - 

-  gooljin. 

Bad     - 

-  madthee. 

Sweet  - 

-  gooljin. 

Food    - 

-  oudthe. 

Hungry 

-  boolne. 

Thirsty 

-  yourby. 

Eat     - 

-  bathalyee. 

Sleep  - 

-  waujilje. 

Drink  - 

-  bathalyee. 

Walk  - 

-  wabi. 

See      - 

-  namalyee. 

Sit       - 

-  yenni. 

Yesterday  - 

■  birregool. 

To-day 

-  kowal. 

To-morrow  - 

-  birringeer. 

Where    are 

;he    wantha  bunjil  ? 

Blacks  ? 

I  don't  know 

-  wanthan  kogool. 

Plenty 

-  yinkammo. 

Big      - 

-  winyeer. 

Little  - 

-  kuddah. 

Dead  - 

-  mootchon. 

By-and-by  - 

-  nguUa. 

Come  on 

-  oubbe. 

Milk   - 

-  thambo. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  coorythilla. 

Wild  turkey 

-  thoorna  (plain 

turkey). 

Wife    - 

-  ngathea. 

340  THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE; 


No.  100.— THE  FLINDERS  AND  CLONCURRY 
RIVERS. 

By  Alexander  MacGtilliveay,  Esq. 

I  OWE  the  following  information  concerning  the  manners 
and  language  of  the  Oonoomurra  tribe  to  the  kindness  of 
Mr.  Alexander  MacGillivray. 

The  territory  occupied  by  this  tribe,  commencing  at 
Richmond  Downs  Station,  on  the  Flinders,  extends  up  that 
river  and  nearly  to  the  Diamantina,  thence  stretches  to  the 
Cloncurry,  and  is  bounded  by  that  river  to  its  junction  with 
the  GuUiet.  Its  boundary  from  that  junction  is  an  easterly 
line  to  the  Flinders,  which  river  it  follows  up  to  the  starting 
point.  When  the  Whites  first  entered  on  the  extensive 
territory  of  the  Oonoomurra  in  1865  the  tribe  is  estimated 
to  have  numbered  only  two  hundred  souls.  In  1880  its 
numbers  did  not  exceed  one  hundred,  the  other  moiety 
having  been  either  shot  down  or  perished  from  introduced 
diseases. 

Many  of  this  tribe  seem  to  have  reached  an  advanced  age. 
No  clothes  were  used  originally  except  a  sort  of  apron  by 
the  women.  This  appendage  consisted  of  a  number  of 
strings  made  of  opossum  fur,  which  hung  from  a  string 
round  the  waist,  which  the  women  manufactured  of  their 
own  hair.  At  present  the  few  who  can  obtain  cast-off 
clothes  wear  them  during  the  day.  At  night  all  sleep 
between  small  fires,  covered  with  strips  of  ti-tree  bark. 
For  ornaments,  the  women  wear  necklaces  made  of  yeUow 
cane,  or  of  stems  of  grass  cut  into  short  lengths,  which  they 
string  as  we  do  beads.     In  their  corroborees  they  imitate 


THE  FLINDERS  AND  CLONCURRY  RIVERS.  341 

the  actions  of  the  kangaroo  and  emu,  smearing-  their  persons 
on  such  occasions  with  red  ochre  and  gypsum.  Their  few 
effects  they  carry  in  pieces  of  ti-tree  bark,  and  not  in  bags 
or  nets.  In  fact,  the  bark  of  this  plant  seems  to  be  the 
general  stand-by  of  the  tribe.  They  make  nets  for  the  cap- 
ture of  fish  and  pigeons.  They  have  neither  fish-hooks  nor 
fishing  spears.  Kangaroo  and  emu  they  spear  as  they 
come  to  water. 

Their  tools  are  the  usual  stone  tomahawk,  the  incisor 
tooth  of  the  opossum,  and  fliats  which  they  either  hold  in 
the  fingers  or  fix  at  the  end  of  sticks,  and  use  as  knives  or 
chisels  when  making  or  carving  their  weapons.  Animals 
are  cut  up  and  skinned  with  mussel-shells.  Their  weapons 
are  large  and  small  spears,  the  first  thrown  with  the  hand 
and  the  others  with  the  wommera;  boomerangs  which  return 
when  thrown;  and  two-handed  clubs.  They  have  also  larger 
spears,  which  are  used  in  close  quarters  as  lances. 

Their  chief  articles  of  food,  omitting  vegetables,  which 
have  not  been  mentioned  by  Mr.  MacGillivray,  are  mussels, 
rats,  and  pigeons,  which  two  last  in  some  seasons  they  get  in 
immense  numbers.  Indeed,  in  occasional  years  since  our 
occupation  of  the  Oonoomurra  country  these  marsupial  rats 
have  amounted  to  a  plague.  In  the  huts  of  the  squatters 
and  their  men,  food,  clothes,  saddlery,  &c.,  had  to  be  specially 
secured  against  their  attacks.  As  a  man  sat  smoking  at 
night,  he  would  have  in  one  hand  a  string,  to  the  end  of 
which  a  piece  of  meat  was  tied,  and  in  the  other  a  switch; 
the  rats  followed  the  meat,  which  the  man  drew  towards 
him,  and  met  their  fate  from  a  blow  of  the  switch.  In  this 
way  a  single  man  would  kill  fifty  in  an  evening,  two  or  three 
hundred  being  killed  at  a  hut,  their  numbers  apparently 
remaining  undiminished.  The  Oonoomurra  have  also  kan- 
garoo, emu,  opossums,  water-fowl,  and  snakes  to  feast  on. 
The  smaller  sorts  of  game  are  roasted  on  the  coals  or  baked 
in  the  ashes.  The  larger  are  often  cooked  in  ovens  of  the 
usual  description.  In  their  wild  state  these  people  were 
cannibals,  and  habitually  eat  their  dead  when  not  too  much 


342  THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

emaciated  by  illness.     My  informant  has  known  them  to  eat 
some  of  their  fellows  who  had  been  shot  by  the  Whites. 

Marriages  are  contracted  either  in  or  outside  of  the  tribe 
indifferently,  but  are  strictly  prohibited  between  relatives. 
Girls  are  promised  to  men  in  infancy,  become  wives  at  about 
ten  years  of  age,  and  mothers  at  fourteen  or  fifteen.  Polyg- 
amy is  common.  Infanticide  is  an  ancient  practice  in  the 
tribe.  This  people  scar  themselves  on  the  biceps  of  the  arm, 
down  the  back,  and  across  the  stomach..  They  do  not  cir- 
cumcise, but  some  of  their  neighbours  do.  Of  the  Ka  Ikatongo, 
or  circumcised,  who  are  more  numerous  than  themselves,  the 
Oonoomurra  are  much  afraid,  as  the  former  make  raids  into 
their  country,  killing  their  men,  and  carrying  off  their 
women.  The  Oonoomurra  confer  the  status  of  young  men  at 
fifteen  years  of  age  by  knocking  out  two  upper  front  teeth, 
after  which  those  operated  on  are  at  liberty  to  get  wives,  if 
they  can.  They  perforate  the  septum  of  the  nose,  and  also 
make  a  large  hole  in  the  butt  of  one  ear. 

This  tribe  stand  much  in  awe  of  barrakoo,  or  evil  spirits, 
said  to  dwell  in  large  waterholes  and  extensive  scrubs. 
Prior  to  our  occupation,  such  of  the  dead  as  were  not  eaten 
used  to  be  buried  immediately  after  death.  Now  aU  are 
buried.  When  life  is  extinct,  the  knees  and  neck  of  the 
corpse  are  tied  together,  and  it  is  thus  brought  somewhat 
into  the  shape  of  a  ball.  It  is  then  enveloped  in  grass, 
covered  tightly  with  a  net,  and  so  interred  in  a  hole  about 
five  feet  deep.  To  complete  the  rite,  a  mound  is  raised  over 
the  body,  on  which  are  placed  logs  and  boughs,  which  latter 
are  renewed  from  time  to  time,  as  long  as  the  party  remain 
in  the  vicinity.  A  space  around  the  tomb  is  also  kept  neatly 
swept.  Both  the  wars  and  internal  quarrels  of  the  tribe 
generally  arise  on  the  subject  of  women.  Message-sticks  are 
in  use.  Members  of  the  tribe  who  have  not  seen  each  other 
for  a  long  time  embrace  on  meeting.  The  people  of  this 
tribe  do  not  object  to  tell  their  aboriginal  names.  Kulpa- 
kulpa  and  Kache  are  the  names  of  two  of  the  men,  and  Luro- 
luro,  Wammutta,  and  Kachebowmurraof  three  of  the  women. 


THE  FLINDERS  AND  CLONCURRY  RIVERS.  343 

The  name  of  the  Oloncurry  River  is  Piamnrra;  of  Fullarton 
Creek,  Makapurre;  and  of  the  Williams  River,  Oorinde 
=  stone. 

The  vocabulary  which  follows  has  much  in  common  with 
that  of  the  Oloncurry.  As  occasionally  happens,  we  find 
hill  and  stone  expressed  by  the  same  word,  the  hills  in  those 
parts  no  doubt  being  stony,  whilst  the  fact  of  there  being 
but  one  word  to  express  ground  and  camp  is  significant  of 
the  backwardness  of  the  tribe,  and  of  the  usual  style  of 
their  lodgings.  It  will  be  noticed  that  the  equivalents  of 
throwing-stick  in  the  language  of  this  tribe  and  of  shield  in 
the  Sydney  language  are  almost  identical. 


344 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE 


No.  100.— FLINDERS  AND  CLONCURRY  RIVERS. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  mongorongo. 

Hand  - 

-  mumbila. 

Opossum 

-  kakooin. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  kurto  bungil. 

Tame  dog    - 

-  yambe. 

3  Blacks      - 

. 

Wild  dog     - 

_ 

One     - 

-  kooroin. 

Kmu    - 

-  chungoburre. 

Black  duck- 

-  karrupa. 

Two     - 

-  kurto. 

Wood  duck- 

-  nurloin. 

Three  - 

-  kurto  kooroia 

Pelican 

-  whulkraburre. 

Four   - 

- 

Laughing  jackass 

Father 

-  yato. 

Native  companion  turka. 

Mother 

-  mirako. 

White  cockatoo 

_ 

^ 

Sister-Elder 

-  mumo. 

Crow  - 

-  wamering. 

Swan  - 

-  (none  in  the  dis- 

,,     Younger 

-  mumo. 

trict). 

Brother-Elder 

- 

Egg     -        - 

-  wirree. 

„        Younger 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  tunna. 

Fish    -        - 

-  palpy. 

A  young  man 

-  yappoierre. 

Lobster 

An  old  man 

-  mooa. 

Crayfish 

-  pikquol. 

An  old  woman 

-  tamalla. 

Mosquito     - 

-  lewouin. 

A  baby 

-  kuttukka. 

Fly     -        - 

-  milnga. 

A  White  man 

-  burruka. 

Snake  - 

-  tinouir. 

Children      - 

-  kuttukkara. 

The  Blacks  - 

-  nukker. 

A  Blackf ellow 

-  bungil. 

Head  - 

-  nawgool. 

A  Black  woman 

-  bunya. 

Bye     - 

-  uko  or  yenko. 

Nose    - 

-  nykar. 

Ear      - 

-  binna. 

THE  FLINDERS  AND  CLONCURRY  RIVERS. 


345 


No.  100.— Flinders  aot)  Clonctirey  Rivees- 

-continued. 

Mouth 

-  thangula. 

Boomerang  - 

-  yelkaburre. 

Teeth  - 

-  yarcharring. 

Hill    - 

-  orringe. 

Hair  of  the  head-  woorumboo. 

Wood  - 

-  bakkaro. 

Beard  - 

-  mungurra. 

Stone  - 

-  orringe. 

Thunder 

-  yunburree. 

Camp  - 

-  mukkeo. 

Grass  ■ 

-  kutther. 

Yes     - 

-  neea. 

Tongue 

■  nuUandee. 

No      - 

-  numbe. 

Stomach 

-  wawbawgoo. 

Breasts 

-  tampo. 

I 

-  nigo. 

Thigh 

-  mukko. 

You    - 

-  yoondo. 

Foot    - 

-  tunna. 

Bark    - 

-  biUa. 

Bone  - 

-  mookooin. 

Good  - 

-  kammanurro. 

Blood  - 

-  maohango. 

Bad     - 

-  mattee. 

Skin    - 

-  peea. 

Sweet  - 

-  jiroallingo. 

Fat     - 

-  karning. 

Food  - 

. 

Bowels 

-  wawkachcache 

Hungry 

-  bulningo. 

Excrement  - 

kurro. 
-  noointo. 

Thirsty 

-  yoorpiago. 

War-spear  - 

-  tinnepurre. 

Eat     - 

-  batalpo. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  tapouin. 

Sleep  - 

-  wongelgee. 

Wommera  or 

youlmon. 

Drink - 

-  batalgee. 

throwing-stiok 

Walk  - 

-  wapingo. 

Shield 

- 

See      - 

-  nungamma. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  murria. 

Sit 

-  yennia. 

Canoe  - 

- 

Yesterday  - 

-  birrakol. 

Sun     - 

-  kaampa. 

To-day 

-  wowyal. 

Moon  - 

-  kumo-kurno. 

Star    - 

-  vonko. 

To-morrow  - 

-  birrengar. 

J 

Where   are   the    wondo  nukkera? 

Light  - 

-  tennouil 

Dark  - 

-  wokkomungo. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    -        - 

-  yemga. 

I  don't  know 

-  nee  kol. 

Heat  - 

- 

Plenty 

-  nurlo-nurlo. 

Day     - 

- 

Big     - 

- 

Night  -       - 

- 

Little  - 

-  kurpia. 

Fire    - 

-  yango. 

Dead  - 

-  moochoia. 

Water 

-  yappo. 

By-and-by  - 

-  warla. 

Smoke 

-  yonbulko. 

Come  on 

-  kooyan. 

Ground 

-  mukkeo. 

Milk    - 

-  tampo. 

Wind 
Rain    - 

-  kuppin. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  kooritella. 

God     -        - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

-  barkam. 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife  - 

-  bunya. 

346  THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  101.— THE  BURKE  EIVER. 

By  Ernest  Eolinton,  Esq. 

The  country  of  the  Yelina  tribe  is  on  the  Burke  River. 
Its  extent  is  not  known,  but  was  first  occupied  by  the 
Whites  in  1877.  The  number  of  this  people  is  estimated  to 
have  been  and  still  to  be  about  two  hundred.  Concerning 
the  manners  of  the  Yelina  tribe  Mr.  Eglinton  gives  me  the 
few  following  particulars. 

Pieces  of  the  leg-bones  of  birds,  about  two  inches  in 
length,  are  worn  by  them  as  earrings.  The  wommera  and 
boomerangs  of  both  sorts  are  in  use,  and  carved  to  some 
extent.  Cannibalism  was  found  prevailing  in  this  tribe  at 
the  time  of  our  first  occupation,  and  my  informant  mentions 
having  detected  some  of  its  men  eating  the  remains  of  a 
child  who  had  died  in  the  camp.  Consumption  is  stated, 
in  this  as  in  other  tribes,  to  be  the  most  frequent  cause  of 
death.  Circumcision  is  practised,  but  there  are  a  few  of  the 
men  of  the  tribe  who  have  not  been  subjected  to  this  rite, 
the  reason  for  which  exceptions  is  unknown.  Pitcheree,  I  am 
informed,  is  in  use,  and  that  chewing  it  causes  intoxication, 
a  statement  which  does  not  agree  with  information  which 
has  reached  me  from  other  quarters.  As  regards  the  dead, 
the  men  of  the  tribe  are  described  as  eating  their  fiesh  and 
burying  their  bones,  displaying  their  sorrow  by  striking 
their  heads  until  the  blood  flows,  and  then  plastering  them 
with  pipe-clay. 


THE    BURKE    RIVER.  347 

In  copying  out  this  vocabulary,  I  have  (as  in  several 
other  cases)  expressed  Mr.  Eglinton's  ee  by  i.  The  reader 
will  notice  that  hoola,  a  very  general  equivalent  for  2  in 
Australian,  appears  with  some  addition  as  3  in  the  language 
of  this  tribe.  The  constant  occurrence  of  er  as  a  termina- 
tion leads  me  to  think  that  what  is  meant  to  be  conveyed  is 
the  sound  of  a  faintly  pronounced.  Bone  and  mood  are 
expressed  by  the  same  word,  and  hill  and  stone  by  another. 
The  terms  hungry  and  thirsty  perhaps  mean  literally  not  eat 
and  not  drink. 


348 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE 


No.  101.— BURKE  RIVER. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  nerkooner. 

Hand  - 

-  wanera. 

Opossum     - 

-  mitcheri. 

2  Blacks      - 

- 

Tame  dog    - 

-  monero. 

3  Blacks      - 

- 

Wild  dog    - 

- 

One     - 

-  uooreroo. 

Emu   - 
Black  duck- 
Wood  duck 

-  womergooroo. 

-  koorerboo  (?). 

Two    - 
Three  - 

-  cherkumber. 

-  boolerler-boone 

roo. 

Pelican        -        -  koobenroo. 
Laughing  jackass 
Native  companion  booralgoo. 
White  cockatoo  -  yungerli. 
Crow  -        -        -  wokkerla. 
Swan  - 

Four    - 

Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

-  cherkumber- 

cherkumber. 

-  karlo. 

-  mernoo. 

-  thireri. 

Egg    -        - 
Track  of  a  foot 

-  kargooner. 

-  diner. 

,,      Younger 
Brother-Elder 

-  toweri. 

Fish    - 

-  eremerdo. 

Younger 

Lobster 

- 

A  young  man 

-  wamerla. 

Crayfish 

-  koondagi. 

An  old  man 

-  kooper-kooper. 

Mosquito    - 

-  mukkerdoo. 

An  old  woman 

-  myercha. 

Ely     - 

-  umundero. 

A  baby 

-  biUer-biller. 

Snake  - 

-  wamera. 

A  White  man 

-  woothane. 

The  Blacks  - 

-  erirar. 

Children     - 

-  ohoora. 

A  Blackfellow 

-  eri. 

Head  - 

-  moola. 

A  Black  woman 

-  minmeri. 

Eye     - 

-  miUa. 

Nose   - 

-  erchi. 

Ear     - 

-  eneri. 

THE    BURKE    RIVER. 


349 


No.  101. — Btjbke  River — contimied. 

Mouth 

-  thaney. 

Boomerang  - 

-  byerla. 

Teeth 

-  iar. 

Hill     -        - 

-  mookerloo. 

Hair  of  the  head  -  ulbanderoo. 

Wood  - 

-  tooker. 

Beard  - 

-  talberri. 

Stone 

-  mookerloo. 

Thunder      - 

-  koonoo. 

Camp  - 

-  mootoo. 

Grass 

-  kookerbi. 

Yes     - 

-  lamerer. 

Tongue 

-  mileri. 

No      - 

-  koonderba. 

Stomach 

- 

Breasts 

-  namer. 

I 

-  neeya. 

Thigh 

-  yapperli. 

You    - 

■  nowa. 

Foot    - 

-  diner. 

Bark  - 

-  koolkerberer. 

Bone  - 

-  tooker. 

Good  - 

-  yanberma. 

Blood  -        - 

-  booreroo. 

Bad    -  .     - 

-  nokkerdi. 

Skin   - 

■  maperrer. 

Sweet  - 

- 

Fat      - 

-  nilki. 

Food  - 

-  nerilin. 

Bowels 

-  wooner. 

Hungry 

-  kooler-nerilin. 

Excrement  - 

- 

Thirsty 

-  kooler-leyerlin. 

War-spear  - 

-  tookemi. 

Eat     - 

-  nerlyim. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  gilker. 

Sleep 

-  noomerloo. 

Wommera    or 

karemingo. 

Drink 

-  tookerlym. 

throwing-stick 

Walk  - 

-  mameroo. 

Shield- 

-  koucherchucher. 

See      - 

-  namerlin. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  wamumberoo. 

Sit       - 

-  nymerloo. 

Canoe  - 

. 

Yesterday  - 

-  uowerli. 

Sun     - 

-  miir. 

Today 

-  ererli. 

Moon  - 

-  geber. 

To-morrow  - 

-  waddonaba. 

Star    - 

-  booderoo. 

Where   are  the 

taleri  eregar  ? 

Light  - 

-  ninermoo. 

Blacks  ? 

Dark  - 

-  warder. 

I  don't  know 

-  niir  moolonaban 

Cold    - 

■  maderi. 

alii. 

Heat  - 

-  umergin. 

Plenty 

-  ringaba. 

Day    - 

. 

Big      - 

-  yannoo. 

Night - 

. 

Little  - 

-  barleloo. 

Fire    - 

-  wachemee. 

Dead  - 

-  olunamoo. 

Water 

-  koonoo. 

By-and-by  - 

-  kardee. 

Smoke 

-  koodoo. 

Come  on 

-  kower  gerna- 
berdi. 

Ground 

-  toolee. 

Milk   - 

-  namer. 

Wind- 

-  woonungoo. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  mooneroonaler- 

Rain  - 

-  koonoo. 

gree. 

God    - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

-  tookerner. 

Ghosts 

-  otenni. 

Wife  - 

-  neer. 

350  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE. 


No.  102.— THE  HAMILTON  EIVEE,  WARENDA. 

By  W.  Blaik,  Esq. 

THE  HAMILTON  EIVEE. 

By  R.  N.  Collins,  Esq. 

THE  LOWER  GEOEGINA  EIVEE. 

By  J.  Ceaioib,  Esq. 

BETWEEN  THE  GEORGINA  AND 
BUEKE  EIVEES. 

By  a.  McLean,  Esq. 

I  HAVE  received  four  communications  concerning  as  many 
tribes  which  dwell  in  the  localities  above-named.  Mr. 
Blair's  contribution  is  confined  to  a  vocabulary.  To  a 
vocabulary,  Mr.  Collins  adds  a  short  description  of  his  tribe, 
which  is  300  strong,  dwells  on  the  Hamilton,  and  calls  itself 
Einga^ringa.  Mr.  Craigie  describes  the  Eunga-Eungawah 
tribe  on  Eoxburgh  Downs  Station,  which  numbers  120  souls. 
The  tribe  about  which  Mr.  McLean  writes  calls  itself  Ringa- 
Eingaroo,  and  dwells  between  the  Georgina  and  Burke 
Eivers,  between  latitudes  20°  and  21°  south. 

These  tribes  are,  I  have  no  doubt,  independent;  what  I 
have  called  associated ;  and  of  common  descent.  My  grounds 
for  thinking  so  are,  their  languages,  which  have  in  common 
many  local  terms;  the  common  rendering  of  the  equivalents 
for  no  and  the  Blacks,  and  the  striking  similarity  in  the 
names  of  the  tribes,  which  no  doubt  were  originally  one 
people. 


THE    HAMILTON    AND   GEORGINA    RIVERS.  351 

As  regards  the  manners  of  these  tribes,  nothing  of  a 
novel  character  has  reached  me,  so  that  it  will  be  enough  to 
record,  that  they  all  have  the  boomerang;  that  one  of  them 
uses  the  wommera,  and  another  does  not;  and  that  circum- 
cision and  the  terrible  rite  prevail  in  all  of  them. 

Some  portion  of  the  country  they  occupy  is  reported  to 
have  been  first  settled  in  1868,  and  afterwards  abandoned, 
being  finally  re-occupied  in  1876-77  and  '78. 

Mr.  McLean  relates  that  the  Ringa^Eingaroo  call  the 
star  Venus  mimungoona,  or  big-eye,  and  believe  that  it  is  a 
fertile  country  covered  with  bappa,  the  name  of  a  sort  of 
grass,  the  seeds  of  which  the  tribes  here  on  earth  convert 
into  flour,  and  is  inhabited  by  Blacks.  It  appears,  however, 
that  no  water  exists  in  the  star,  but  there  are  ropes  which 
hang  from  its  surface  to  the  earth,  by  means  of  which  the 
dwellers  visit  our  planet  from  to  time,  and  assuage  their 
thirst.  A  big  old  man  of  great  power  is  also  said  to  dwell 
in  the  star.  In  seasons  of  scarcity,  these  tribes  have 
recourse  to  cannibalism,  and  eat  their  children. 

Mr.  McLean  gives  me  the  following  additional  transla- 
tions : — 

Thunder-storm         -         -        -  meankooka. 

Morning murruUy. 

Noon kai'dingoola. 

Evening   -----  yerki-yerki. 

To  eat tigerlinger. 

Will  eat  -        •         -         -         -  tigae. 

Did  eat     -----  tigekar. 

Will  sleep        .         -         -         -  moogi. 

Did  sleep  .         -         -        -  mochynar. 


352 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  102.— HAMILTON  RIVER. 


By  William  Blaie,  Esq. 


Kangaroo     - 

mutumba. 

Hand  - 

murra. 

Opossum 

thinnabuUy. 

2  Blacks       - 

kerna  bareoola 

Tame  dog    - 

peawally. 

3  Blacks       - 

barcoola  nooro 

Wild  dog     - 

kerna. 

Emu    - 

kulperry. 

One      - 

noora. 

Black  duck  - 

Two     - 

barcoola. 

Wood  duck 

Three  - 

barcoola  nooro 

Pelican 

Four    - 

barcoola-bar- 

Laughing  jackass 

coola. 

Native  companion 

borolga. 

Father 

White  cockatoo   - 

berdena. 

Mother 

numma. 

Crow   - 

wakkala. 

Sister-Elder 

Swan  - 

,,      Younger  - 

Egg     -         -        - 

bambo. 

Brother-Elder     ■ 

Track  of  a  foot     - 

thinna. 

Fish     - 

cooia. 

,,         Younger 

Lobster 

A  young  man 

Crayfish 

An  old  man 

yubere. 

Mosquito     - 

kertewakka. 

An  old  woman     - 

punderoo. 

Fly      - 

oooengerry. 

A  baby 

pitta. 

Snake 

kunderry. 

A  White  man 

The  Blacks  - 

kerna. 

Children      - 

pitta. 

A  Blackf ellow 

kerna. 

Head  - 

kunnea. 

A  Black  woman 

wunga  petury. 

Eye      - 

-  mia. 

Nose    - 

milla. 

Ear      - 

nun-a. 

THE    HAMILTON    RIVER. 


353 


No.  102.— Hamilto 

N  RivEB — continued. 

Mouth 

-  pulka. 

Boomerang  - 

Teeth  - 

-  milka. 

Hill     - 

Hair  of  the  heac 

- 

Wood  - 

Beard - 

-  nurca. 

Stone  - 

gibba. 

Thunder     - 

-  pelba,  bilpa. 

Camp  - 

noora. 

Grass  - 
Tongue 
Stomach     - 

-  bugaroo. 

-  thuUy. 

-  kunuerra. 

Yes      - 
No       - 

murchillmga 
muUo. 

Breasts 

-  kabboogo. 

I 

nutta. 

Thigh-       - 

-  murla. 

You     - 

emba. 

Foot   - 

-  thinna. 

Bark   - 

Bone   - 

-  bena. 

Good  - 

myalle. 

Blood  - 

-  noorkey. 

Bad     - 

munna. 

Skin   - 

-  nunderry. 

.  Sweet  - 

Fat     - 

-  wammo. 

Pood    - 

Bowels 

- 

Hungry, 

naumalcha. 

Excrement  - 

-  koouua. 

Thirsty 

thimingla. 

War-spear  - 

-  nurroa. 

Eat      - 

tutchegga. 

Reed-spear  - 

- 

Sleep  - 

mutohugla. 

Throwing-stick 

- 

Drink  - 

Shield- 

-  yalkeberry. 

Walk  - 

kundinga. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  warramberta. 

See      - 

nutchelinga. 

Canoe  - 

_ 

Sit       - 

nungelunga. 

Sun     - 

-  walka. 

Yesterday  - 

Moon  - 

-  geba. 

To-day 

Star    - 

_ 

To-morrow  - 

Light  - 

- 

Where    are   the 

winta  kerna 

Dark  - 

- 

Blacks? 

Cold   - 

-  muley. 

I  don't  know 

Heat  - 

-  nuppo. 

Day    -        - 

_ 

Plenty 

burry. 

Night - 

- 

Big     - 

mungora. 

Fire    - 

-  mukka. 

Little  - 

perpeura. 

Water 

-  kamo. 

Dead  - 

yetia. 

Smoke 

-  putthy. 

By-and-by  - 

-  cuma. 

Ground 

-  mundey. 

Come  on 

koway,  koi. 

Wind- 

-  thurobo. 

Milk   - 

Rain    - 

-  kutha. 

Eaglehawk  - 

God     - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife   - 

VOL.    11. 

z 

354 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE 


No.  102.— HAMILTON  RIVER, 
By  R.  M.  Collins,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  muttjumpa. 

Hand  - 

-  mera. 

Opossum 

-  pumbribharro. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  barkoola  kerna 

Tame  dog    - 

-  dabe. 

3  Blacks      - 

- 

Wild  dog    - 

-  myallee. 

One     - 

-  nooroorr. 

Emu   - 

••  quilberri. 

Two    - 

-  barkoola. 

Black  duck 

-  konga. 

Three  - 

Wood  duck 
Pelican 

-  potha. 

-  murli-muller. 

Four    - 

- 

Laughing  jackass 

Father 

-  abori. 

Native  companion  boralga. 

Mother 

-  ama. 

White  cockatoo 

-  koolera. 

Sister-Elder 

-  kako. 

Crow  • 

-  workulla. 

„     Younger 

- 

Swan  - 

- 

Brother-Elder 

-  wangi. 

Egg     - 

-  pambo. 

„        Younger 

Track  of  a  foot 

- 

Fish    - 

-  kooia. 

A  young  man 

-  berniaka. 

Lobster 

- 

An  old  man 

-  kabo-kappa. 

Crayfish 

- 

An  old  woman 

-  panderro. 

Mosquito     - 

-  murka. 

A  baby 

-  merri. 

Fly     - 

-  koonungeri. 

A  White  man 

_ 

Snake 

The  Blacks  - 

-  goongera. 

-  kuerna  or  "kerna. 

Children      - 

-  koorauggeri  (?) 

A  Blackfellow 

-  kerna. 

Head  - 

--  kurdi. 

A  Black  woman 

-  wongata. 

Eye     - 

-  meea. 

Nose    - 

-  millia. 

Ear     - 

-  nara. 

THE    HAMILTON    RIVEE. 


355 


No.  102. — Hamilton 

Mouth 

-  bima. 

Teeth 

-  milka. 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  kooni. 

Beard  - 

-  unga. 

Thunder      - 

-  billpa. 

Grass  - 

-  buggera. 

Tongue 

-  thalli. 

Stomach 

-  manno. 

Breasts     ,  - 

-  muna. 

Thigh 

-  merla. 

Foot   - 

-  ohinna. 

Bone  - 

-  prinna. 

Blood  - 

-  kemba. 

Skin    - 

-  kurli. 

Fat     - 

-  tootoo. 

Bowels 

- 

Excrement  - 

-  kooma. 

War-spear  - 

-  arra. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  kundewarra. 

Throwing-stick 

- 

Shield - 

-  bibleburra. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  worrumberra. 

Canoe  - 

Sun     - 

-  wUka. 

Moon  - 

-  changi. 

Star    - 

-  pinbi.  - 

Light  - 

-  yoomenula. 

Dark  - 

-  yoomeloo. 

Cold   - 

-  malli. 

Heat  - 

-  koorokooro. 

Day    - 

- 

Night - 

-  yerri  (?). 

Fire    - 

-  mukka. 

Water 

-  kakko. 

Smoke 

-  koodo. 

Ground 

-  myi. 

Wind- 

-  terribo. 

Ealn  - 

-  palla. 

God    -        - 

-  elgera. 

Ghosts 

-  muma. 

RiVEE — contimied. 
Boomerang  -        -  billerberro. 


Hill     - 

Wood- 

Stone  - 

Camp  - 

Yes     - 

No       - 

I 

You     - 

Bark  - 

Good  - 

Bad     - 

Sweet  - 

Pood  - 

Hungry 

Thirsty 

Eat     - 

Sleep  - 

Drink  - 

Walk  - 

See      - 

Sit       - 

Yesterday  - 

To-day 

To-morrow  - 

Where  are    the 

Blacks  ? 
I  don't  know 
Plenty 
Big      -        - 
Little  - 
Dead  - 
By-and-by  - 
Come  on 
Milk    - 
Eaglehawk  - 
Wild  turkey 

Wife  - 

2 


-  dippo. 

-  mooroo. 

-  dippo. 

-  noora. 


mallo. 


-  tonguru. 


-  uronguri. 

-  thachier. 

-  womulga. 

-  timmia. 

-  moooher. 

-  kunderchier. 

-  pepia. 

-  nungia. 


inthia  a  kuerna? 

-  tir  nila. 

-  perri. 

-  uarraha. 

-  yettier. 

-  quema. 

-  kowa. 

-  kalbago. 

-  barkum. 
-,  kooberro. 


356 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   EACE  ; 


No.  102— ROXBURGH  DOWNS,  LOWER  GEORGINA. 
By  James  Ceaigie,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

mutchumba  or 

Hand  - 

murra. 

muttumba. 

2  Blacks      - 

barkoola  kema. 

Opossum     - 

wompella. 

3  Blacks      - 

barkoola  knoora 

Tame  dog    - 

toota. 

kema. 

Wild  dog    - 

peealee. 

One      - 

knooroora. 

Emu    - 

koolparry. 

Two     - 

barkoola. 

Black  duck 

goondanarri. 

Three  - 

barkoola  knoora. 

Wood  duck 
Pelican 

kurlitulpa. 
kartungara. 

Pour    - 

barkoola- 

Laughing  jackass 

barkoola. 

Native  compauior 

I  bralgo. 

Father 

yapperi. 

White  cockatoo - 

Mother 

numma. 

Crow  - 

wokkardi. 

Sister-Elder 

yakko. 

Swan  - 

„       Younger 

Egg     - 

bembo. 

Brother-Elder     ■ 

theti. 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

tina. 

,,          Younger 

Pish    - 

kobi. 

A  young  man 

willimenia. 

Lobster 

An  old  man 

katoogata. 

Crayfish 

tinungi. 

An  old  woman 

mutchu-chu. 

Mosquito     - 

monulka. 

Ply        .           .           . 

koonanjeri. 

A  baby 

tukko. 

Snake  - 

kutti. 

A  White  man      ■ 

birri-birri. 

The  Blacks  - 

Children 

bunta. 

A  Blackf ellow     - 

kema. 

Head  - 

karte. 

A  Black  woman  - 

wongetta. 

Eye     -        - 

mee-e. 

Nose  - 

melia. 

Ear      - 

knarra. 

ROXBURGH  DOWNS,  LOWER  GEORGINA. 


357 


No.  102. — ROXBUBGH 


Mouth 

-  thera. 

Teeth 

-  milka. 

Hair  of  the  head  -  bungo. 

Beard 

-  nunga. 

Thunder      ■ 

-  bilpa. 

Grass 

-  bookera. 

Tongue 

-  tharli. 

Stomach 

-  toondoo. 

Breasts 

-  katichu. 

Thigh 

-  murla. 

Foot    - 

-  tina. 

Bone  - 

-  piua. 

Blood  - 

-  gimpa. 

Skin    - 

-  batta. 

Fat      -        - 

-  toota. 

Bowels 

-  dtoochi. 

Excrement  - 

-  koona. 

War-spear  - 

-  yettchirra. 

Reed-spear  - 

- 

Wommera      or 

throwiag-stick 

Shield - 

-  terrango. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  worrumbatta. 

Canoe  - 

- 

Sun     - 

-  walka. 

Moon  - 

-  chippa. 

Star    -        - 

-  chingo. 

Light  - 

-  wokanna. 

Dark  - 

-  umallo. 

Cold    - 

-  mulU. 

Heat  - 

-  mukka-mukka 

Day     ^ 

- 

Night  -       - 

-  oongdoonga. 

Fire     - 

-  mukka. 

Water 

-  knappo. 

Smoke 

-  koatoo. 

Ground 

-  mie. 

Wind  - 

-  thooruppa. 

Rain  - 

-  pulla. 

God    - 

- 

Ghosta 

-  yammeroo. 

Bovms— continued. 

Boomerang  - 

-  gilligella. 

Hill     - 

-  poori. 

Wood  -        - 

-  mukka. 

Stone  - 

-  mukka  (?). 

Camp  - 

-  knurra. 

Yes      - 

-  etcha. 

No      - 

-  mallo. 

I 

-  knunga. 

You     - 

-  inknoo. 

Bark    - 

-  koolbaturre. 

Good   - 

- 

Bad     - 

-  munna. 

Sweet  - 

-  pillarri. 

Food   - 

-  theohingi. 

Hungry 

-  wonnara. 

Thirsty 

-  ngattura. 

Eat      - 

-  thetchilinga. 

Sleep  - 

-  mutchulinga. 

Drink  - 

-  immallinga. 

Walk- 

-  kurninga. 

See      - 

-  thuokamya. 

Sit       - 

-  nunkya. 

Yesterday  - 

-  kunwillooka. 

To-day 

-  pumiarra. 

To-morrow  - 

-  merrilli. 

Where    are 

the    wara  nunkia 

Blacks  ? 

kema? 

I  don't  know 

-  kuUi. 

Plenty 

-  purri. 

Big      -        - 

■•  mungoora. 

Little  - 

-  thieu. 

Dead  - 

-  koonta. 

By-and-by  - 

-  mooroo. 

Come  on 

-  kowa. 

Milk  -        - 

-  amooguntooroo 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  koorithalla. 

Wild  turkey 

-  koUitona. 

Wife   !■ 

-  noopamuUa. 

358 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  102.— BETWEEN  THE  GEORGINA  AND  BURKE  RIVERS. 


By  Alexandeb  MacLean,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

madchumbar. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum 

dinnabally. 

2  Blacks      - 

Tame  dog    - 

beeotie-muUagar^ 

3  Blacks      - 

Wild  dog     ■ 
Emu    - 
Black  duck  - 
Wood  duck- 

koolperry. 

One     - 
Two     - 
Three  - 

-  ngooroo. 

-  barcoola. 

-  ngooroo-barcoola 

Pelican 

Four    - 

-  barcoola-barcoola 

Laughing  jackass 

Father 

- 

Native  companion  baralgar. 

Mother 

-  ngarma. 

White  cockatoo 

Sister-Elder 

_ 

Crow  - 
Swan  - 
Egg     -        - 
Track  of  a  foot 

dinna. 

„      Younger   - 

Brother-Elder     - 

,,       Younger 

Fish     - 

cooia  or  gweer. 

A  young  man 

- 

Lobster 

An  old  man 

-  coopa-coopa. 

Crayfish 

An  old  woman 

-  wangatha. 

Mosquito     - 

A  baby 

- 

Ply        . 

Snake  - 
The  Blacks  - 

-  tin j  ear. 

-  kirua-mirrie. 

A  White  man 
Children 

-  birrie-birrie. 

A  Blaokfellow 

kerna. 

Head 

-  gurdie. 

A  Black  woman 

-  mirrie. 

Eye     - 

-  mer,  milardy 

Nose   - 

koonkurry. 

Bar      - 

-  ngarrowa. 

BETWEEN  THE  GBORGINA  &  BURKE  RIVERS. 


359 


No.  102. — Between  the  Geokoina  and  Burke  Rivers — continued. 

Mouth 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

■  millea. 

Hill     - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  goonie. 

Wood  - 

-  parroo. 

Beard  - 

Stone  - 

-  deepo. 

Thunder      - 

-  prilpa. 

Camp  - 

-  ngoora. 

Grass  - 

-  boogara. 

Yes      -        - 

-  eya. 

Tongue 

-  turley. 

No      - 

-  malloo,  eranok. 

Stomach 

-  warmo. 

I 

-  utthu. 

Breasts 

- 

You    - 

-  inba. 

Thigh - 

-  kurley. 

Bark   - 

_ 

Foot    - 
Bone  - 
Blood  - 
Skin    - 
Fat     -        • 
Bowels 

-  dinna. 

-  brinna. 

-  murkie. 

Good  - 
Bad     - 
Sweet  - 
Food   - 
Hungry 

-  mially. 

-  eramially. 

-  erabulgurma. 

Excrement  - 

-  goonna. 

Thirsty 

-  boorlyla. 

War-spear  - 

- 

Eat      - 

-  tigerlinger. 

Reed-spear  - 

Sleep 

-  mochylinger. 

Wommera      or 

Drink 

-  temarlinger. 

throwing-atiok 

Walk 

-  ranjo. 

Shield-        - 
Tomahawk  - 
Canoe  - 
Sun     - 
Moon  - 

■  wolea  or  wolca. 
-  cheepa. 

See      -        - 
Sit      -   ■     •• 
Yesterday  - 
To-day 

-  peeperlinger. 

-  nungerlinger. 

'star    -        - 

-  dingo. 

To-morrow  - 

- 

Light  - 

- 

Where    are   the 

Dark  - 

- 

Blacks? 

Cold    -        - 

-  mallee. 

I  don't  know 

- 

Heat  - 

-  undia,      coorchi- 

Plenty 

- 

Day    - 

Night  -       - 

coorchia. 

-  murruUy. 

-  ngooritally. 

Big      - 

Little  - 

-  peerkillie,  mun 

goora. 

-  tyie-tyie. 

Fire     -. 

Water 

Smoke 

Ground 

Wind- 

Rain   - 

-  gootha,  ngappo. 

-  boothi. 

-  mie. 

-  moorunguUa. 

-  bulla. 

Dead   - 
By-and-by  - 
Come  on 
Milk   - 
Eaglehawk  - 

-  yidgear. 

-  cunna. 

-  kowera. 

-  ngarmo 

God     - 

_ 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

. 

Wife   -        " 

360  THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  1G3.— HEAD  OF  THE  HAMILTON  EIYEE. 

By  Ernest  Bolinton,  Esq. 

The  following  vocabulary  and  account  of  the  Yanda  tribe 
have  been  forwarded  to  me  by  Mr.  Ernest  Eglinton.  The 
territory  of  this  people,  estimated  at  between  2,000  and  3,000 
square  miles,  was  first  occupied  by  the  Whites  in  1878,  when 
the  Yanda  are  said  to  have  numbered  only  about  100  souls. 
Since  then  their  numbers  have  been  reduced  to  15  men, 
20  women,  and  15  children;  in  all,  50  persons. 

My  informant  thinks  that,  when  he  first  knew  the  tribe 
in  1879,  there  were  several  amongst  them  who  had  reached 
the  age  of  80  years.  Clothes  are  not  worn  by  this  tribe. 
The  head  is  plastered  with  pipe-clay  on  occasions  of 
mourning,  and  at  corroborees  the  hair  and  skin  are  painted 
with  red  ochre  and  pipe-clay.  The  Yanda  women  wear,  on 
occasions  of  corroboree,  an  ornament  common  in  many  parts 
of  Australia,  which  they  call  bowm.  It  is  made  of  the  two 
front  teeth  of  the  kangaroo,  which  are  fastened  together  at 
their  butts  with  sinew  and  gum,  and  extend  at  an  angle  of 
45  degrees.  They  also  wear  the  mungera  (literally,  opos- 
sum), which  is  a  belt  made  of  mixed  opossum  fur  and  human 
hair  twisted  together.  This  tribe  have  knives  and  tomahawks 
of  chipped  stone  or  flint ;  spears  which  are  thrown  by  hand ; 
boomerangs,  slightly  curved ;  the  tulumberri,  a  stick  4  feet 
long  and  2|  inches  in  circumference,  which  is  used  as  a 
missile;  and  the  kumbarli,  a  stick  with  a  sharp  flint  fixed  on 
one  end  with  gum,  commonly  called  a  chisel. 


HEAD    OP    THE    HAMILTON    RIVER.  361 

This  tribe,  it  appears,  decline  to  eat  the  iguana,  through 
superstitious  motives,  probably,  for  its  flesh  is  well  tasted. 
They  practise  cannibalism,  however,  and  eat  the  bodies  of 
young  children  who  have  died,  and  of  their  kinsmen  slain  in 
battle.  They  do  not  object  to  tell  their  names,  of  which  Mr. 
Eglinton  gives  the  following  : — Males ;  Ilpildirrien,  Kudi- 
mulinem,  Nitnli,  and  Mantuli.  Females :  Karriwono,  Ean- 
ginta,  Eubun,  and  Karkoomaralim.  Fathers  dispose  of 
their  daughters  in  marriage,  which  occurs  both  within  and 
without  the  tribe.  Few  of  the  men  have  more  than  one 
wife.  Consumption  is  the  most  prevalent  disease.  The  skin 
is  scarred  in  the  usual  way.  Circumcision  and  the  terrible 
rite  are  inflicted  on  the  youth,  by  which  means  they  are  ad- 
mitted to  the  rights  of  men,  a  few  always  being  exempted. 
Pitcheree,  mixed  with  the  ashes  of  the  ffidea  leaf,  is  chewed 
in  the  usual  way.  Some  of  this  tribe  have  curly  and  others 
straight  hair.  The  men  embrace  on  meeting  after  a  long 
separation.  Wounds  are  plastered  with  mud,  and  heal 
quickly. 

Turning  to  the  vocabulary,  we  find  but  one  word  to  ex- 
press both  bone  and  wood;  and  that  kookaburri,  so  often  the 
equivalent  of  laughing  jackass,  in  this  language  means 
emu. 

The  country  occupied  by  the  Yanda  tribe  is  on  the  eastern 
border  of  the  Central  Division. 


362 


THE    AUSTBALIAJSr    RACE: 


No.   103.— HEAD  OF  HAMILTON  RIVER. 


By  Ernest  Eglinton,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

matumba. 

Hand  - 

murra. 

Opossum 

mungera. 

2  Blacks       - 

warriki  boolari 

Tame  dog    - 

mikamo. 

3  Blacks       - 

Wild  dog     - 

mikamo. 

One      ■ 

gooniba. 
boolari. 
ruto  (?). 

Bmu    - 
Black  duck  - 
Wood  duck 

kookaburri. 
bercamo. 

Two     - 
Three  - 

Pelican 

umbleterri. 

Four    - 

ecarra. 

Laughing  jackass 

kowitohi. 

Father 

koopon. 

Native  companion 

booralga. 

Mother 

yunganna. 

White  cockatoo  - 

Sister-Elder 

karginna. 

Crow   - 

Swan  - 

Egg     -        -        - 

Track  of  a  foot 

wokkola. 

kudo, 
tina. 

„     Younger 
Brother-Elder 
„       Younger 

kardunna. 
tita. 

Msh    ■ 

wokarri. 

A  young  man 

Lobster 

An  old  man 

kuntaima. 

Crayfish 

toomban. 

An  old  woman 

yunganna. 

Mosquito     - 

moonya. 

A  baby 

karrinunna. 

Ply         .            . 

Snake  - 
The  Blacks  - 
A  Blackfellow 

ohiki-ehiko. 
goondaro. 
warriki. 
warriki. 

A  White  man 
Children      - 
Head  - 

■  gungi,  goongia. 

-  kardago. 

-  mureda. 

A  Black  woman 

wongita. 

Eye     - 

-  meal. 

Nose    - 

■  tirki  or  tuki  (?). 

Ear     - 

■  talgan. 

HEAD    OF    THE   HAMILTON    RIVER. 


363 


No 

103.— HuATi  OF  Hai 

IILTON  RiVEE— 

continued. 

Mouth 

■  tya. 

Boomerang  - 

-  bepaporo. 

Teeth  - 

-  ira. 

Hill     - 

_ 

Hair  of  the  head-  bungu. 

Wood  - 

-  bunda. 

Beard  - 
Thunder     ■■ 

Grass  - 
Tongue 
Stomach     - 

-  talbarri.        < 

-  ooraturri. 

-  bookurra. 

-  tyela. 

-  booroo. 

Stone  - 
Camp  - 

Yes     -        - 
No       - 

-  goongo. 

-  marrpan. 

-  eallamarra. 

-  wontitella. 

Breasts 

-  beriko. 

I 

-  anga. 

Thigh 

-  tara,  (calf)  eulo. 

You    - 

-  imba. 

Foot    - 

-  tina. 

Bark  - 

-  tirki-tirki. 

Bone  - 

-  bunda. 

Good  - 

-  kalamundiri. 

Blood  -        - 

-  karruga. 

Bad     -        - 

-  karlokoto. 

Skin   - 

-  binmin. 

Sweet  - 

_ 

Fat     - 

-  mulki. 

Food  - 

-  workia. 

Bowels 
Excrement  - 

■  koona. 

Hungry 
Thirsty 

-  goongindia. 

-  mundia. 

War-spear  - 
Reed-spear  - 
Wommera     or 

-  bipaparro. 

Eat      - 
Sleep  -        - 

-  kartitingia. 

-  mutchelinya. 

throwing-stick 

Drink  - 

-  ekarratingya. 

Shield 

-  goonburra. 

Walk  - 

-  yannaninga. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  warrambuda. 

See      - 

-  bingininga. 

Canoe  - 

- 

Sit       - 

-  ninauinga. 

Sun     - 

-  tooro. 

Yesterday  - 

-  toro. 

Moon  - 

•  multohi. 

To-day 

-  kiya. 

Star    - 

-  markatto. 

To-morrow  - 

. 

Light  - 
Dark  - 
Cold    -       - 
Heat  - 
Day    - 
Night-        - 

-  tooro. 

-  winta. 

-  kitoha. 

-  ringan. 

-  narthanya. 

-  winta. 

Where    are    the    wariki    wonar 
Blacks?                   kika? 
I  don't  know       -  narrimo. 
Plenty         -        -  ekari. 
Big      -        -        -  beali. 

Fire    - 

-  eula. 

Little  - 

-  nekowla. 

Water 

-  karko. 

Dead  - 

-  puUaurga. 

Smoke 

-  toorko. 

By-and-by  - 

-  wiohunga. 

Ground 

-  marban. 

Come  on 

-  towari  eninga. 

Wind-        - 

-  wipar. 

Milk  - 

-  tambo. 

Rain   - 

-  karko. 

Eaglehawk 

-  gooradilU. 

God     -        - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

v   -  berkamno. 

Ghosts 

-  bikerri. 

Wife  - 

-  natianna. 

364 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  104.— ON  THE  HAMILTON  EIVER,  AND  NEAR 

BOULIA. 

THE  BITTA  BITTA  TRIBE. 
By  Ernest  Eglinton,  Esq. 

In  addition  to  this  vocabulary,  Mr.  Ernest  Eglinton  has 
also  furnished  me  a  short  account  of  the  Bitta  Bitta  trihe, 
which  differs  so  little  in  manners  from  the  Telina  as  to 
render  its  insertion  unnecessary.  No  traces  of  small-pox 
have  been  seen  in  this  portion  of  the  continent. 


No.  ] 

04.— HAMILTON  RIVER,  NEAR 

BOUT.TA 

Kangaroo     - 

-  matumba. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum 

-  tinaballi. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  barkoola  kerna 

Tame  dog    - 

-  munga. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  barkoolamero 

Wild  dog    - 

-  punamya. 

kemo. 

Emu 

-  goolburri. 

One     ■• 

-  moorraroo. 

Black  duck 

-  pepulu. 

Two    - 

-  barkoola. 

Wood  duck 

-  bompeparoo. 

Three  - 

-  barkoolanero. 

Pelican 

-  malimurro. 

Four   - 

-  barkoola- 

Laughing  jacka 

3S 

barkoola. 

Native  companion  golathurra. 

White  cockatoo 

. 

Father 

-  apari. 

Crow 

-  wakala. 

Mother 

-  amma. 

Swan  - 

. 

Sister-Elder 

-  karko. 

Egg     -        - 

-  bembo. 

„     Younger 

- 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  wando. 

Brother-Elder 

-  wangi. 

Fish    -        - 

-  koopi. 

„        Younger 

Lobster 

- 

A  young  man 

-  yapararri. 

Crayfish 

- 

An  old  man 

-  kaboogaba. 

Mosquito     - 

-  mooroonga. 

An  old  woman 

-  moitchu. 

Fly      -        - 

-  mooki. 

A  baby 

-  merritai. 

Snake  - 

-  goondarra. 

A  White  man 

-  tita. 

The  Blacks 

-  kerna. 

Children 

-  tako-tako. 

A  Blaokf ellow 

-  kerna. 

Head  - 

-  kirti. 

A  Black  woman 

-  moitu. 

Eye     - 

-  me. 

Nose   - 

-  melia. 

Ear     -        - 

-  narrowa. 

ON   THE   HAMILTON   RIVER,   NEAR  BOULIA. 


365 


No.  104 

.—Hamilton  Rivbi 

I,   NEAR  BOTJLIA— 

continiied. 

Mouth 

perla. 

Boomerang  - 

-  teera. 

Teeth  - 

milka. 

Hill     . 

-  kowarri. 

Hair  of  the  head 

poingu. 

Wood  - 

-  moora. 

Beard  - 

uunka. 

Stone  - 

-  tipo. 

Thunder      - 

mungoona. 

Camp  - 
Yea      - 

-  ooia. 

Grass  - 

bookarra. 

-  koh. 

Tongue 

turli. 

No 

-  mallo. 

Stomach 

umba. 

Breasts 

kapatchu. 

I 

-  ongya. 

Thigh  - 

mirla. 

You     - 

-  imba. 

Foot    - 

tina. 

Bark    - 

-  nalla. 

Bone   - 

beena. 

Good   - 

-  myalli. 

Blood  - 

kimba. 

Bad     - 

-  munna. 

Skin    - 

nalla,  ' 

Sweet  - 

-  myalli. 

Fat      - 

toota. 

Food    - 

-  tatchia. 

Bowels 

-  umba. 

Hungry 

-  yinaba. 

Excrement  - 

koona. 

Thirsty 

-  pooalli. 

War-spear  - 

narrara. 

Eat     - 

-  tatchia.   . 

Reed-spear  - 

Sleep  - 

-  mootchia. 

Wommera      or 

Drink  - 

-  timia. 

thro  wing-stick 

Shield - 

tunmarroo. 

Walk  - 

-  kundia. 

Tomahawk  - 

warrinbutta. 

See       - 

-  bipika. 

Canoe  - 

Sit       - 

-  nunkia. 

Sun     - 

walka. 

Yesterday   - 

-  moora-wulka. 

Moon  - 

cheepa. 

To-day 

-  karri. 

Star     - 

chutaluminda. 

To-morrow  - 

Light  - 

kinkimarria. 

Where  are  the 

indowa  kema 

Dark   - 

-  burrumpurra. 

Blacks  ? 

nunkia  1 

Cold    - 

-  malli. 

I  don't  know 

■  kerli. 

Heat   - 

mukka-mukka. 

Day     - 

Plenty 

-  pooinda. 

Night  ■ 

-  umalo. 

Big      - 

-  mungoora. 

Fire     - 

-  pooti. 

Little  - 

-  tii. 

Water - 

-  kuta. 

Dead   - 

-  itchia. 

Smoke 

-  boongya. 

By-and-by  - 

-  toorra. 

Ground 

-  mya. 

Come  on 

-  kowa-e-rango. 

Wind  - 

-  tuirubo. 

Milk    - 

-  toma. 

Rain    - 

-  pula. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  perrowalli. 

God     - 

Wild  turkey 

-  pooranna. 

Ghosts 

-  moma. 

Wife    - 

-  noba-nuUa. 

366  THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  105.— JUNCTION  OF  KING'S  CEEEK  AND  THE 
GEORGINA  RIVER. 

By  J.  O.  Machattie,  Esq.,  and  J.  S.  Little,  Esq. 

The  following  information  concerning  the  Moorloobulloo 
tribe  was  forwarded  to  me  by  the  gentlemen  named  above. 
The  country  of  this  tribe,  which  is  at  the  junction  of  King's 
Creek  and  the  Georgina  (formerly  Herbert)  River,  was  first 
occupied  by  the  Whites  in  1876.  At  that  time  the  strength 
of  the  tribe  was  about  250  souls,  but  between  the  period  of 
our  occupation  and  1883  thg  number  was  reduced  by  con- 
sumption and  venereal  to  180.  No  clothes  are  worn  by 
these  people,  who,  when  troubled  by  cold  or  mosquitos, 
sleep  in  earth  huts  (probably  dug  out  of  the  side  of  a  sand- 
hill and  roofed  with  grass,  bark,  &c.),  inside  of  which  they 
make  their  fires.  When  in  mourning  the  head  is  plastered 
with  burnt  gypsum,  which  singularly  enough  is  called  kopi, 
the  name  in  use  in  the  Marowera  tribe,  which  dwells  at  the 
junction  of  the  Darling  and  Murray,  750  miles  to  the  south- 
ward, for  those  solid  coverings  of  the  head  already  described. 
The  wommera  is  not  in  use  in  this  tribe,  but  their  arms  and 
implements  display  a  good  deal  of  carving  and  painting. 
Their  food  consists  principally  of  nardoo  seeds,  the  animals 
and  wild-fowl  of  their  country,  snakes,  iguana,  &c.  It  is  to 
be  noticed  that  though  one  tribe  declines  to  eat  mussels, 
another  oysters,  a  third  mushrooms,  a  fourth  igiianas,  and 
BO  on,  I  am  not  aware  that  any  rejects  the  snake,  though 
in  some  tribes  it  is  not  a  favorite   article  of  food.    My 


JUNCTION  OP  KING'S  CREEK  &  GEORGINA  RIVER.     367 

informants  remark  that  the  persons  of  this  tribe  take  each 
the  name  of  some  bird  or  animal,  which  the  individual  calls 
brother,  and  will  not  eat.  Of  this  system,  unfortnnately,  no 
further  particulars  are  given,  but  it  reminds  one  of  what  Sir 
G-eorge  Grey  (vol.  2,  p.  228)  says  of  the  kobong  in  Western 
Australia. 

No  signs  of  small-pox  having  existed  appear  in  this  tribe. 
I  am  informed  by  Mr.  Machattie  that,  to  his  knowledge, 
seven  children  have  been  eaten  during  the  last  six  years 
by  the  MoorloobuUoo,  and  that  they  habitually  eat  their 
dead  when  not  too  much  emaciated.  The  following  are 
names  of  persons  : — Males:  Woongongie,  Kokomurti,  Pill- 
chellie,  Murrumooli,  and  MurkHla.  Females:  Podoki  and 
Larlooti.  Marriage  is,  for  the  most  part,  exogamous,  and  is 
contracted  by  the  males  at  seventeen  and  the  females  at 
eleven  years  of  age.  Before,  however,  a  male  is  allowed  to 
possess  a  wife  the  ordeal  of  the  terrible  rite  has  to  be  sub- 
mitted to.  These  people  scar  the  arms  and  shoulders 
with  mussel-shells,  pressing  the  lips  of  the  wounds 
until  they  stand  high  above  the  general  level  of  the 
skin.  Pitcheree,  which  is  prepared  and  used  in  the  usual 
way,  is  obtained  by  barter  from  the  nearest  tribe  on  the 
Mulligan,  and  is  said  to  produce  intoxication.  The  average 
height  of  the  males  is  five  feet  eight  inches.  The  corroboree 
does  not  differ  from  those  Mr.  Machattie  has  seen  in  the 
southern  portions  of  Queensland.  The  resemblances  in  the 
equivalents  oijlre,  mood,  and  camp  will  be  noticed.  Koo= 
yes,  is  found  at  Port  Darwin  in  the  north,  on  the  West 
Coast,  and  on  Cooper's  Creek.  To  suck  the  breast  as  a 
baby  does,  is  rendered  kobbidya  titia  =  breasts  eat. 


368 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE; 


No.    105.— JUNCTION   OF   KING'S   CREEK   AND   GEORGINA 

RIVER. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  koonabulla. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum 

-  burloo. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  barkoola  kur- 

Tame dog    - 

-  beeurli. 

rana. 

Wild  dog     ' 

-  muUok. 

3  Blacks      - 

barkooleroo  kur 

Emu    - 

-  wargutchi. 

rana. 

Black  duck  - 

-  kurligoolpar. 

One     - 

-  ooroo. 

Wood  duck 

-  kowwar. 

Two    - 

-  barkoola. 

Pelican 

-  murlimarroo. 

Three  - 

-  barkooleroo. 

Laughing  jackass   (none). 

Four    - 

-  barkoolarbar- 

Native  companion  brolgar. 

koola. 

White  cockatoo 

-  (none). 

Father 

-  yupri. 

Crow  ■ 

-  wakeri. 

Mother 

-  amori. 

Swan  - 

-  kurti. 

Sister-Elder 

-  yawkoo. 

Egg     -       - 

-  pumpo. 

, ,      Younger 

- 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  tinna. 

Brother-Elder 

-  kooperi. 

Fish    - 

-  koppi. 

„         Younger  titi. 

Lobster 

- 

A  young  man 

-  yuperi. 

Crayfish 

-  trunagi. 

An  old  man 

-  koopa-koopa. 

Mosquito     - 

-  gunte. 

An  old  woman 

-  bundoora. 

Fly      -        - 

-  gooningeni. 

A  baby 

-  takakoo. 

Snake  - 

-  kirtoba. 

A  White  man 

-  whitepella. 

The  Blacks  - 

-  kurrana  murtoo. 

Children      - 

-  woolkaparri. 

A  Blackfellow 

-  kurrana. 

Head  - 

-  kirti. 

A  Black  woman 

-  purraja. 

Eye     - 

-  mi. 

Nose   - 

-  mealia. 

Bar     - 

-  arra. 

JUNCTION  OF  KING'S  CREEK  &  GEORGINA  RIVER.     369 


No.  105.— Junction  of  Kino's  Cbebk  and  Geokgina  Rivee — 


continued. 

Mouth 

■  teera. 

Boomerang  - 

-  giera. 

Teeth  - 

-  milka. 

mil    - 

-  waieri. 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  pundju. 

Wood- 

-  murra. 

Beard  - 

-  nunka. 

Stone  - 

-  keppo. 

Thunder      - 

-  bUpa  pundera. 

Camp  - 

-  murra. 

Grass  - 

■  bookera. 

Yes     - 

-  koo. 

Tongue 

-  turli. 

No      - 

-  wobba. 

Stomach 

-  tundoo. 

I 

-  uncha. 

Breasts 

-  kobbedya. 

You    - 

-  imba. 

Thigh - 

-  kurla. 

Bark  .- 

-  nulla. 

Foot   - 

-  tinna. 

Good  - 

-  ulyarri. 

Bone   - 

-  briuna. 

Bad    - 

-  munna-munna. 

Blood  - 

-  jimpar. 

Sweet  - 

-  queongo. 

Skin    - 

-  nulla. 

Food  - 

_ 

Fat     - 

-  tatta. 

Hungry 

-  ommonchilla. 

Bowels 

-  murda-murda. 

Thirsty 

-  woolka  murra- 

Excrement  - 

-  goona. 

wondia. 

War-spear  - 

-  urrurra.- 

Eat      - 

-  titia. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  (none). 

Sleep   - 

-  muchia. 

Wommera     or 

gundi-gundi. 

Drink  - 

-  temalinna. 

throwing-stick 

Walk  - 

Shield- 

-  koomburra. 

See      - 

-  tokomia. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  warramutta. 

Canoe  - 

-  (none). 

Sit      - 

-  munga-mungan- 
dia. 

Sun     - 

-  walka. 

Yesterday  - 

Moon  - 

-  chungi. 

To-day 

moonyarribidyia. 

Star    - 

-  jimpi. 

To-morrow  - 

-  oo-oo-moUo. 

Light  - 

- 

Where    are 

;he    kuma  winienda  ? 

Dark  - 

-  umolo. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    -       - 

-  nulli. 

I  don't  know 

-  kurli. 

Heat  - 

-  yerrawier. 

Plenty 

-  murtpo  or  parri. 

Day     - 

Big      -        - 

-  punkilli. 

Night  - 

- 

Little  - 

-  wurpa-wurpa. 

Fire    - 

-  mukka. 

Dead  - 

-  ityea. 

Water 

-  nappe. 

By-and-by  - 

-  kumatoord. 

Smoke 

-  kurtoo. 

Ground 

mai-i. 

Come  on 

-  kow-wa. 

Wind- 

■  tooropgo. 

Milk    - 

-  kobbedya. 

Rain   - 

-  kurta. 

Eaglehawk 

- 

God     - 

.. 

Wild  turkey 

-  kurreturo. 

Ghosts 

-  kunmurri. 

Wife   - 

-  nopoona. 

VOL.   II. 

2 

A 

LOWER    DIAMANTINA.  371 


No.  106.— LOWER  DIAMANTINA. 
(Long.  141°  E.;  Lat.  25°  S.) 

Anonymous. 

An  anonymous  contributor  has  sent  me  a  short  account 
of  the  Karawalla  and  Tunberri  tribes,  which  dwell  on  the 
Lower  Diamantina,  and  as  they  are  described  as  neighbours, 
and  but  one  vocabulary  has  reached  me,  I  presume,  as  often 
happens,  that  they  speak  the  same  language,  or  nearly  so. 
A  yery  important  statement  made  in  the  account  of  the 
manners  of  these  tribes  is  that  monogamy  prevails  in  them,  no 
man  being  allowed  to  have  more  than  one  wife.  Other  than 
this  but  little  worthy  of  notice  has  reached  me.  These 
tribes  use  the  boomerang,  but  not  the  wommera  ;  no  traces 
of  small-pox  exist;  children  are  eaten  occasionally;  marriage 
is  exogamous  ;  consumption  is  the  most  prevalent  disease  ; 
pitcheree  is  chewed  ;  and  circumcision,  by  means  of  which 
the  rights  of  manhood  are  conferred,  is  undergone  by  the 
males  when  about  seventeen  years  of  age. 

2  A  2 


372 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  106.— LOWER  DIAMANTtNA. 


Kangaroo    - 

koora. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum      - 

burloo. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  barkoola  kerna 

Tame  dog    - 

pande. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  barkoola-orroo 

Wild  dog    - 

pande. 

kerna. 

Emu    - 

warrawudgi. 

One     - 

-  orroo. 

Black  duck  - 

mingenarra. 

Two    - 

-  barkoola. 

Wood  duck 
PeUoan 

Laughing  jackass 

chiberli. 

turta. 

(none). 

Three  - 
Four   - 

-  barkoolamarna 

-  barkoola-bar- 

koola. 

Native  companioH 
White  cockatoo 
Crow  - 
Swan  - 
Egg     - 
Track  of  a  foot 

kuntharata. 

murramute. 

wokeri. 

(none). 

pompo. 

mulka. 

Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

,,      Younger 
Brother-Elder 

-  aperie. 

-  urnde. 

-  kako. 

-  nathura. 

-  naire. 

Fish    - 

wongo. 

„          Young 

3r 

Lobster 

A  young  man 

-  wagi. 

Crayfish 

unde. 

An  old  man 

-  karooro. 

Mosquito     - 

-  kunthi. 

An  old  woman 

-  mutitu. 

Fly      -        - 

-  mongi. 

A  baby 

-  nukaka. 

Snake  - 

-  minga. 

A  White  man 

-  peri-peri. 

The  Blacks  - 

-  kerna. 

Children     - 

-  poorloora 

A  Blackfellow 

-  orroroo. 

Head  - 

-  kunka. 

A  Black  woman 

■  punga. 

Eye     - 

-  milki. 

Nose   - 

-  purloo. 

Ear     - 

-  nuri. 

LOWER   DIAMANTINA. 


373 


No.  106. — LowEE,  DiAMANTiNA — Continued. 

Mouth 

-  bina. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

-  den. 

Hill     - 

-  meri. 

Hair  of  the  head  -  tunda. 

Wood  - 

-  moora. 

Beard  - 

-  unka. 

Stone  - 

-  murtra. 

Thunder      - 

-  unkinda. 

Gamp  - 

-  aru. 

Grass  - 

-  kuntha. 

Yes      - 

-  ko. 

Tongue 

-  purlpa. 

No       - 

-  woba. 

Stomach 

-  wopa. 

I 

-  unge. 

Breasts 

-  numma. 

You     - 

-  tini. 

Thigh  - 

-  ura. 

Bark   - 

-  warinde. 

Foot    - 

-  tina. 

Good   - 

-  patchi. 

Bone   - 

-  kunbo. 

Bad     - 

-  terri. 

Blood  - 

-  kaluka. 

Sweet  - 

-  kudye. 

Skin    - 

-  kurla. 

Food    - 

-  munka. 

Fat      - 

-  mume. 

Hungry 

-  minikibe. 

Bowels 

-  moonnoo. 

Thirsty 

-  wardu. 

Excrement  - 

-  koona. 

Eat      - 

-  tinna. 

War-spear   - 

-  windra. 

Sleep  - 

-  parinda. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  (none). 

Drink  - 

- 

Throwiug-stick 

-  turtee. 

Walk  - 

-  tidina. 

Shield - 
Tomahawk  - 
Canoe  - 
Sun     - 
Moon  - 
Star     - 
Light  - 
Dark  - 

-  toombaroo. 

-  murdra. 

-  (none). 

-  koorle. 

-  peumangle. 

-  kolunthe. 

-  burk. 

-  mooka. 

See      - 
Sit       - 
Yesterday   - 
To-day 
To-morrow  - 
Where    are 
Blacks  ? 

-  kalinda. 

-  kunda. 

-  oorakoorle. 

-  keene. 

-  ununda. 

the    wirdong  kema  ? 

Cold    - 

-  terrili. 

I  don't  know 

-  woba  unge. 

Heat   - 

-  wiltoro. 

Plenty 

-  matoo. 

Day     - 

- 

Big      - 

-  piri. 

Night  - 

- 

Little  - 

-  montooito. 

Fire     - 

-  tooroo. 

Dead   - 

-  paMda. 

Water- 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind  - 
Eaiu    - 

-  nappa. 

-  koodoo. 

-  pulo. 

-  jimbo. 

-  tindarheri. 

By-and-by  - 
Come  on 
Milk    - 
Eaglehawk  - 

-  ooroo. 

-  kowi. 

-  tuncat  and  ama 

-  kunthuUo. 

God     - 

. 

Wild  turkey 

-  A^Tirkum. 

Ghosts 

, 

Wife    - 

-  newya. 

374  THE    AUSTEALIAN   RACE: 


No.  107.— THE  JUNCTION  OF  THE  THOMSON 
AND  BAECOO  RIVERS,  ALSO  THE  WHITULA 
CREEK. 

By  J.  Hbaoney,  Esq.,  Fbaser,  Esq.,  and  Bdwaed  Cuek,  Esq. 

Of  the  Birria,  Koongerri,  and  Kungarditclii  tribes,  whicli 
dwell  in  the  country  adjacent  to  the  junction  of  the  Thomson 
and  Barcoo  Rivers,  I  have  received  an  account  from  Mr. 
Heagney,  as  also  vocabularies  of  each  of  their  dialects.  Of 
one  of  these  tribes — the  Birria — I  have  also  received  a  de- 
scription and  vocabulary  from  my  son,  Mr.  Edward  Curr. 
Mr.  Heagney 's  relation  is  to  the  following  effect: — 

The  tribes  in  this  locality  are  called  Birria,  Koongerri, 
and  Kungarditchi.  The  territory  of  the  Birria  is  on  the 
western  bank  of  the  Thomson,  and  extends  from  Jundah  to 
the  confluence  of  that  river  and  the  Barcoo,  and  further  for 
fifty  miles  down  their  united  streams,  which  form  Cooper's 
Creek.  From  its  frontage  to  these  streams  this  territory 
stretches  back  about  forty  miles  in  the  direction  of  the 
Diamantina.  The  country  of  the  Koongerri*  tribe  i&  on 
the  eastern  bank  of  the  Thomson,  and  comprises  all  the 
country  between  that  river  and  the  Barcoo  below  Jundah, 
and  below  Welford  Downs  on  the  Barcoo.  It  includes  also 
a  strip  of  country  about  forty  miles  wide  on  the  eastern  side 
of  the  Barcoo,  from  Welford  Downs  to  its  junction  with  the 
Thomson,  and  along  Cooper's  Creek  to  the  junction  of  the 

*  This  word  meaiis  clry. 


JUNCTION  OF  THOMSON  &  BARCOO  RIVERS.  375 

Kiabara  Creek.  The  Kungarditchi  country  is  about  twenty 
miles  square,  and  is  bounded  on  the  south  by  the  Kiabara 
Creek,  and  on  the  west  by  the  Koongerri  country.  The 
territory  of  these  tribes  was  gradually  occupied  by  the 
Whites  during  the  interval  between  the  years  1874  and 
1878,  the  aggregate  population  of  the  three  tribes  at  the 
first  of  these  dates  being  estimated  at  twelve  hundred.  The 
women  at  present  (1883)  considerably  outnumber  the  men, 
many  of  the  latter  having  been  shot  down  by  the  Whites 
when  they  first  established  themselves  in  the  district. 
Syphilis  is  and  has  been  raging  fatally  in  these  tribes,  of 
which  seven  per  cent,  are  children.  Many  of  these  people 
are  thought  to  have  reached  the  age  of  sixty.  Originally 
they  were  quite  naked,  but  now  the  few  who  can  obtain  cast- 
off  clothes  from  the  Whites  wear  them.  Their  huts  are 
spaces  scouped  out  of  the  sand-hills,  covered  in  with  grass 
and  clay,  and  the  fires,  which  are  made  inside,  keep 
the  dwellers  warm  and  the  mosquitos  out.  The  same  orna- 
ments are  worn  by  both  sexes,  and  consist  of  necklaces 
made  of  strong  grass-stems,  cut  into  lengths  and  threaded; 
also  the  teeth  of  other  Blacks  (how  worn  or  obtained  is  not 
stated),  and  feathers,  and  bright  seeds  set  in  gum.  They 
likewise  stick  fur  and  down  on  their  skins  with  the  same 
substance ;  color  themselves  white  when  in  mourning,  and 
adorn  the  person  here  and  there  with  red  or  yellow  ochre  on 
occasions  of  corroboree.  For  carrying  water  about  in  their 
dry  country,  when  travelling  or  hunting,  they  use  boat- 
shaped  vessels  of  bark,  about  two  feet  six  inches  long,  eight 
inches  deep,  and  eight  inches  wide.  The  principal  imple- 
ments of  these  tribes  used  to  be  stone  tomahawks,  ground  to 
an  edge,  which  they  obtained  from  neighbouring  tribes  in 
exchange  for  spears,  as  their  own  country  produces  no  stone 
suited  to  the  purpose.  Since  the  occupation  of  their  country 
by  the  Whites,  however,  they  have  gradually  obtained  iron 
tomahawks.  They  say  that  some  few  iron  tomahawks  and 
knives  found  their  way  into  their  country,  passed  on  from 
one  tribe  to  another,  some  thirty  years  before  the  squatter 


376  THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

appeared  on  the  scene.  Their  weapons  are  carved  to  some 
extent,  and  one  of  them  is  the  boomerang,  which,  however, 
only  returns  half  way  when  thrown,  as  my  informant 
remarks.  They  are  said  to  he  an  unwarlike  people,  and  that 
most  of  their  quarrels  have  their  origin  in  jealousies  about 
their  women.  Animals  being  very  scarce  in  their  country, 
their  principal  food  consists  of  reptiles,  bulbs,  seeds,  and 
fruits.  Temporary  ovens  are  sometimes  used  in  cooking. 
The  young  people  are  forbidden  to  eat  emu  eggs  and  the 
flesh  of  the  eaglehawk.  Strange  to  say,  these  tribes,  accord- 
ing to  my  informant,  object  to  eat  fat.  SmaU-pox  has  never 
been  heard  of  amongst  them.  Cannibalism  is  not  very  pre- 
valent, as  far  as  is  known,  though  occasionally  a  child  found 
difficult  to  rear  is  eaten.  The  people  of  these  tribes  do  not 
object  to  tell  their  names. 

Each  tribe,  I  am  informed,  is  divided  into  several  classes, 
and  a  man  may  marry  into  any  class  but  his  own,  or  get  a 
wife  from  another  tribe.  Perhaps  there  is  some  inaccuracy 
in  this  statement,  as  the  system  is  but  imperfectly  known; 
at  all  events,  marriage  between  persons  nearly  related  by 
blood  is  prohibited.  At  the  present  day  in  these  tribes  the 
females  largely  outnumber  the  males,  many  of  the  men  having 
been  shot,  so  that  about  ten  per  cent,  of  the  males  have  more 
than  one  wife.  The  original  customs  in  such  matters  Mr, 
Heagney  has  left  unstated,  if  he  knew  them.  Since  the 
advent  of  the  Whites,  few  children  are  reared — the  rifle, 
syphilis,  and  debauchery  having,  as  usual,  commenced  the 
work  of  extermination. 

These  tribes  scar  themselves  for  the  purpose  of  ornamen- 
tation on  the  abdomen,  chest,  arms,  and  thighs,  sometimes 
horizontally,  and  at  others  vertically.  In  some  of  the  divisions 
the  young  men  are  circumcised,  and  in  others  not.  At  about 
fourteen  years  of  age  they  knock  out  the  two  middle  front 
teeth  of  the  upper  jaw,  using  for  the  purpose  two  sticks,  one 
as  a  punch,  and  the  other  as  a  hammer.  They  also  pierce 
the  septum  of  the  nose,  wearing  occasionally  in  the  orifice  a 
bone,  feather,  or  twig. 


JUNCTION  OP  THOMSON  &  BARCOO  RIVERS.         377 

The  people  of  these  tribes,  says  Mr.  Heagney,  believe  in 
the  existence  of  invisible  beings,  who  can  make  them  happy 
or  miserable,  and  are  said  to  hover  about  the  burial  places  of 
the  dead,  and  to  be  deeply  offended  by  breaches  of  the  laws 
relating  to  food  restrictions  and  to  marriage.  Should  a  young 
Black,  for  instance,  even  break  an  emu  egg,  it  is  believed  that 
the  offended  spirits  will  shortly  raise  a  storm  of  thunder  and 
lightning,  in  which  the  unlucky  culprit  will  probably  be 
struck  down.  Often  the  tribe  adjure  these  invisible  beings, 
in  a  song  dedicated  to  the  purpose,  to  inflict  vengeance  on 
their  enemies.  They  also  supplicate  them  to  send  rain,  by 
placing  a  particular  sort  of  stone  on  the  edge  of  a  waterhole. 
No  amount  of  reasoning  or  experience  of  the  failures  of  their 
charms,  says  my  informant,  can  shake  their  belief  in  them. 
Pitcheree,  he  continues,  is  used  for  chewing.  It  is  prepared 
by  the  plant  being  reduced  to  powder,  and  mixed  with  the 
ashes  of  gidjee  leaves,  and  produces,  says  my  informant, 
a  sort  of  mild  intoxication.  No  sort  of  sign  language  exists 
amongst  these  tribes.  They  have  no  canoes,  though  in  times 
of  flood  no  tribes  have  greater  need  of  them.  Even  the  use 
of  bark  canoes  by  the  Whites  has  not  led  to  their  adoption. 
Emu  are  captured  with  nets,  and  killed  with  boomerangs. 
They  also  catch  fish  in  nets.  Kangaroo  there  are  none.  The 
males  of  these  tribes  are  made  young  men  at  about  seventeen 
years  of  age,  the  ceremony  in  some  of  the  divisions  being 
circumcision.  Their  dead  they  bury  in  sand-hills,  with  much 
show  of  sorrow,  whitening  their  skins  with  pipe-clay,  which 
they  leave  on  for  seven  days. 

Message-sticks  have  not  been  noticed.  On  meeting  after 
an  absence,  these  people  embrace  and  shake  hands.  The  old 
men  have  much  influence  with  the  tribes,  but  nothing  is 
known  of  any  form  of  government.  In  some  cases  urine  is 
swallowed  as  medicine.  Wounds  are  dressed  with  fat  and 
clay.     Such  is  Mr.  Heagney's  account  of  these  tribes. 

I  have  already  said  that  a  second  account  of  the  Birria 
tribe  has  been  sent  to  me  by  my  son.  The  facts  he  gives 
were  taken  down  from  the  statements  of  Mr. Fraser,  a 


378  THE    AUSTEALIAK   RACE: 

gentleman  who  had  resided  for  a  considerable  time  on  the 
Whitula  Creek,  which  runs  through  the  country  of  the  Birria. 
My  son's  vocabulary  was  obtained  from  a  Birria  Black  boy, 
whose  knowledge  of  English  was  rather  defective.  The 
statements  made  by  Mr.  Fraser  were  to  the  following 
purport : — 

The  Whitula  Creek  Station  was  taken  up  in  1874,  the 
Birria  tribe,  whose  country  it  is,  numbering  at  that  time 
about  500  souls.  Longevity  seems  to  be  common  amongst 
them,  for  many  have  lost  their  teeth  from  age,  and  appear 
to  have  reached  eighty.  "When  first  the  Whites  came 
amongst  them  they  wore  no  clothes,  though  such  as  can  get 
them  do  so  now.  Their  huts  are  partly  hollowed  out  of  the 
sand;  are  covered  with  sticks  and  earth,  and  have  the  fire 
inside.  Stripes  of  red  ochre  are  their  holiday  adornment, 
and  in  times  of  mourning  they  cover  themselves  with  pipe- 
clay. They  have  bags  and  fishing-lines  made  of  wild  hemp, 
and  construct  dams  for  the  capture  of  fish.  The  stone 
tomahawks  they  formerly  used  were  ground  to  an  edge. 
Their  weapons  are  the  ordinary  boomerang  which  returns 
when  thrown,  very  ill-made  spears  and  two-handed  swords, 
all  of  which  they  smear  with  red  ochre.  They  have  no 
wommeras  (throwing-sticks).  Mussel-shells  and  flints  are 
used  for  cutting.  Their  food  consists  principally  of  wild 
rice,  nardoo,  and  grass  seeds,  all  of  which  they  make  into 
loaves  and  bake  in  the  ashes.  They  also  eat  reptiles.  Their 
country  being  subject  to  terrible  droughts,  they  have  often 
been  reduced  to  great  straits  for  food,  and  on  such  occasions 
they  had  recourse  to  cannibalism.  From  the  nature  of 
their  food,  sheep  and  cattle  feeding  must  have  been  ruinous 
to  them.  In  the  drought  of  1876-7  they  eat  all  their 
children.  In  this  tribe  the  possession  of  more  than  one  wife 
is  absolutely  forbidden,  or  was  before  the  coming  of  the 
Whites.  Males  and  females  are  married  at  from  fourteen  to 
sixteen,  but  are  not  allowed  to  rear  children  until  they  get 
to  be  about  thirty  years  of  age;  hence  infanticide  is  general. 
Males   are   circumcised  when   about  twelve  years  of  age. 


JUNCTION  OP  THOMSON  &  BARCOO  RIVERS.  379 

They  scar  the  person  about  the  same  time.  Two  upper 
front  teeth  are  knocked  out,  and  the  septum  of  the  nose  is 
pierced,  and  a  bone  or  quill  worn  through  the  orifice. 

The  hair  of  the  Birria  tribe  is  straight,  they  chew 
pitcheree,  and  paint  themselves  white  when  in  mourning. 
It  is  the  custom  to  embrace,  and  it  is  said  kiss,  after  a  long 
separation. 


380 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE; 


No.  107.— VOCABULARY  OF  THE  DIALECT  OP  THE 
KUNGARDITCHI  TRIBE. 

By  J.  Hbagnbt,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

cutohira,  coola. 

Hand  - 

murra. 

Opossum 

warnunga,       co- 

2  Blacks      - 

carooora     bar- 

thera. 

coola. 

Tame  dog    - 

3  Blacks      - 

barcoola    matina 

Wild  dog     - 

dethee,  conatha. 

carcoora 

Emu    - 

coolperry. 

One     - 

matina,  ungal. 

Black  duck  - 
Wood  duck  - 
Pelican 
Laughing  jackass 

yellamoora. 

goonary. 

thirta. 

Two     - 
Three  - 
Four    - 

barcoola  boolara. 
barcoola  matina. 
barcoola    bar- 
coola. 

Native  companion  goontheri. 
White  cockatoo  -  mooramerry. 

Father 

copunya,      moo- 

Crow  - 

Swan  - 

Egg     -         -        ■ 

Track  of  a  foot 

wawkerlo. 
gootheroo. 
coocurry. 
thinna. 

Mother 
Sister-Elder 
,,      Younger 

naro. 
ominya. 
coorcorminya. 
pathunya. 

Fish    - 
Lobster 

goombilla,  gooya. 

Brother-Elder     -  goorkinya. 
,,          Younger 

Crayfish 

boagalli,  thorna- 

A  young  man 

yiripie. 

bun. 

An  old  man 

wongie. 

Mosquito     - 

noka. 

An  old  woman 

wulko. 

Fly      -        -        - 

moonthooan. 

A  baby  (male) 

-  oornoo. 

Snake  - 

thoolperoo,  thia- 

,,      (female) 

-  urtoo. 

gara. 

A  White  man 

The  Blacks  - 

carooora,  capo. 

Children 

A  Blackfellow 

Head  - 

-  bumbo. 

A  Black  woman 

wondthowerry. 

Eye      - 

-  meyel. 

Nose   - 

Ear      - 

-  munga. 

JUNCTION  OF  THOMSON  &  BARCOO  RIVERS. 


381 


No.  107. — KuNGAEBiTCHi  Teibe — Continued. 


Mouth 

-  tyowa,  thia. 

Boomerang  - 

-  yalka,bububeroo. 

Teeth  - 

-  yerrang,  berra. 

Hill     - 

-  ree,  weetyoo. 

Hair  of  the  head-  bungee. 

Wood  - 

-  wocka,  rirlka. 

Beard 

-  onga,  nunka. 

Stone  - 

-  berry,  curdee. 

Thunder     - 

-  bookura. 

Camp  - 

-  oora,  wooira. 

Grass  - 

-  condtha. 

Yes     - 

-  cardi. 

Tongue 

-  thalang. 

No       -        - 

-  walya. 

Stomach 

-  aimella,  mirra. 

I 

-  boorko,  nuthoo. 

Breasts 

-  umma,  ngamun. 

You     - 

-  ingowa,  yinti. 

Thigh 

-  moorta. 

Bark   - 

-  wathorra,    pirra- 

Foot   - 

-  thinna. 

birra. 

Bone  - 

-  etohewarra, 

Good  - 

-  burlo. 

coongoon. 

Bad     - 

-  wiltha. 

Blood  - 

-  coorooka. 

Sweet  - 

- 

Skin    - 

-  dthucarry,     can- 

Food   - 

-  goonmango. 

thirri. 

Hungry 

-  wamaintha. 

Fat     - 

-  dthootha. 

Thirsty 

-  wambawintha, 

Bowels 

-  warrawooroo. 

binganbundya. 

Uxorement  - 

-  goonna. 

Bat     - 

-  wonmanthoo, 

War-spear  - 

-  moortya,  eanna. 

ourrinukeroo. 

Reed-spear  - 
Wommera  or 
throwing-stick 
Shield - 

- 

Sleep  - 
Drink  - 
Walk  - 

-  beka,  woonellera 

-  coothango. 

-  thango,   wauwil- 

-  thumberoo. 

poora. 

See      - 

-  munna,    nockun- 

Tomahawk  - 

-  goabara,  paining. 

thereena. 

Canoe  - 

- 

Sit       - 

-  nanko. 

Sun     - 

-  moorie. 

Yesterday  - 

-  booka. 

Moon  - 

-  uUatha. 

To-day 

- 

Star    - 

-  coolaroo. 

To-morrow  - 

-  wikka. 

Light  - 

_ 

Where   are 

the    wanthelUca,  car 

Dark  - 

-  buigell. 

Blacks? 
I  don't  know 

coora  ? 
-  weeya. 

Cold    - 

-  gilea,  moorana. 

Plenty 

-  mirty,  nokul. 

Heat  - 

-  yowee,  rincung. 

Big      -        - 
Little  - 

-  wulko. 

Day    - 

-  cothogun. 

-  napoondya. 

Night  - 

-  gongongoo. 

Dead  - 

-  bookan,      cotya- 

Fire    - 

-  wichun,  oorla. 

minni. 

Water 

-  cacoa. 

By-and-by  - 

-  wandthee. 

Smoke 

-  mooyoo. 

Come  on 

-  cowally. 

Groimd 

-  thima. 

Milk    - 

-  umma,  ngamoon. 

Wind- 

-  yarrika. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  corrowira,  coori- 

Rain  - 

-  birta,  yookun. 

adthilla. 

God     - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

-  goonging. 

Ghosts 

-  goondtha. 

Wife   - 

-  noopunya. 

382 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  107.— VOCABULARY  OP  THE  KOONGERRI  LANGUAGE. 


By  J.  Hbaonet,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

balcun. 

Hand  - 

murra. 

Opossum 

wamonga. 

2  Blacks      - 

karkoora 

Tame  dog    - 

barcoola. 

Wild  dog     - 

deethee. 

3  Blacks      - 

barcoola  murina 

Emu    - 

koolperry. 

karkoora. 

Black  duck  - 

yellamoora. 

One      - 

murina. 

Wood  duck 

goonery. 

Two     - 

barcoola. 

Pelican 

thirta. 

Three  - 

barcoola  murina 

Laughing  jackass 

Four   - 

barcoola 

Native  companion  goontherra. 

barcoola. 

White  cockatoo  ■ 

mooramerry. 

Father 

thatanya. 

Crow   - 

waukerlo. 

Mother 

umerninya. 

Swan  - 

kootero. 

Sister-Elder 

-  goorkuminya. 

Egg     -        - 

kookurry. 

„      Younger 

-  bathunga. 

Track  of  a  foot 

thinna. 

Brother-Elder 

■  goorkinia. 

Fish     - 

goombilla. 

„          Younger 

Lobster 

A  young  man 

yiripy. 

Crayfish 

thoombur. 

An  old  man 

Mosquito     - 

noka. 

An  old  woman 

walko. 

Ely     ■       - 

moonan. 

A  baby 

oornoo. 

Snake  - 

koorianurra. 

A  White  man 

The  Blacks  - 

karkoora. 

Children      - 

A  Blackf  ellow 

karkoora. 

Head  - 

bumbo. 

A  Black  woman 

Eye     - 

meyel. 

Nose    - 

raingo. 

Ear      - 

munga 

JUNCTION  OF  THOMSON  &  BARCOO  RIVERS. 


383 


No.    107. — VOCABULABY   OF  THE 

Mouth         -  -  thia. 

Teeth  -       -  -  kirra  or  rirra. 
Hair  of  the  head  -  buntyoo. 

Beard-        -  -  nunka. 

Thunder     -  -  bookura. 
Grass  - 

Tongue        -  -  tallang. 

Stomach      -  -  mirra. 

Breasts        -  -  ngummun. 

Thigh         -  -  moorta, 

Foot   -  -  thinna. 
Bone  - 

Blood  -        -  -  kurooka. 
Skin   - 

Fat     -  -  thootha. 

Bowels        -  -  warramurra. 

Excrement  -  -  koonna. 

War-spear  -  -  kanna. 
Reed-spear  - 
Wommera  or 
throwing-stick 

Shield         -  -  thumboora. 

Tomahawk  t  ■■  paining. 

Canoe  -        -  - 

Sun     -        -  -  moori. 

Moon  -        -  -  uUatha. 

Star    -        -  -  yeokee. 
Light  - 

Dark  -        -  -  bingel. 

Cold   -        -  -  yirli. 

Heat  -        -  .  warroong. 

Day    -        -  -  kothogum. 

Night-        -  -  kulka. 

Fire    -        -  -  wiohun. 

Water         -  -  kacka. 

Smoke         -  -  mooyoo. 

Ground        -  -  thirna. 

Wind  -        -  -  yarika. 

Rain   -        -  . 
God     - 

Ghosts         -  -  gooing. 


iooNGEBKi  Language— coniinieed 

Boomerang  - 

-  yalka. 

Hill     - 

-  ree. 

Wood- 

-  wokka. 

Stone  - 

-  berry. 

Camp  - 

-  oora. 

Yes     - 

-  ietha. 

No       - 

-  bombo. 

I 

-  iowa. 

You    - 

-  enowa. 

Bark   - 

-  wathoora. 

Good  - 

-  burlo. 

Bad     - 

-  manyuthirria. 

Sweet  - 

- 

Food   - 

-  goomango. 

Hungry 

-  womando. 

Thirsty 

-  woonboweena. 

Eat     - 

-  wonmunthoo. 

Sleep  - 

-  beka. 

Drink 

-  koothango. 

Walk  - 

-  thango. 

See      -        - 

-  oonee. 

Sit      - 

-  uma. 

Yesterday  - 

-  booka. 

To-day 

- 

To-morrow  - 

-  wikka. 

Where    are 

ihe    wanthera 

Blacks  ? 

karkoora? 

I  don't  know 

-  weeya. 

Plenty 

-  mirty. 

Big      -        - 

-  wulko. 

Little  - 

-  napoodyeto. 

Dead  - 

-  boooanitya. 

By-and-by  - 

-  wanthee 

wanthee. 

Come  on 

-  kowally. 

Milk   - 

-  amma. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  corowera. 

Wild  turkey 

-  worka. 

Wife  - 

-  noopunga. 

384 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE; 


No.   107.— VOCABULARY  OF  THE  BIRRIA  LANGUAGE. 


By  Edwakd  Cueb,  Esq. 

In  this  vocabulary  compare  heat  and  fire.  The  resemblance  is  an  un- 
common one.  In  it  also  we  meet  in  use  the  letter  v.  The  phrase  track 
of  a  foot  is  not  equivalent  to  foot  simply,  as  generally  happens.  Fish  is 
rendered  hammoo,  which  usually  means  water,  so  that  altogether  I  think 
some  of  the  words  unreliable. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  palgan. 

Opossum 

-  woomanga 

Tame  dog    - 

- 

Wild  dog     - 

-  tuti. 

Emu    - 

-  kubane. 

Black  duck  - 

-  peya. 

Wood  duck 

- 

Pelican 

-  tarta. 

Laughing  jackass 

Native  companion  mulvani. 

White  cockatoo  -  murmari. 

Crow  -        -        -  wawgala. 

Swan  - 

Egg     -        -        -  kokarri. 

Track  of  a  foot    -  migla. 


Pish    - 

Lobster 

Crayfish 

Mosquito     - 

Fly      -        -        - 

Snake 

The  Blacks  - 

A  Blaokf ellow     ■ 

A  Black  woman  ■ 

Nose    - 


kammoo. 


naka. 

moonan. 

kadi. 

mirti. 

mirti. 

muchmali. 

mingoo. 


Hand  - 

-  marra. 

2  Blacks      - 

- 

3  Blacks      - 

- 

One     - 

-  mirina. 

Two     - 

■  barkooloo. 

Three  - 

•  barkool  marrar. 

Four    - 

-  barkoolabarkoola 

Father 

-  tatanya. 

Mother 

-  narmaquia. 

Sister-Elder 

-  koorkagni. 

„      Younger  -  nabuku. 
Brother-Elder     -  purghi. 

,,         Younger  nathana. 
A  young  man 
An  old  man 

An  old  woman    -  walgo. 
A  baby        -        -  mararida. 
A  White  man 
Children 

Head  -        -  pumba. 

Eye      -        -        -  me-il. 
Ear      -        -        -  kurra. 


JUNCTION  OF  THOMSON  &  BARCOO  RIVERS. 


385 


No.  107.- 

-VOCABULAEY   OF  THE 

BiEEiA  liAnavAOE—cmitimied. 

Mouth 

-  tya. 

Boomerang  - 

-  biboobooroo 

Teeth  - 

-  yerra. 

Hill     - 

_ 

Hair  of  the  heac 

-  warqu. 

Wood  - 

-  wagga. 

Beard  - 

-  nanga. 

Stone  - 

-  parri. 

Thunder      - 

- 

Camp  - 

-  murra. 

Grass  - 

-  kanda. 

Yes      - 

Tongue 

-  talli. 

No       - 

Stomach 

-  mirra. 

Breasts 

-  ngamma. 

I          -        - 

- 

Thigh  - 

-  tarra. 

You     - 

Foot    - 

-  tinna. 

Bark   - 

-  wadura. 

Bone   - 

-  ohiora. 

Good  - 

- 

Blood  -        - 

-  karuga. 

Bad     - 

- 

Skin    - 

- 

Sweet  - 

- 

Fat     - 

-  tudda. 

Food   - 

_ 

Bowels 

- 

Hungry 

_ 

Excrement  - 

-  koorna. 

Thirsty 

- 

War-spear  - 

-  kanni. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  yalamba. 

Eat      - 

- 

Wommera    or 

warga. 

Sleep  - 

- 

throwing-stick 

Drink  - 

- 

Shield-        - 

-  pygiUa. 

Walk  - 

- 

Tomahawk  - 

-  kulby. 

See      - 

- 

Canoe  - 

- 

Sit       - 

- 

Sun     - 

-  murra. 

Yesterday   - 

- 

Moon  - 

-  uallada. 

To-day 

- 

Star    - 

-  yichi. 

To-morrow  - 

_ 

Light  - 

- 

Where     are 

the 

Dark  - 

- 

Blacks? 

Cold    - 

-  velli. 

J 

I  don't  know 

. 

Heat   - 

-  wawgin-nawgin. 

Day     - 

_ 

Plenty 

- 

Night  -        - 

- 

Big      - 

- 

Fire     - 

-  wawgin. 

Little  - 

- 

Water 

-  kagoo. 

Dead  - 

- 

Smoke 

-  trugoo. 

By-and-by   - 

- 

Ground 

- 

Come  on 

- 

Wind  -        . 

•  yarga. 

Milk   - 

- 

Rain    - 

-  kuguroo. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God    - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife    -        - 

- 

VOL.  II. 

2 

B 

BOOK    THE   NINTH 


2U  2 


BOOK  THE  NINTH. 

PREFATORY  REMARKS. 

We  now  begin  with  the  manners  and  languages  of  the 
tribes  which  inhabit  what  I  have  termed  the  Eastern 
Division  of  the  continent.  Those  brought  under  notice  in 
this  book  are  from  the  northern  portion  of  the  division.  .  In 
this  area  circumcision  and  the  terrible  rite  are  unknown 
except  in  one  tribe.  This  is  a  most  remarkable  feature.  It 
is  to  this  area  also  we  have  confined  the  curious  custom  of 
the  languages  in  many  cases  being  named  after  their  negative 
adverbs  and  in  others  the  tribes.  As  regards  the  order  in ' 
which  I  have  numbered  and  described  the  tribes  of  the  Eastern 
Division  it  is  important  to  notice  that  though  I  have  taken 
them  from  east  to  west  and  then  from  west  to  east  alternately, 
and  so  gradually  descended  south,  that  language  shows  the 
spread  of  the  race  in  this  locality  to  have  been,  roughly 
speaking,  in  several  north  and  south  lines,  one  of  which  fol- 
lowed the  coast,  another  skirted  the  Central  Division,  there 
having  been  one  or  more  in  the  interval  between  these  two. 


No.   108.— PEINCESS   CHAELOTTE'S   BAY,   NORTH 
QUEENSLAND. 

By  W.  0.  HoDOKiNSON,  Goldfields  Wabden,  Mattown. 

The  following  particulars  concerning  a  tribe  resident  at 
Princess  Charlotte's  Bay  were  obtained  by  Mr.  W.  0. 
Hodgkinson  from  a  boy  ten  years  of  age  called  Mai,  one  of 
a  couple  captured  in  that  locality.  By  whom  the  capture 
was  effected  Mr.  Hodgkinson  does  not  say,  and  probably 
does  not  know,  for  it  is  not  at  all  an  unusual  circumstance 


390 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


in  North  Queensland  for  a  boy  of  tender  years  to  be  seized 
by  a  White  man,  taken  away  from  his  tribe  and  country,  and 
brought  up  as  a  stockman  or  station  hand,  in  which  capacity 
his  excellent  sight  and  powers  of  tracking  animals  render 
him  specially  useful.  The  country  of  Mai's  tribe  is  called 
Mukinna.  The  men  of  it  practise  cannibalism,  and  Mai's 
ears  are  pierced  for  the  reception  of  some  ornament. 

Amongst  the  few  words  obtained  from  the  child  we  have 
kulka  for  war-spear,  a  word  which  with  some  alterations  we 
meet  with  in  several  parts  of  the  continent.  The  equivalents 
otfire  and  wood  also  dilBer  but  slightly,  which  is  a  very 
common  feature  in  our  languages.  There  is  but  one  word 
for  star  and  smoke.  We  have  seen  that  another  tribe  look 
on  the  Magellan  clouds  as  smoke. 


No.  108.— PRESrCESS  CHARLOTTE'S  BAY, 


Kangaroo  ■ 
Opossum 
Tame  dog  - 
Wild  dog  - 
Emu  - 
Black  duck  - 
Wood  duck- 
Pelican 

Laughing  jackass 
Native  companion 
White  cockatoo  - 
Crow  -  -  - 
Swan  - 

Egg     -        -        - 
Track  of  a  foot    - 
Fish    - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito     - 
Hy      -        -        - 
Snake  -        -        . 
The  Blacks  - 
A  Blackfellow     - 
A  Black  woman  - 
Nose   -        ,        . 


yearpee. 
koolan. 


guarga. 
boongil. 


kurnpul. 
buudeela. 
wattalla. 
telpee. 

emil. 

takko. 

wunpoo. 


bulbul. 
yeerum. 

muntyin. 


Hand  - 

2  Blacks      - 

3  Blacks  - 
One  - 
Two  - 
Three  - 
Four  - 
Father 
Mother 
Sister-Elder 

,,     Younger  - 
Brother-Elder     - 

,,        Younger 
A  young  man 
An  old  man 
An  old  woman    - 
A  baby 
A  White  man 
Children 

Head  -        -        - 
Eye     - 
Ear     • 


-  boolom. 


parra. 


-  mea. 

-  toontree. 

-  yimpa. 


PRINCESS    CHARLOTTE'S    BAY. 


391 


No. 

108. — Pelncess  Chahlotte's  Bay — contimied. 

Mouth 

-  kama. 

Boomerang  - 

-  winche. 

Teeth  - 

-  kummun. 

Hill     - 

. 

Hair  of  the  heac 

-  mea. 

Wood  - 

.  yoompa 

Beard - 

-  watta. 

Stone  - 

-  koola. 

Thunder      - 

- 

Camp  - 

-  wippe. 

Grass  - 

- 

Yes      - 

- 

Tongue 

-  darbi. 

No       - 

_ 

Stomach 

-  toolka. 

I 

Breasts 

-  ohacha. 

You     - 

Thigh  - 

-  puhn. 

Bark    - 

Foot  - 

-  takko. 

Good  - 

Bone   - 

- 

Bad     - 

. 

Blood  - 

- 

Sweet  - 

. 

Skin    - 

- 

Food    - 

. 

Fat      - 

- 

Hungry 

- 

Bowels 

- 

Thirsty  ,     - 

- 

Excrement  - 

- 

Eat      - 

. 

War-spear  - 

-  kulka. 

Sleep  - 

Reed-spear  - 

- 

Drink  - 

_ 

Throwing-stick 

-  botcha. 

Walk  - 

Shield 

-  cheege. 

See      - 

Tomahawk  - 

-  wakko. 

Canoe ■ 

-  tandi. 

Sit       - 

Sun     - 

-  wootcha. 

Yesterday  - 

- 

Moon  - 

-  arpe. 

To-day 

Star    - 

-  tumpe. 

To-morrow  - 

- 

Light  - 

- 

Where  are  the 

Dark  - 

- 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    - 

- 

I  don't  know 

- 

Heat  - 

- 

Plenty 

- 

Day     - 

- 

Big      -        - 

- 

Night  - 

- 

Little  - 

. 

Fire    - 

-  yuma. 

Dead   - 

Water 

. 

Smoke 

-  tumpa. 

By-and-by  - 

- 

Ground 

_ 

Come  on 

- 

Wind- 

_ 

Milk   - 

- 

Rain    - 

. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God     - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

. 

Wife   - 

. 

392 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  109.— ENDEAVOUK  EIVEE. 

By  Captain  Cook  and  Captain  P.  P.  King. 

The  following  short  vocabularies  are  extracted,  the  first  from 
the  account  of  Captain  Cook's  Voyages,  as  set  out  in  The 
Voyage  of  Governor  Phillip  to  Botany  Bay,  published  in 
1790,  and  the  second  from  Captain  P.  P.  King's  Survey  of 
the  Coast  of  Australia.  Meul  =  eye  and  gulka  =  spear  are 
the  only  terms  common  in  Australia  which  appear  in  these 
vocabularies.  Several  of  the  words,  however,  are  met  with 
in  the  vocabularies  of  Cape  York,  of  the  Granite  Range  at 
the  head  of  the  Mitchell,  and  of  Weary  Bay.  I  have  not 
been  able  to  obtain  any  original  information  from  this  neigh- 
bourhood. Eemarks  on  the  word  kangaroo  have  been  made 
at  page  27,  vol.  I. 


English. 

Captain  Cook. 

Captain  P.  P.  King. 

Head   -        -         -         - 

Wageegee. 

Hair    -         -        -         - 

Morye   -        -         -         - 

Moreah.  - 

Eyes    .        -        -        - 

Meul      -         -         -        .. 

Me-ell,  caree. 

Ears     -         -         -         - 

Melea    -        :         -        - 

Milkah. 

Nose    -        -         -         - 

Bonjoo  -         -         -     .    - 

Emera,ria,,  pote-er..     , 

Tongue 

Unjar. 

Beard  -        -         -         - 

Wallar  -        -        -         r 

WoUah.      * 

Hands-        -         -        - 

Marigal. 

Thighs 

Coman. 

Eeet     -                 -        - 

Edamal. 

Cockatoo 

Wanda. 

Sun      - 

Gallan. 

Eire      -        -        -        - 

Meanang. 

A  man 

Bama,  bamma. 

Canoe  -        -        -        - 

Marigau 

Maragan. 

Sit        -        -         -        - 

Takai,  tooaya. 

Dog     - 

Cotta,  kota. 

Blood  - 

Garmbe. 

Wood  -        -        -         - 

Yocou. 

Father - 

Dunjo. 

ENDEAVOUR    RIVER. 


393 


English. 

Captain  Cools:. 

Captain  P.  P.  King. 

Woman 

Mootjel. 

Bone    .        -        -        - 

Baityebai. 

Teeth  -        -    ■    - 

MuWre  or  m61e 

Molear. 

Breasts 

Coyor. 

Stomach 

Gippa. 

Kangaroo     - 

Kangooroo     - 

Meuftah. 

Fish     -        -        -        - 

Poteea. 

Water - 

Poorai. 

Earth  -        -        -        - 

Poa-poa. 

Spear  -        -        .         - 

Gulka. 

Wommera   - 

Melpairo. 

Eat      ...        - 

Boota,  yatta. 

Drink  ... 

Chuohala. 

Sit      -       -       .       - 

Tuoai. 

Sleep   ...        - 

Poona. 

Come  hither 

Hala,  mA^. 

Afly    . 

Tabugga,  chapaua. 

No.  110.— WEABY  BAY. 

By  Thomas  Hughes,  Esq. 

A  vocABTJLAET  of  the  language  spoken  at  Weary  Bay  and 
a  few  facts  connected  with  the  tribes  in  that  locality  have 
been  kindly  forwarded  to  me  by  Mr.  Thomas  Hughes. 
Several  tribes,  whose  habits  are  but  imperfectly  known,  live 
in  association  on  the  shores  of  Weary  Bay  and  the  country 
immediately  adjacent.  Their  names  are  Bulpoonarra,  Koo- 
nara,  Wolburra,  Moolburra,  Moo-arra,  Yokarra,  Ikkarra, 
Yekkarra,  Amaggi,  and  Geugagi.  With  the  exception  of 
having  wooden  canoes  with  outriggers  (whether  made  by 
themselves  or  obtained  from  the  Malays  or  others  is  not 
stated),  there  seems  to  be  nothing  to  distinguish  these  from 
other  Australian  tribes.  Thus,  cannibalism  is  practised ; 
their  arms  are  spears,  shields,  and  clubs,  which  they  smear 
with  red  ochre  and  grease  ;  they  make  the  usual  nets  and 
bags,  have  reed  necklaces,  and  dance  the  corroboree.     They 


394 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


also  knock  out  one  or  more  teeth  in  youth,  scar  the  skin,  and 
subject  the  young  males  to  certain  secret  ceremonies.  Cir- 
cumcision, the  terrible  rite,  and  the  marks  of  small-pox  are 
not  met  with  in  this  neighbourhood.  Food,  which  consists 
chiefly  of  yams,  roots,  and  fruits,  is  plentiful  in  the  country 
of  these  tribes. 

Turning  to  the  vocabulary,  we  find  kooea  =Jish;  murra  = 
hand;  meil  =  eye;  kulka  =  spear;  also  that  milk_&'nA.  breasts 
are  expressed  by  the  same  word,  bibi ;  and  that  there  is  but 
one  word  iotfoot  and  track  of  afoot — all  Australian  pecu- 
liarities more  or  less  widely  spread.  Bumma  =  Blackfellom 
is  found  with  little  alteration  in  the  same  sense  at  Endeavour 
Eiver,  and  on  the  head-waters  of  the  Walsh  and  Mitchell 
Rivers. 


No.  no.— WEARY  BAY. 


By  Thomas  Hughes,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

darbar. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum 

kokoren. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  mummera 

Tame  dog    - 

kai-a. 

bumma. 

Wild  dog     - 

3  Blacks      - 

-  koUur  bumma. 

Emu    - 

korundi. 

One     - 

-  nobin. 

Black  duck  - 

kalmaira. 

Two     - 

-  mummera. 

Wood  duck- 

Three  - 

-  kollur. 

Pelican 

bulwarra. 

Four    - 
Father 

Laughing  jackass 
Native  companion 

-  nundin. 

White  cockatoo  - 

bemba. 

Mother 

-  nammo. 

Crow  - 

watta. 

Sister-Elder 

-  pappar. 

Swan  - 

„      Younger 

-  booba. 

Egg     - 

dewan. 

Brother-Elder 

-  yabba. 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

bena. 

„          Younger  yabbado. 

Fish    - 

kooea. 

A  young  man 

-  warroro. 

Lobster 

An  old  man 

-  binanugh. 

Crayfish 
Mosquito     - 
Fly       . 

An  old  woman 
A  baby 

-  gumba-gnmba 

-  gimgal. 

Snake  - 

tingalmo. 

A  White  man 

-  wangar. 

The  Blacks  - 

bumma. 

Children 

-  gungal. 

A  Blackf  ellow 

bumma. 

Head  ,- 

-  tokal. 

A  Black  woman  - 

dalbo. 

Bye     - 

■  meil. 

Nose  - 

Ear     - 

-  njitkabuggir. 

WEARY 

BAY. 

2 

No.  110.— Wkauy  Bay— continued. 

Mouth 

-  unbrga. 

Boomerang  - 

-  wongai. 

Teeth 

-  noman. 

Hill     - 

-  munjal. 

Hair  of  the  head 

- 

Wood  - 

-  toko. 

Beard  - 

-  wallar. 

Stone  - 

-  kulgai. 

Thunder     - 

-  morban. 

Camp  - 

-  yamba. 

Grass  - 

-  karrara. 

Yes     - 

-  yho. 

Tongue 

-  teall. 

No 

-  karrir. 

Stomach 

-  tepar. 

Breasts 

-  bibi. 

I 

-  ngio. 

Thigh-        - 

-  narir. 

You     - 

-  yoono. 

Foot  - 

-  tenna. 

Bark    - 

-  bital. 

Bone  - 

-  paggeboy. 

Good  - 

-  mintii. 

Blood  - 

- 

Bad     - 

-  warrar. 

Skin   - 

-  youalban. 

Sweet  - 

-  talbo. 

Fat     - 

-  wondole. 

Pood  - 

-  mena. 

Bowels 

-  towal. 

Hungry 

-  taquey. 

Excrement  - 

-  dada. 

Thirsty 

-  wawoli. 

War-spear  - 

-  kulka. 

Eat     - 

-  nocal. 

Reed-spear  - 

- 

Sleep  - 

-  warungo. 

Wommera    or 

tekara 

throwing-stick 

Drink  - 

-  nocal. 

Shield 

-  toppar,  wainbil. 

Walk  - 

-  notori. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  tea,  buba. 

See      - 

-  nichal. 

Canoe - 

-  berongaboy. 

Sit      - 

-  bundy. 

Sun     - 

-  ungar. 

Yesterday  - 

-  yeeli. 

Moon  - 

-  kitar. 

To-day 

-  neco. 

Star    - 

-  towar. 

To-morrow  - 

-  ungan. 

Light  - 

-  tingar. 

Where    are   the    yrudowondo 

Dark  - 

-  woltour. 

Blacks? 

bumma  ? 

Cold    - 

-  kiwai. 

I  don't  know 

-  wontong. 

Heat  - 

_ 

Day    - 

. 

Plenty 

-  kokora. 

Night  -        - 

- 

Big     - 

■  teri. 

Fire    - 

-  watchil,  kungin. 

Little  - 

-  buban. 

Water 

-  banna  or  bauna. 

Dead  - 

-  woUai. 

Smoke 

-  nalgo. 

By-and-by  - 

-  tooma. 

Ground 

-  gobo. 

Come  on 

-  kuttai. 

Wind- 

-  kooinar. 

Milk   - 

-  bibi. 

Rain  - 

-  kappar. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God     - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

-  kural. 

Ghosts 

n 

Wife  - 

-  munnar. 

395 


396  THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  111.— AKOONKOON,  PALMEE  EIVER. 

By  Bdwabd  Palmbe,  Esq. 

The  following  vocabulary  and  short  account  of  the  Mirkin 
tribe  were  forwarded  to  me  by  Mr.  Edward  Palmer. 

The  country  of  this  tribe,  which  extends  from  Palmerville 
to  the  junction  of  the  Palmer  and  Mitchell,  is  stated  to  have 
been  first  occupied  by  the  Whites  in  1874,  Mr.  Palmer 
becoming  personally  acquainted  with  it  in  1878.  In  1884, 
the  Mirkin  tribe  had  not  yet  been  "  let  in,"  as  the  phrase 
goes ;  in  other  words,  the  Whites'  were  still  at  war  with 
them,  many  having  been  shot  down  in  retaliation  for  spear- 
ing horses  and  cattle.  From  whom  the  vocabulary  which 
follows  was  obtained  is  not  stated,  but  Mr.  Palmer  mentions 
a  woman  of  the  tribe  being  domesticated  on  his  station,  and 
it  may  have  been  from  her.  Of  the  few  customs  detailed 
but  a  small  portion  are  of  interest.  Cannibalism  and  infan- 
ticide, it  is  stated,  both  prevail ;  the  tribe  is  divided  into  four 
classes  in  connection  with  marriage  laws;  some  of  the  people 
have  their  bodies  scarred;  circumcision  is  not  practised;  two 
teeth  are  knocked  out;  fish  is  procured  by  spearing,  and  also 
by  poisoning  waterholes;  and  a.  drink  is  said  to  be  made 
from  the  Eucalyptus  tetrodonta  and  water  (as  well  as  some 
other  plants)  for  the  cure  of  fever.  This  is  a  curious  fact,  if 
correct. 

As  regards  the  vocabulary,  it  contains  few  of  the  features 
general  in  our  languages.  The  equivalents  of  mother,  spear, 
and  you  are,  however,  undoubtedly  Australian  in  root.  Fire 
and  wood  are  expressed  by  one  word,  breasts  and  milk  by 


AEOONKOON,    PALMER   RIVER.  397 

another ;  and  there  are  distinct  terms  for  elder  and  younger 
brothers  and  elder  and  younger  sisters,  all  of  which  are 
common  features  in  the  languages  of  this  continent. 
Athurur  =  pelican  is  found  on  the  Norman  Eiver. 

In  my  long  list  of  related  tongues,  of  which,  I  am  afraid, 
even  the  ethnologist  will  grow  weary,  many,  nevertheless, 
present  certain  minor  features  of  their  own.  As  a  rule,  time 
has  been  wanting  to  draw  attention  to  details  of  this  sort, 
and  the  student  has  been  left  to  discover  them  for  himself. 
It  may,  however,  be  noticed  here  that  in  some  of  the  voca- 
bularies the  words  generally  comprise  many  syllables,  in 
others  but  few;  that  in  a  third,  r  as  an  initial  sound  is 
common ;  and  in  a  fourth  the  ch  is  absent,  and  so  on.  In 
the  vocabulary  of  the  Mirkin,  the  peculiarity  is  an  unusual 
prevalence  of  o  and  oo  as  initial  sounds.  In  this  as  in  the 
last  vocabulary  eat  and  drink  have  but  one  word  to  express 
them. 


398 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  111.— PALMER  RIVER. 


Kangaroo     - 

innar. 

Opoasum 

oolon. 

Tame  dog    - 

Wild  dog     - 

oota. 

Emu    - 

oorooba. 

Black  duck 

onoogi. 

Wood  duck 

Pelican 

atharoo. 

Laughing  jackass 

Native  companion 

ingibbi. 

White  cockatoo  - 

enbogunby. 

Crow   - 

atha. 

Swan  - 

Egg     -        -        - 

anthool. 

Track  of  a  foot    • 

amul. 

Pish     - 

oyi. 

Lobster 

Crayfish       - 

omothoo. 

Mosquito     - 

ombolum. 

Fly       -          -         - 

amin. 

Snake 

oloor. 

The  Blacks  - 

A  Blackfellow     - 

immi. 

A  Black  woman  - 

aruutha. 

Nose    - 

omo. 

Hand  - 

-  irre. 

2  Blacks       - 

-  immi  impa. 

3  Blacks       - 

immi  aroolko 

One     - 

appool. 

Two    - 

impa. 

Three  - 

aroolko. 

Four    - 

abunji. 

Father 

atheem. 

Mother 

among. 

Sister-Elder 

thuppa. 

„       Younger 

ejeeja. 

Brother-Elder 

athil. 

Youngei 

amoko. 

A  young  man 

agannoong. 

An  old  man 

oolpa. 

An  old  woman 

A  baby 

awillung. 

A  White  man 

Children 

Head  - 

ambogo. 

Eye     - 

immun. 

Ear      - 

iunur. 

AKOONKOON,    PALMER    RIVER. 


399 


No.  111. — Palmek  'RiyEB.—continiied. 

Mouth 

-  amitting. 

Boomerang  - 

-  mulkarra. 

Teeth  - 

-  ookool. 

Hill     - 

-  jakkaro. 

Hak  of  the  head 

-  aUnng. 

Wood  - 

-  oomar. 

Beard  - 

-  aworko. 

Stone  - 

-  oolkon. 

Thunder      - 

- 

Camp  - 

-  ogue. 

Grass  - 

-  ookin. 

Yes      - 

-  yowo. 

Tongue 

-  elpin. 

No      - 

-  anuncha. 

Stomach 

-  oroom. 

I 

-  inun. 

Breasts 

-  onyong. 

Thigh - 

-  amathling. 

You    - 

-  inoo. 

Foot   - 

-  aunil. 

Bark  - 

-  ooukil. 

Bone   - 

-  okko. 

Good  - 

-  oonge. 

Blood  -       - 

-  onyel. 

Bad     - 

-  inthe. 

Skin   - 

-  atteen. 

Sweet  - 

-  inboo. 

Fat     -        - 

-  ongne. 

Pood  - 

-  athenning. 

Bowels 

- 

Hungry 

-  ange. 

Excrement  - 

-  oothun. 

Thirsty 

-  ingky. 

War-spear  - 

-  ulka. 

Eat     - 

-  athathi. 

Reed-spear  - 

Sleep  -        - 

-  enthul. 

Throwing-stick 

-  ombone. 

Drink - 

-  athathi. 

Shield 

-  koolmurra. 

Walk  - 

-  aguUaki. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  egan. 

See      - 

-  tarti. 

Canoe  - 

- 

Sit      - 

_ 

Sun     - 

-  etha. 

Yesterday  - 

-  anunba. 

Moon  - 

-  thargan. 

Today 

-  amilmean. 

Star    - 

-  ilbannoong. 

To-morrow  - 

-  oloong. 

Light  - 

- 

Where    are 

the 

Dark  -        - 

-  ilboong. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold   -       - 

-  oloorgo. 

I  don't  know 

Heat  - 

-  atha. 

Plenty 

. 

Day    - 

-  ethuttaga. 

Night  - 

- 

Big      - 
Little  - 

-  ingam. 

-  otohoo. 

Fire     - 

-  oomar. 

Dead  - 

-  oolbin. 

Water 

-  ogno. 

Smoke 

-  orkoon. 

By-and-by  - 

-  oloolbinunga 

Ground 

-  ogooe. 

Come  on 

- 

Wind-        - 

-  olboongol. 

Milk   - 

-  oyong. 

Rain   - 

-  ogno. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God    - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

-  inmanningam. 

Wife   -        - 

- 

400  THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

No.  112.— THE  LYND  RIVER. 

By  W.  0.  K.  Hill,  Esq.,  Goldfields  Warden,  Geokoetown. 

The  following  information  concerning  the  Queeariburra 
tribe  was  forwarded  to  me  by  Mr.  W.  0.  K.  Hill,  who 
obtained  it  from  Mr.  F.  C.  Urquhart,  Sub-inspector  of 
Native  Mounted  Police.  Burra,  the  termination  of  the 
tribal  name,  will  be  seen  to  be  a  very  common  one  amongst 
the  tribes  which  inhabit  the  country  between  the  Burdekin 
and  the  sea.  This  tribe,  it  is  said,  roams  over  a  large  area, 
frequenting  the  ranges  at  the  head  of  the  Lynd  in  the 
summer  or  wet  season,  and  the  east  coast  in  winter.  But 
the  imperfect  acquaintance  we  have  with  tribes  in  this 
neighbourhood,  and  the  conflicting  accounts  we  receive  of 
the  boundaries  of  their  territories,  renders  it  an  impossibility 
to  map  them  with  any  accuracy. 

This  portion  of  Queensland  the  Whites  began  to  occupy 
in  1872,  and  in  1883  the  Queeariburra  tribe  was  estimated 
by  Mr.  Urquhart  to  consist  of  800  women,  270  men,  and  a 
very  few — say  100 — children.  Assuming  this  estimate  of 
the  women  to  have  been  correct,  and  that  the  females  of  the 
tribe  had  remained  unaltered  since  1872,  I  should  set  down 
the  Queeariburra  population  at  the  date  of  our  occupation  to 
have  been  2,400  men,  800  women,  and  1,600  children,  or 
4,800  persons  in  all,  which  I  consider  to  be  a  decidedly 
excessive  figure.  However  this  may  be,  Mr.  Urquhart 
attributes  the  great  falling  off  in  numbers  to  the  rifle  and 
syphilitic  diseases  introduced  by  the  Whites.  From  his 
account  I  gather  further  th«  following  facts. 

The  Queeariburra,  like  all  the  tribes  in  this  part  of 
Queensland,  go  naked.  They  use  both  the  boomerang  and 
wommera,  which,  together  with  their  clubs,  are  profusely 
painted  a,nd  carved.  One  of  their  principal  articles  of  diet 
is  the  root  of  the  lily.  That  they  are  cannibals  my  informant 
has  had  ocular  demonstration.  No  marks  of  small-pox 
exist,  but  measles,  contracted  no  doubt  from  us,  have  raged 
amongst  them,  and  indeed  between  1860  (and  perhaps 
earlier)   and   1883,   many  tribes    in    various    portions    of 


THE   LYND    RIVER. 


401 


Australia  are  known  to  have  suffered  severely  from  this 
disease.  The  following  are  names  of  individuals  of  the  tribe : 
Men:  Boango,  Milgarday,  and  Jerubo.  Women:  Olono- 
thanga,  Wyoola,  and  Thaloogi.  The  males,  in  exchange  for 
their  daughters  and  sisters,  obtain  as  wives  the  girls  of  other 
tribes,  some  of  whom  are  said  to  become  mothers  so  early  as 
eleven  years  of  age.  Their  children,  as  in  all  other  cases  in 
Australia,  belong  to  the  tribe  of  the  father.  Bronchitis  is 
said  to  be  the  disease  most  prevalent.  This  people  ornament 
themselves  with  scars  and  knock  out  two  front  teeth,  but 
neither  circumcise  nor  pierce  the  septum  of  the  nose. 
Neither  pitcheree  nor  any  other  narcotic  is  known  amongst 
them.  Fish  are  taken  with  hooks,  spears,  and  nets. 
Elaborate  ceremonies  are  in  use  on  the  occasion  of  young 
males  being  accorded  the  privileges  of  men.  The  tribes 
whose  lands  bound  those  of  the  Queeariburra  are  the 
Morruburra,  Ulagona,  and  Warrialgona. 

The  attached  vocabulary  is  a  very  imperfect  one,  and 
evidently  hardly  to  be  relied  on.  It  will  be  noticed,  however, 
by  readers  acquainted  with  the  Eidley's  Kamilaroi  that  the 
Queeariburra  is  the  most  northerly  tribe,  so  far  as  known,  by 
which  Murri  is  used  as  the  equivalent  of  the  Blacks  or  a 
Blackfellow. 


No.    112.— LYND    RIVER. 


Kangaroo  - 
Opossum  ■ 
Tame  dog  - 
Wild  dog  - 
Crow 

Track  of  a  foot 
Fly     -       - 
The  Blacks  - 
A  Blackf ellow 
A  Black  woman 
One     - 
Two    - 
A  young  man 
An  old  man 

VOL.   II. 


avarinowo. 

An  old  woman 

-  ray-molinga. 

moUuUo. 

A  baby 

-  mooloo-mooloo 

podgoro. 

A  White  man 

-  jorujaragee. 

goro. 

Teeth  - 

-  marra-marra. 

karaja. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  manyi-gogee. 

bichqu. 

Fire     - 

-  booandara. 

nyun-nyun. 
murri. 

Yes     - 

-  yanga  (g  soft). 

mall. 

No       - 

-  numbea. 

molinga. 

Hungry 

-  koi-il-lana. 

nyana. 

Where     are 

the  yungoe  murri  ? 

noyuona. 

Blacks  ? 

jolaja. 

I  don't  know 

-  nyan-nyan. 

jolajengaray. 

Dead   - 

-  wongi. 

2C 


402  THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

No.  113.— GRANITE  RANGE,  CLOSE  TO  THE  HEAD 
OF  THE  MITCHELL  RIVER  AND  EAST  OF  THE 
HODGKINSON  GOLDFIELDS. 

By  H.  M.  Mowbray,  Esq. 

This  account  of  the  tribe  wMcli  inliabits  the  granite  range, 
close  to  the  head  of  the  Mitchell  River,  as  well  as  the  accom- 
panying vocabulary,  I  owe  to  the  kindness  of  H.  M.  Mowbray, 
Esq.,  Goldfields  Commissioner  on  the  Hodgkinson  diggings, 
whose  residence  in  the  locality  dates  from  1874,  about  six 
years  back  from  the  time  I  write. 

The  name  of  the  tribe  is  not  known  to  my  informant. 
He  describes  it  as  having  been  numerous,  but  now  much 
reduced  by  its  frequent  encounters  with  the  Native  Police  and 
the  settlers,  as  well  as  by  diseases  introduced  by  the  Whites. 
Individuals  of  this  tribe  live  to  be  very  old,  and  Mr.  Mow- 
bray mentions  one  whose  hair  has  grown  quite  white,  and 
who  is  blind  from  age,  and  seems,  as  far  as  he  can  judge,  to 
be  80  or  perhaps  90  years  of  age.  They  wear  no  clothing  of 
any  sort,  but  when  the  nights  are  cold  cover  themselves  with 
bark  of  the  ti-tree,  and  sleep  surrounded  by  little  fires.  But 
though  they  go  naked,  they  adorn  themselves  with  feathers 
in  the  hair,  diamond-shaped  pieces  of  crystallized  quartz 
round  the  neck,  and  necklaces  of  cockle-shells.  They  also 
smear  the  skin  with  a  mixture  of  grease  and  ruddle,  especially 
when  the  March  flies  are  troublesome,  and  with  pipe-clay 
and  white  ashes  when  dancing  the  corroboree.  The  women 
have  a  variety  of  bags,  made  of  grass,  bark,  or  reeds,  and  the 
men  a  sort  of  bag-net,  constructed  without  knots.  They  have 
also  tomahawks  of  ground  stone,  with  double  cane  handles ; 
spears,  some  of  iron-tree  and  others  of  reeds  or  grass-tree, 
tipped  with  that  wood ;  also  wooden  swords  between  three 
and  four  feet  in  length;  boomerangs  which  return  when 
thrown ;  and  wommeras  or  throwing-sticks.  Their  weapons 
are  sometimes  elaborately  carved,  inlaid  with  shells,  and 


GRANITE  RANGE,  HEAD  OP  MITCHELL  RIVER.        403 

polished  with  wild  fig-tree  leaves.  For  knives  they  have, 
as  usual,  sharp  pieces  of  quartz.  Their  food  in  great  measure 
consists  of  yams,  fruits,  nuts,  kangaroo,  eggs,  fish,  &c.  They 
cook  on  the  coals,  and  also  in  ovens  of  a  temporary  nature, 
using  heated  stones,  and  covering  them  and  the  food  with 
bark  of  the  ti-tree,  and  afterwards  with  earth  in  the  orthodox 
way.  Boys  and  women  are  forbidden  to  eat  certain  sorts  of 
food.  After  a  death  in  the  tribe,  women  must  abstain  from 
meat  for  several  months,  when  the  young  men  are  specially 
enjoined  not  to  make  them  presents  of  game.  No  marks 
of  small-pox  have  been  noticed. 

The  pecuharity  of  this  tribe — for  most  tribes  have  some 
peculiarity — is  the  extent  to  which  they  carry  cannibalism. 
Mr.  Mowbray  informs  me  that  he  has  found  them  roasting 
and  eating  their  own  children.  Prior  to  the  coming  of  the 
Whites,  children  were  killed  for  the  most  trivial  offences, 
such  as  for  accidentally  breaking  a  weapon  as  they  trotted 
about  the  camp.  Marriages  are  made  either  within  or  with- 
out the  tribe,  but  not  between  near  relatives.  The  men  are 
allowed  to  marry  at  about  twenty,  and  the  females  have 
husbands  forced  on  them  when  mere  children.  Some  of  the 
men  have  as  many  as  three  wives,  usually  obtained  in 
exchange  for  female  relatives.  The  principal  diseases  are 
syphilitic,  even  the  children  having  what  is  described  as 
rottenness  of  the  groin.  These,  there  is  no  doubt,  originated 
with  the  Whites.  Fever  also  occurs,  and  is  treated  by  bleed- 
ing the  head.  This  tribe  scar  both  sexes  on  the  chest  and 
stomach.  They  do  not  circumcise.  When  the  males  are 
made  young  men — which  occurs  at  about  twenty  years  of 
age — the  right  upper  tooth  is  knocked  out,  the  septum  of  the 
nose  is  pierced,  and  a  bit  of  reed  worn  through  it.  The  usual 
superstition  about  rain-making  exists,  for  perhaps  every  tribe 
has  a  conjuror,  one  of  whose  accomplishments  is  making  rain 
by  incantation. 

Rude  drawings  of  men,  kangaroo,  moons,  and  other 
things  are  executed  with  red  ochre,  but  there  are  no  drawings 
of  women. 

2  C  2 


404 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE; 


Some  of  tlie  dead  are  buried,  and  others  eaten,  and  their 
bones  wrapped  in  ti-tree  bark,  and  tied  up  with,  twine.  Over 
these  they  often  sing  in  a  mournful  manner,  weeping  and 
fasting.  To  denote  mourning  the  women  wear  twine,  wound 
over  one  shoulder  and  under  the  other.  Their  wars  generally 
originate  in  thefts  of  females,  the  assailants  sneaking  on  their 
foes  and  spearing  them  whilst  asleep.  Eelatives  kiss  each 
other  after  a  long  absence. 

It  is  noticeable  that  in  the  Additional  Words  we  have 
word  wappoon  signifying  lagoon,  and  that  Wappoon  is  the 
native  name  of  the  River  Loddon  in  Victoria.  "To  dive" 
in  the  Additional  Words  is  rendered  molla,  which,  in  the 
Bangerang  language,  means  water. 

This  language  is  evidently  near  akin  to,  but  not  identical 
with,  that  at  the  head  of  the  Walsh  River.  One  or  two 
words,  amongst  others  the  equivalent  of  man,  which  is  a 
most  important  word  for  establishing  the  affinity  or  otherwise 
of  tribes,  show  that  this  language  is  also  related  to  that  of 
the  Endeavour  River.  The  negative  kurree  appears  also 
with  little  change  on  the  Diamantina  and  elsewhere. 


No.  113. — ^Additional  Words. 


Hard  - 

-  dundee. 

Carpet  snake 

-  kunyaka. 

Soft     - 

-  kimma. 

Lagoon 

-  wappoon. 

Sore     - 

-  patchy. 

Shade  - 

-  wapoor. 

Close   - 

-  burry. 

Kiss     - 

-  poimpee. 

Unole  - 

-  kuUgna. 

Cry      - 

-  paltoonee. 

Grandmother 

-  kununee 

Laugh - 

-  munka. 

(ngummee  ?). 

C^mb- 

-  wantiudy. 

Grandfather 

-  ngutchee. 

Ti-tree  bark 

-  wukka. 

Cousin 

-  warree. 

Dilly-bag     - 

-  wanohoo. 

Wild  geese  - 

-  wooppa. 

Horse  - 

-  diarree. 

Stand  up     - 

-  tanninnee. 

Tail     - 

-  pitchee. 

Native  hut  - 

■  ki-yimba. 

Louse  - 

-  kallee. 

Corroboree  - 

-  ooloomoonka. 

Club    - 

-  doori. 

Fight  - 

-  koolee. 

Wooden  sword 

-  wucki. 

Oven   - 

-  koorma. 

Fish  spear   - 

-  yirrimba. 

Bread  - 

-  woolta. 

Sick     - 

-  kucka. 

Ring-tailed 

pittoon. 

White  - 

^  keroo. 

opossum 

Black  - 

-  tarkoo. 

GRANITE  EANGE,  HEAD  OF  MITCHELL  RIVER.        405 


No.  113. — Additional  Words — continued. 


Roan   - 
Urine  - 
Dig     - 
Cover  up     - 
Take  it  up  - 
Throat 
Crooked 
Blend  - 

Running  stream  ■ 
River  - 
Plain  - 
Flat  country 
Rainbow 
Dust   - 


Understand  (see 
Ear) 
Stupid 
Make  a  fire  - 
Honey 
Bees'  nest    - 
Small  bee    - 
Large  bee    - 
Bees'  wax    - 


tiintun. 

kuppee. 

puokelmi. 

nuntelmi. 

wanty-chalmi. 

mannoo. 

rurrunjerree. 

mee-i  moppun. 

tooan. 

warrippa. 

wallingar. 

boUo. 

pampo. 

tappoo. 

jerpo. 

binna. 

binna  pooyan. 

corny  watchoo. 

dilka. 

calimpa, 

wurran. 

tuppoo. 

koopun  doori. 


Cypress  pine 
Swim  - 
Dive    - 
Scrub  turkey 
Mourning  twine 

worn  by  women 
Bark  wrapped 

round  the  bones 

of  the  dead 
Vessel  to  dip 

water 
Grass-tree  stick 

for  making  fire 

by  friction 
Stinging-tree 
Sting  or  burn 
Morning 
Evening 
Crush  - 
Sweat  - 
Ironbark-tree 
Box-tree 

Ironwood-tree     - 
Smell  (see  Sweet) 


kulpur-woor. 

yungoomy. 

woUa. 

dooau. 

murrunkee. 

wuloan. 


tupa-tupa. 
burn. 


millee. 

watcheeohee. 

nurkuppa. 

eli. 

tootahni. 

jilloo. 

roorikan. 

derree. 

wukkoor. 

jilla. 


Food. 


Large  yam  which  tastes  like  quinine 

when  cooked 
Fig-tree,  with  figs  on  stem  - 

Small  fig-tree 

Two  kinds  of  lily  roots  growing  in 

fresh-water  lagoons 
Yam  like  arrowroot    -        -        -        - 
Yam  tasting  like  tobacco    - 
Yam  plentiful   in  wet  seasons    and 

purgative 
Nuts  crushed  and  made  into  bread     - 

Names  of  Men. 
Kinyoo. 
Hogabia, 
Tallo. 
Imbermo. 
Waggerinya. 
Derkoo. 
Wucka. 


hooki. 

ngooli. 

chattamall. 

narroobukkan  and  tellchur, 

koonjingna, 

poondi. 

pullcha. 

wurrumbil. 

Names  of  Women. 
CheraboUoo. 
Turrauttaka. 
Yurmunday. 
Porprnda. 
Tattaburry. 
Pankurmilmutchy. 
Wooraptchin. 


406 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.    113.— GRANITE  RANGE,   HEAD  OF  MITCHELL  RIVEE. 


By  H.  M.  Mowbbat,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  rninya. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum     - 

-  yowwa. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  pumma  mumurra 

Tame  dog    - 

-  kia. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  pumma  kartu. 

Wild  dog     - 

- 

Emu    - 

-  panyan. 

One     - 

-  nupun. 

Black  duck  - 

-  nilli-nilli. 

Two     - 

-  mumurra. 

Wood  duck- 

- 

Three  - 

■  kartu. 

Pelican 

-  tilture. 

Four    - 

-  wappilly. 

Laughing  jackass  wakooka. 

Father 

-  nunchun. 

Native  companion  -worrumbul. 
White  cockatoo  -  ki-eecha. 

Mother 

-  amoo. 

Crow  - 

-  watcha. 

Sister-Elder 

-  pappa. 

Swan  - 

- 

„      Younger 

-  pappa. 

Egg     -       - 

-  derinya. 

Brother-Elder 

-  yuppa. 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  booree. 

„        Younger  yuppa. 

Fish     - 

-  kooyu. 

Lobster 

. 

A  young  man 

-  jirrai. 

Crayfish 

-  mucheecan. 

An  old  man 

-  binga. 

Mosquito     - 

-  puncha. 

An  old  woman 

-  borra. 

Fly     - ■      - 

-  burra-burra. 

A  baby 

-  jampeer. 

Snake  - 

-  yarram. 

A  White  man 

-  beeroo-beeroo. 

The  Blacks  - 

-  pumma. 

Children      - 

A  Blackfellow 

-  pumma. 

A    Black  woman  kunjee  ;  (middle 

Head  - 

-  dungoo. 

(young) 

aged)  talpo. 

Eye     - 

-  mee-i. 

Nose    - 

-  koowoo. 

Ear      - 

-  binna. 

GRANITE  RANGE,  HEAD  OF  MITCHELL  RIVER. 


407 


No.  113.— 

jRANTTE  Range,  He  ad  oe  Mitchell  River — continued. 

Mouth 

-  jowa  or  jiwa. 

Boomerang  - 

-  wangee. 

Teeth  - 

- 

Hill     - 

-  yilimbo. 

Hair  of  the  head-  moonka. 

Wood- 

-  toko. 

Beard  - 

-  walla. 

Stone  - 

-  chunker. 

Thunder     - 

- 

Grass  - 

-  bookan. 

Gamp  - 

-  yampa. 

Tongue 

-  nappil. 

Yes     - 

-  yae. 

Stomach 

-  juppa. 

No      - 

-  kurree. 

Breasts 

-  pippee. 

I 

-  niyoo. 

Thigh  - 

-  tatta. 

You    - 

-  yunto. 

Foot  - 

-  jinna. 

Bark  - 

-  woolunga. 

Bone  - 

-  durree. 

Good  - 

-  minnee. 

Blood  - 

-  kerkun. 

Bad    - 

-  nooyan. 

Skin   -       - 

-  yulpan. 

Sweet - 

-  minnee. 

Fat     - 

-  toopun. 

Food  - 

_ 

Bowels 

-  burroo. 

Hungry 

-  wonki. 

Excrement  - 

-  tatta. 

War-spear  - 

-  kulka. 

Thirsty 

-  wawoo. 

Eat     - 

-  nookununee. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  pappoor. 

Wommera    or 

takowanchaleni, 

Sleep  - 

-  wooni. 

throwing-stick 

murkoo. 

Drink - 

-  wookummee. 

Shield-        - 

-  kunjurin. 

Walk- 

-  dunganee. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  wyambi. 

See      - 

-  nacheechee. 

Canoe  - 

- 

Sit       - 

-  poondandee. 

Sun    - 

-  unga. 

Yesterday  - 

-  yeUa  jerpojerpa. 

Moon  - 

-  reetchur. 

To-day 

-  nike. 

Star    - 

-  kooroopitche. 

To-morrow  - 

-  jerpojerpa. 

Light  - 

-  ulnoor. 

Where    are 

the  werjimpapumma? 

Dark  - 

-  peetohur. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold   -        - 

-  wakuree. 

I  don't  know 

-  wanchum  karilla. 

Heat  - 

-  ulpin. 

Day    - 

-  imgaranga. 

Plenty 

-  wapilly. 

Night  -       - 

-  peetchur. 

Big     -        - 

-  muchan. 

Fire    - 

-  humee  or  oomj. 

Little  - 

-  poopi. 

Water 

-  patna. 

Dead  - 

-  oolin. 

Smoke 

-  koopoo. 

By-and-by  - 

-  tumma. 

Ground 

-  borra. 

Come  on 

-  kutta. 

Wind- 

-  koomge. 

Milk    - 

-  parumba. 

Rain  - 

-  patna. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  yellingar. 

God    -       - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

-  nunda. 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife  - 

-  munya. 

408  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  114.— NEAE  THE  HEAD  OF  THE  WALSH 
RIVER. 

By  John  Athbrton,  Esq. 

The  following  particulars  concerning  a  tribe  located  near  the 
head  of  the  Walsh  River,  in  the  Cook  District  of  Queens- 
land, as  also  the  attached  vocabulary,  which  resembles  a 
good  deal  that  of  the  Gilbert,  I  owe  to  the  kindness  of  Mr. 
John  Atherton. 

The  country  of  this  tribe,  Mr.  Atherton  informs  me,  was 
occupied  as  a  squatting  station  in  1876,  and  the  attacks 
made  by  the  Blacks  on  the  stock  led  to  a  considerable 
slaughter  of  the  original  possessors  of  the  soil.  This  tribe 
wear  no  clothes.  Some  amongst  them  seem  to  have  reached 
the  age  of  70  or  80  years.  They  have  small  bags  made  of 
cane,  and  others  of  strong  grass.  Their  tomahawks  are 
ground,  and  have  handles  of  cane  wrapped  round  them,  and 
secured  in  the  usual  way.  The  boomerang  is  not  in  use, 
but  long  wooden  swords,  wommeras,  and  shields  are,  and 
are  nicely  painted.  For  cutting,  they  use  pieces  of  quartz. 
Kangaroo  are  speared,  and  taken  in  pits.  When  pushed  for 
food,  the  people  resort  to  cannibalism.  Polygamy  is  in 
vogue,  and  marriages  occur  both  within  and  without  the 
tribe.  The  females  have  children,  it  is  thought,  as  early  as 
twelve  years  of  age.  Infanticide  has  always  been  practised 
in  the  tribe.  They  scar  the  skin,  and  pierce  the  septum  of 
the  nose.    Their  dead  are  sometimes  burnt,  and  sometimes 


NEAR  THE  HEAD  OF  THE  WALSH  RIVER.  409 

buried;  but  it  is  common  in  this  and  in  several  other  tribes 
on  the  Mitchell  and  Palmer  to  carry  about  the  bones  of  the 
dead  for  some  months,  wrapped  up  in  ti-tree  bark.  •  This 
people  sometimes  kiss  when  saluting,  and  make  rude 
paintings,  whether  on  sheets  of  bark  or  on  slabs  of  stone 
Mr.  Atherton  does  not  say. 


410 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  114.— NEAR  THE  HEAD  OP  THE  WALSH  RIVER. 


By  John  Atheeton,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

yuree. 

Hand  - 

-  muUa. 

Opossum     - 

kuthera. 

2  Blacks      - 

. 

Tame  dog    - 

3  Blacks      - 

. 

Wild  dog    - 

oundoo. 

One     - 

-  werrba. 

Emu    - 

cubbaree. 

Black  duck  - 

coobaree. 

Two    - 

-  boolerry. 

Wood  duck  - 

Three - 

-  koorberra. 

Pelican 

kuuumbirra. 

Four  - 

-  moorka. 

Laughing  j  aokass 

karooburra. 

Father 

-  kiana. 

Native  companion 

kooloora. 

Mother 

-  yabama. 

White  cockatoo  ■ 

kiambuUa. 

Sister-Elder 

-  yabooroo. 

Crow  -        -        - 
Swan  -        -        - 

wut-thagun. 

„      Younger 

-  ngiey. 

Egg     -        •        - 

goo-gooje. 

Brother-Elder 

-  moogina. 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

dinna. 

„          Young( 

3r  burrgnun. 

Fish    - 

kooyoo. 

A  young  man 

-  murrgurra 

Lobster 

An  old  man 

-  birmga. 

Crayfish 

An  old  woman 

-  tumby. 

Mosquito     - 
Ely     - 

thallow  (?). 
moonool. 

A  baby 

-  ngunga. 

Snake 

thumble. 

A  White  man 

-  migooloo. 

The  Blacks - 

moorka. 

Children      - 

- 

A  Blaokfellow     - 

bamma. 

Head  - 

-  kut-thul. 

A  Black  woman  - 

wurrgnoo. 

Eye    - 

-  diUy. 

Nose  -       -       - 

kootha. 

Bar     - 

-  munga. 

NEAR  THE  HEAD  OF  THE  WALSH  RIVER. 


411 


No.  114. — Near  the  Head  of  the  Walsh  Rivee — continued. 


Mouth - 

-  thowa. 

Boomerang  - 

-  wungul. 

Teeth  - 

-  leera. 

Hill     - 

burry. 

Hair  of  the  heac 

-  moora. 

Wood  - 

thoola. 

Beard  - 

-  thulba. 

Stone  - 

burry. 

Thunder 

-  cheekooroo. 

Grass  - 
Tongue 
Stomach 

-  yakoo. 

-  thuUung. 

-  boongirr. 

Camp  - 

Yes      - 
No       - 

yumbunga. 

yo-i. 

kurra. 

Breasts 

-  ngammoon. 

I 

■  ngia,  ngoongool. 

Thigh  - 

-  yuTigurra. 

You     - 

inda. 

Foot    - 

-  dinna. 

Bark    - 

bulgun. 

Bone    - 

-  balbun. 

Good    - 

-  thurreburra. 

Blood  - 

-  kooma. 

Bad      - 

wurgoo. 

Skin    -        - 

-  thilly. 

Sweet  - 

-  bunga. 

Fat     - 

-  thummy. 

Food    - 

Bowels 

-  thoothoor. 

Hungry 

kooyee. 

Excrement  - 

-  goona. 

Thirsty 

oora. 

War-spear   - 

-  kulka. 

Eat      - 

oothalgoo. 

Reed-spear  - 

Sleep   - 

ooka. 

Wommera    or 

oomboon. 

Drink  - 

oothalgo    (same 

throwing-stick 

as  to  eat). 

Shield-       - 

-  pickin. 

Walk  - 

yanuinga. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  yappa. 

See       - 

nguka. 

Canoe  - 

- 

Sit 

nginna. 

Sun     - 

-  kurry. 

Yesterday    - 

-  oorrgooloo. 

Moon  - 

-  buUauoo. 

To-day 

-  ngilla. 

Star     - 

-  boorrgunga. 

To-morrow  - 

-  goondamoo. 

Light  - 

-  ngunda. 

Where  are  the 

wia  bamma  ? 

Dark  - 

■  goonda. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    - 

-  kittoor. 

I  don't  know 

-  kurra     ngia 

Heat    - 

-  bangiue. 

ngugga. 

Day     - 

-  ngilla. 

Plenty 

-  moorga. 

Night  - 

-  goondunga. 

Big      -        - 

■  moongarroo. 

Fire     ■ 

-  birree. 

Little  - 

■  wobbooroo. 

Water  - 

-  komoo,    kamoo. 

Dead    - 

oolunga. 

Smoke - 

-  thooka,   chooka. 

By-and-by  - 

Ground 

-  nurmy. 

Come  on 

nguUy  ytmnagoo 

Wind  - 

-  yookun. 

Milk    - 

ngammoon. 

Rain    - 

komoo. 

Eaglehawk  - 

God     -        . 

-  goen. 

Wild  turkey 

goonoomuUy. 

Ghosts 

goen. 

Wife 

boor-bai-ey. 

412 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  115.  — COUNTRY  ABOUT  THORNBOROUGH 
DIGGINGS,  AND  NEAR  THE  HEAD  OP 
THE  MITCHELL. 

By  0.  W.  HoDGKiNSON,  Esq.,  Goldfields  Warden. 

The  following  vocabulary,  kindly  forwarded  to  me  by  Mr, 
0.  W.  Hodgkinson,  has  several  points  of  interest.  It 
contains  the  sounds  of  the  letters  v,  g,  and  ch;  its  equivalent 
for  Blackfellow  is  found  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Peake 
Downs,  and  those  oi  foot,  milk,  war-spear,  no,  and  m/e,  but 
little  altered,  in  various  parts  of  the  Australian  continent. 


No.  115.— COUNTRY  ABOUT  THORNBOROUGH  DIGGINGS,  ETC. 
By  0.  W.  Hodgkinson,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  nombo-voramook. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum      - 

-  yowa. 

2  Blacks      - 

. 

Tame  dog   - 

-  kaya. 

3  Blacks      - 

_ 

Wild  dog    - 

-  the  same. 

One     - 

-  noobttn. 

Emu    - 

-  punjun. 

Two    - 

-  churnbooloo. 

Black  duck  - 
Wood  duck- 

-  nyelli-nyelli. 

Three  - 

-  kootohoo. 

Pelican 

-  cherra. 

Four   - 

-  chungortoha 

Laughing  jackass  wako-ga. 

Father 

-  ungttn. 

Native  companion  koorchal. 

Mother        : 

-  namo. 

White  cockatoo 

-  keama. 

Sister-Elder 

-  kummega. 

Crow 

-  wichtlka. 

,,     Younger 

-  parbiirra. 

Swan 

- 

Brother-Elder 

-  yabbttr. 

Egg 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  unga. 

-  chlnna. 

„         Younger  yabooga. 

Fish    -        - 

-  kumma. 

A  young  man 

-  wooaitom 

Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito    - 

-  cheewagga. 

-  tingee. 

An  old  man 
An  old  woman 

pamgoo. 

-  peengtigS. 

-  kumba. 

Fly      - 

-  kumma. 

A  baby 

-  poorpa. 

Snake  - 

-  kope. 

A  White  man 

-  muUoo  (?). 

The  Blacks  - 

-  natchin 

Children 

-  namwalka. 

A  Blackfellow 

-  pamma. 

Head  - 

-  tungo. 

A  Black  woman 

-  moolimooli. 

Eye     - 

-  mirra. 

Nose  - 

-  wimo. 

Ear      - 

-  pinna. 

COUNTRY  ABOUT  THORNBOROUGH  DIGGINGS.        413 


No.  115.— Con 

NTBT  ABOUT  Thobnborofgh  Digoinos,  1.10.— Continued 

Mouth 

-  chunna. 

Boomerang  - 

-  wongiil. 

Teeth  - 

-  tirra. 

Hill     - 

-  yoombS. 

Hair  of  the  head  mOnga.                     1 

Wood  (or  tree) 

-  chookoo. 

Beard  - 

-  ilnga. 

Stone  - 

-  koorchi. 

Thunder     - 

-  yerrarrg. 

Camp  - 

-  yambra. 

Grass  - 

-  niimba. 

Yes     - 

-  yoo-ai. 

Tongue 

-  nyabbil. 

No       - 

-  kurri. 

Stomach 

-  choorpoo. 

Breasts 

-  toomoo. 

I 

-  najya. 

Thigh 

-  peepa. 

You    - 

-  yilndoo. 

Foot   - 

-  chmna. 

Bark  - 

-  yoorlbiln, 

Bone  - 

-  yelka. 

oongfll. 

Blood  - 

-  kowli. 

Good  -        - 

-  minni. 

Skin  - 

-  purra. 

Bad     -        - 

-  warra. 

Fat     - 

-  koormoo. 

Sweet  - 

-  karka, 

Bowels 

-  kukktoi. 

purra,  wurri. 

Excrement  - 

-  tatchS. 

Food  - 

-  mai-I. 

War-spear  - 

-  kulka. 

Hungry 

-  willingiirra. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  ntimbra. 

Thirsty 

-  Wowoolim. 

Wommera  - 

-  poomum. 

Eat     - 

-  durngd. 

Shield 

-  koolmiirri. 

Sleep  - 

-  woomba. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  kongul. 

Drink  - 

-  cherbSe. 

Canoe 

- 

Walk  - 

-  yuuda,  toornga 

Sun    - 

-  woongga. 

See      - 

-  natchiUa. 

Moon  - 

-  geetcha. 

Sit      - 

-  tatcha. 

Star    - 

-  moorta. 

Yesterday  - 

-  naatago. 

Light  - 

-  tiUngrri. 

To-day 

-  kneeko. 

Dark  - 

-  peechurtm. 

To-morrow  - 

-  woomgun. 

Cold   -        - 

-  wokkfirri. 

Where    are    the    yurriinga 

Heat  - 

-  woongalli. 

Blacks? 

natchin  ? 

Day    - 

-  oongtln, 

I  don't  know 

-  cherkundi. 

woongooin. 

Plenty 

-  chungori. 

Night 

-  peechurtm. 

Big      - 

-  poolmaburra. 

Fire    - 

-  woondoo. 

Little  - 

-  poopaiaba. 

Water 

-  kokS. 

Dead  - 

-  ola. 

Smoke 

-  kopo. 

By-and-by 

- 

Ground 

-  poorra. 

Come  on      - 

-  karta. 

Wind- 

-  quingal. 

Milk  - 

-  pepi. 

Rain    - 

-  narrl. 

Eaglehawk 

-  yamgtil. 

God     -        - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

-  tewan. 

Ghosts 

Wife   -        - 

-  munyurre. 

414 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  116.— GEAOTTE  EANGE,  AT  THE  HEAD  OF 
THE  WALSH  EIVBE. 

By  R.  R.  Davidson,  Esq. 

This  vocabulary  differs  but  little  from  No.  113.  The  equiva- 
lents of  Blackfellow  show  that  the  two  vocabularies  belong 
to  separate  tribes.  The  equivalent  of  canoe  is  imuch  the 
same  as  in  the  Endeavour  Eiver  language. 


No.  116.— GRANITE  RANGE,  HEAD  OP  WALSH  RIVER. 
By  R.  R.  Davidson,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

chunebudno. 

Hand  - 

murra. 

Opossum 

2  Blacks      - 

Tame  dog    - 

gya- 

.  3  Blacks      - 

Wild  dog     - 

One     - 

nuboon. 

Emu    - 

koorangee. 

Black  duck  - 

Two     - 

mummera. 

Wood  duck- 

Three  - 

koortoo. 

Pelican 

Four    - 

tangoor. 

Laughing  jackass 

warcooga. 

Father 

Native  companior 

I 

Mother 

White  cockatoo  - 

Crow  - 

Sister-Elder 

Swan  - 

„     Younger 

Egg     -        -        - 

Brother-Elder 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

„       Youngei 

Fish    - 

kooyoo. 

Lobster 

A  young  man 

Crayfish 

An  old  man 

Mosquito     - 

boonger  or  bun- 

An  old  woman 

ger. 

A  baby 

Fly      -        -         - 

burra-burra. 

A  White  man 

Snake  - 

Children      - 

The  Blacks  - 

A  Blackfellow     - 

girreh. 

Head  - 

tungoo. 

A  Black  woman  - 

talpoo. 

Eye     - 

mirriaworker 

Nose   - 

go. 

Ear     - 

bidna. 

GRANITE  RANGE,  HEAD  OF  "WALSH  RIVER. 


415 


No.  116. — Geanite  Range,  head  of  Walsh  Rivek — continued. 


Mouth 

Boomerang  - 

-  wungie. 

Teeth  - 

dirra. 

HUl     - 

Hair  of  the  head 

moongur. 

Wood  - 

-  batohu. 

Beard  - 

Thunder     - 

woorumpar- 

Stone  - 

-  junga. 

bidna. 

Camp  - 

- 

Grass  - 

marpoor,  bookan. 

Yes     - 

- 

Tongue 

nabbie. 

No       - 

Stomach 

I 

Breasts 

You     - 

Thigh  - 

Bark   - 

Foot   - 

chidner. 

Good  - 

-  minnie. 

Bone  - 

Blood  - 

-  kerkoon. 

Bad     - 

-  boyoon. 

Skin    -        - 

Sweet  - 

- 

Fat     - 

Food   - 

- 

Bowels 

Hungry 

Excrement  - 

Thirsty 

- 

War-spear  ■ 

Eat      - 

-  junkie. 

Reed-spear  - 

Sleep  - 

-  woodna. 

Wommera  or 

Drink  - 

thro  wing-stick 

Walk  - 

. 

Shield - 

- 

See      - 

Tomahawk  - 

Sit 

Canoe  - 

-  murregan. 

Sun     - 

-  woogna. 

Yesterday   - 

- 

Moon  - 

- 

To-day 

Star    - 

. 

To-morrow  - 

- 

Light  - 

Where    are 

the 

Dark  - 

Blacks? 

Cold    - 

I  don't  know 

Heat  - 

- 

Plenty 

-  wabulli. 

Day     - 

Big      - 

Night  - 
Fire     - 

Little  - 

-  poopuUangan 

" 

Dead   - 

-  woodna. 

Water 

-  bunna. 

Smoke 

By-and-by  - 

Ground 

. 

Come  on 

- 

Wind  -     ■  - 

_ 

Milk   - 

- 

Rain    - 

- 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God     . 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

-  bero. 

Wife   - 

416 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  116. — Additional  Words. 


Heel    - 

chugar. 

Talking 

-  yalle  kunaker 

Sole  of  foot  - 

-  doombur. 

To  sing 

-  koko. 

Toe     - 

-  karkoo. 

Fowl   - 

-  moorka. 

Throat 

ooroongooden. 

Kiss     - 

-  tapoombi. 

-  kulka. 

Wings  (see  hand) 

-  murra. 

Hill     - 

Ants    - 
Girl     - 

jinga-jinga. 
murker. 

Knife  - 

-  mukkii. 

Hailstone     - 

karparangoor. 

Moustache  - 

-  nurume. 

Leaf    - 

pera. 

Finger-nails 

-  millgroo. 

River  - 

jaloon. 

Naked 

-  gittar. 

To  speak     - 

kulker. 

To  cry 

-  bunbuddi. 

No.  117.— HKAT)  OF  GILBERT  RIVER. 

By  Edward  Cure,  Esq. 

Kangaroo     - 

uree. 

Hand  - 

mulla. 

Opossum 

kuttara. 

2  Blacks      - 

noong  gooi. 

Tame  dog    - 

uUimboo. 

3  Blacks      - 

Wild  dog     - 
Emu    - 

kubberi. 

One     - 

noong. 

Black  duck  - 

coobbari. 

Two     - 

bnllaroo. 

Wood  duck- 

Three  - 

Pelican 

kunnul. 

Four    - 

Laughing  jackass  poolemba. 

Father 

kaia. 

Native  companion 

Mother 

yebunneboo. 

White  cockatoo  - 

Crow   - 

waduggan. 

Sister-Elder 

purrinul. 

Swan  - 

,,      Younger 

Egg     -         -        - 

woobnurra. 

Brother-Elder     - 

koornigul. 

Track  of  a  foot     ■ 

yelga. 

„        Younger 

Fish     - 

kooyoo. 

A  young  man 

kulyina. 

Lobster 

An  old  man 

Crayfish 

An  old  woman 

Mosquito     - 
Fly      - 

kooingarr. 

A  baby 

baloona. 

Snake  - 

d'thumbul. 

A  White  man 

The  Blacks  ■ 

gooi. 

Children 

A  Blackf ellow     - 

Head  - 

A  Black  woman  - 

warrungoo. 

Eye     - 

diUi. 

Nose   - 

kooda. 

Ear      - 

munga. 

HEAD    OP    GILBERT   RIVER. 


417 


No.  117. — Head  of  Gilbebt  RrrEB.— continued. 


Mouth 

d'thulli. 

Boomerang  - 

Teeth  - 

-  kira. 

Hill     - 

Hair  of  the  head 

■  koonaroo. 

Wood  -        -        -  kaibool 

Beard  - 

d'thulba. 

Stone  -        -        -  purri. 

Thunder     - 
Grass  - 

mooroonggooloo. 
yagoo. 

Camp  -        -         -  yamba. 
Yes      - 

Tongue 

d'thuUi. 

No      -        -        - 

Stomach 

I          -                - 

You    - 

Bark   -        -         -  kooka. 

Breasts 
Thigh - 
Foot   - 

turra. 
tinna. 

Bone  - 

-  moogoo. 

Good  - 

Blood  - 

-  kineba. 

Bad     - 

Skin   -        - 

thingoo. 

Sweet-        -        -  koorja. 

Fat     - 

Pood   - 

Bowels 

Hungry 

Excrement  - 

Thirsty 

War-spear  - 

-  bungi. 

Eat      - 

Reed-spear  - 

Sleep  - 

Wommera  or 

Drink  - 

throwLQg-stick 

Walk  - 

Shield 

Tomahawk  - 
Canoe  - 
Sun     - 
Moon  ■ 

-  koobnarri. 

-  kurri. 

-  buUanoo. 

See      - 

Sit       -        -         - 

Yesterday   - 

To-day 

Star     - 

-  ugilla. 

To-morrow  - 

Light  - 

-  kurbella. 

Where  are  the 

Dark  - 

-  koonda. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    - 

-  kiddoo. 

I  don't  know 

Heat   - 

- 

Plenty 

Day     ■ 

- 

Big      - 

Night  ■        - 

- 

Little  - 

Fire     - 

-  kaibool. 

Dead  - 

Water 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind-        - 
Rain   - 

-  kummoo. 

-  d'thunboobaroo. 

-  uanni. 

-  gowri. 

-  kummoo. 

By-and-by  - 
Come  on 
Milt    - 
Baglehawk  - 

God     -       - 

. 

Wild  turkey 

Ghosts 

Wife   - 

VOL.  n. 

i 

D 

418  ,  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE  : 


No.  118.— HINOHINBROOK  ISLAND  AND  THE 
MAINLAND  ADJACENT. 

By  M.  Aemstrong,  Esq.,  Inspector  of  Police,  and  John  Mukrat,  Esq, 

Of  the  tribe  which  occupies  Hinchinbrook  Island  and  the 
mainland  adjacent  I  have  received  two  fragmentary  accounts. 
One  is  from  Mr.  M.  Armstrong,  Inspector  of  Police,  who 
informs  me  that  the  country  of  the  tribe  was  first  occupied  by 
the  Whites  in  1863  or  thereabouts.  The  tribe  wore  no  clothes 
in  their  original  state,  but  those  who  are  now  (in  1880)  allowed 
to  come  to  Cardwell  do  so.  They  use  for  ornaments  neck- 
laces made  of  red  berries,  and  the  men  smear  the  person 
with  grease,  red  ochre,  and  pipe-clay  when  preparing  to  fight. 
They  have  bags  made  of  cane,  tomahawks  ground  smooth, 
and  boomerangs  which  return  when  thrown.  Their  spears 
are  carved,  which  is  unusual,  and  thrown  with  the  wommera 
or  throwing-stick.  Cannibalism  used  to  be  practised 
amongst  them,  and  they  have  been  known  to  eat  White 
men.  They  scar  the  skin,  the  males  on  the  back,  and  the 
females  on  the  shoulders  and  arms.  Their  canoes  are  of 
bark,  sewn  and  bound  with  cane  and  fibres  of  bark.  Fish  is 
caught  with  nets  and  with  hooks  made  of  bone.  The  people 
of  the  tribe  signalize  each  other  by  columns  of  smoke  sent 
up  through  hollow  logs. 

My  other  correspondent,,  Mr.  John  Murray,  informs  me 
that  the  tribe  is  divided  into  four  classes  like  that  of  Wide 
Bay,  which  he  contrasts  in  this  way: — 

Wide  Bat  Classes.  Hinchinbrook  Island  Classes. 
Trawyne.  Koorkeela. 

Buudu.  KookooroQ. 

Barrang.  Woongo. 

Balgoin.  Wooitoheroo. 


HmCHINBROOK   ISLAND,    ETC. 


419 


These  names  of  tlie  Hinchinbrook  classes  have  much  in 
common  with  those  of  Port  Mackay.  Mai  =  Blackfellom 
is  also  found  on  the  Lynd. 

The  following  Vocabulary  and  Additional  Words  were 
contributed  by  Mr.  Murray : — 


Additional  Woeds. 

Ship- 

-  woorbi. 

Wooden  sword 

-  bakkaroo. 

Bucket 

-  noopa. 

Necklace     - 

-  angyerri. 

Bag    -        - 

-  kakkirra. 

Horse 

-  thiarri. 

Pigeon  - 

-  woorgoodjo. 

Bullock 

-  toomoorberoo 

Scrub  turkey 

-  koorgerri. 

Blanket,  also 

kumbi. 

Club  - 

•  koolungoo. 

clothes 

Z  D  2 


420 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  118.— HINCHINBROOK  ISLAND. 


By  John  Murray,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

burgun. 

Hand  - 

-  munndai. 

Opossum 

meetin. 

2  Blacks       - 

-  yekkamal. 

Tame  dog    - 

wooyou. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  kurrboo  mal. 

Wild  dog    - 

Emu    - 

koondooloo. 

One     - 

-  yoongool. 

Black  duck  - 

cooberie. 

Two    - 

-  yekka. 

Wood  duck  - 

Three  - 

-  kurrboo. 

Pelican 

wookoolooloo. 

Four  - 

-  tukkin. 

Laughing  jackass 

koorallan. 

Father 

-  tonga. 

Native  companion 

terroi. 

White  cockatoo 

kiambala. 

Mother 

-  yappo. 

Crow  - 

wagun. 

Sister-Elder 

-  tunde. 

Swan  - 

woolboo. 

„      Younger 

- 

Egg    - 

bamboo. 

Brother-Elder 

-  telamboo. 

Track  of  a  foot 

pinghun. 

,,          Younger 

Fish    - 

-  taboo. 

A  young  man 

-  kooki. 

Lobster 

-  yeekerra. 

An  old  man 

-  keeline. 

Crayfish 

-  mouwa. 

An  old  woman 

-  weeke-weeke 

Mosquito     - 

-  quoy-quoy. 

Ply        .            . 

-  mabuU. 

A  baby 

-  yeppe. 

Snake 

-  winjai. 

A  White  man 

-  kooin. 

The  Blacks  - 

-  mal. 

Children     - 

-  yeppe-yeppe. 

A  Blackfellow 

-  mal. 

Head  - 

-  booyoo. 

A  Black  woman 

-  tumpe-tumpe. 

Eye     - 

-  kuyka. 

Nose    - 

-  wooroo. 

Ear     - 

-  beena. 

HINCHINBROOK   ISLAND,    ETC. 


421 


No.   118. — HiNCHiNBKOOK  ISLAND — Continued. 


Mouth 

-  unda. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

-  yeera. 

Hill     - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  karran. 

Wood  - 

-  wambooy. 

Beard  - 

-  tuUba. 

Stone  - 

-  barrie. 

Thunder      - 

-  tchickaroo. 

Camp  - 

-  meetcha. 

Grass  - 

-  bunboo. 

Yes     - 

-  nghee. 

Tongue 

-  talline. 

No       ■ 

-  mya. 

Stomach 

-  kooUto. 

I 

-  ipa. 

Breasts 

-  ngamoon. 

You     - 

-  eenda. 

Thigh 

-  wucka. 

Bark   - 

-  kooka. 

Foot    - 
Bone   ■ 
Blood  - 
Skin    -        - 
Fat      - 

-  pinguin. 

-  toolkill. 

-  koorai. 

-  yoonga. 

-  tumme. 

Good   - 
Bad     - 

Sweet  - 
Food   - 

-  muUee. 

-  weakee. 

-  toongoo. 

-  mootcha. 

Bowels 

-  woomba. 

Hungry 

•  umeree. 

Excrement  - 

-  goonang. 

Thirsty 

-  coorungooi. 

War-apear  - 

-  kulgie. 

Eat      - 

-  eenda      mootcha 

B«ed-spear  - 

-  tohip-pLa-kulgie. 

(you  eat). 

Wommera  or 

yoolmun. 

Sleep  - 

-  boongai. 

throwingstiok 

Drink  - 

-  yungna      or 

Shield-        - 

-  peekinn. 

tunghna. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  kawearie. 

Walk  - 

-  woongha. 

Canoe  - 

-  woolgo. 

See 

-  oonda. 

Sun     - 

-  weeyee. 

Sit       - 

-  tcheega. 

Moon  - 

■  nillghun. 

Yesterday   - 

-  kulmarra. 

Star     - 

-  yeargilingera. 

To-day 

-  cunyou. 

Light  ■ 

-  yungarie. 

To-morrow  - 

-  tetillgo. 

Dark  - 

-  nghoona. 

Where    are 

the    wingia  mal  ? 

Cold    -        - 

-  kibool. 

Blacks  ? 

Heat   - 

-  kelanghie. 

I  don't  know 

-  beei  wingia. 

Day     - 

- 

Plenty 

-  duckin. 

Night  - 

-  woonanghu. 

Big      -        - 

-  woorbie. 

Fire     - 

-  wambooi. 

Little  - 

-  toMppin. 

Water 

-  kummoo. 

Dead   - 

-  wooli. 

Smoke 

-  boonoong. 

By-and-by  - 

-  maumoo. 

Ground 

-  kiee. 

Come  on 

-  kaau. 

Wind- 

-  ghimboolanie. 

Milk    - 

- 

Eain    ■ 

-  yookun. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God     - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

. 

Wife    - 

- 

422 


THE   AUSTRALIAN  RACE : 


No.    119.— HERBERT    RIVER. 


By  William  S.  Stephen,  Esq. 


In  this  vocabulary  war-spear 
a  very  common  root  for  strike, 
wood. 


seems  to  be  derived  from  booma  or  hoomga, 
There  is  but  one  word  to  express^™  and 


Kangaroo     - 

koobla. 

Opossum 

mitten. 

Tame  dog     - 

whoyyer. 

Wild  dog     - 

Emu    - 

Black  duck  - 

kumboonoo. 

Wood  duck  - 

Pelican 

Laughing  jackass 

kowgurra. 

Native  companion 

White  cockatoo   - 

Crow  - 

wawgun. 

Swan  -        -        - 

Egg     -        -        - 

bumboo. 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

toobna. 

Fish    - 

kooia. 

Lobster 

Crayfish 

Mosquito     - 

koommo. 

Ply      - 

marbul. 

Snake  -        -        - 

wingee. 

The  Blacks  - 

A  Blackfellow      - 

koonga. 

A  Black  woman  - 

Nose    - 

wooroo. 

Hand  - 

-  mundi. 

2  Blacks       - 

3  Blacks      - 

One     - 

-  yunegul. 

Two     - 

-  yugga. 

Three  - 

-  karrbo. 

Pour    - 

Pather 

■  tunga. 

Mother 

-  yabboo. 

Sister-Elder 

-  tundi. 

,,       Younger 

Brother-Elder 

-  googoon. 

„        Young 

er 

A  young  man 

An  old  man- 

-  kittun. 

An  old  woman 

A  baby 

-  wuUomorgo 

A  White  man 

Children 

Head   ■ 

-  bulgow. 

Eye     - 

-  mill. 

Ear      - 

-  binna. 

HERBERT    RIVER. 


423 


No.  119.— Heebekt  River — cmttinued. 

Mouth- 

■  uuda. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

-  era. 

Hill     -        - 

. 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  chingo. 

Wood  - 

-  mmgo. 

Beard  - 

- 

Stone  - 

-  barrie. 

Thunder      - 

-  koondoono. 

Camp  - 

. 

Grass  - 

-  boogun. 

Yes     - 

Tongue 

-  tallan. 

Stomach 

-  woomba. 

No 

- 

Breasts        -  ■ 

-  ummoon. 

I-       -       - 

- 

Thigh - 

-  wugga. 

You     - 

- 

Foot    - 

-  biugum. 

Bark  - 

- 

Bone    - 

-  toogil. 

Good  - 

_ 

Blood  - 

-  kree. 

Bad     - 

_ 

Skin    - 

-  ynnga. 

Fat      - 

-  gearee. 

Sweet  - 

- 

Bowels 

Pood   - 

-  mootarnee. 

Excrement  - 

- 

Hungry 

-  tungarnee. 

War-spear  - 

-  boomabunni. 

Thirsty 

- 

Reed-spear  - 

Eat      - 

. 

Wommera    or 

Sleep  - 

-  wittel. 

throwing-stick 

Drink  - 

_ 

Shield - 

■  biggU. 

Walk  - 

-  oonarnoo. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  kowarru. 

See      - 

. 

Canoe  - 

-  woolgo. 

Sit       - 

-  chegunnee. 

Sun     - 

-  wee. 

Yesterday    - 

-  kungnoo. 

Moon  - 

-  wuggawurri. 

To-day 

. 

Star    -        - 

-  boolgaroo. 

To-morrow  - 

-  toondargo. 

Light  - 

- 

Where    are 

the 

Dark   - 

- 

Blacks  ? 

, 

Cold    -       - 

-  kittel. 

I  don't  know 

. 

Heat   - 

-  towan. 

Plenty 

-  kundul. 

Day     - 

Night  - 

- 

Big      -        - 

-    • 

Fire    - 
Water - 

-  mingo. 

-  kununoo. 

Little  - 
Dead  - 

-  koo-oo-ga. 

-  woolli. 

Smoke- 

-  woombul. 

By-and-by   - 

- 

Ground 

-  kaiee. 

Come  on 

-  hurra. 

Wind- 

-  kimpaynee. 

Milk    - 

- 

Rain   - 

-  hugnn. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God     -        . 

- 

Wild  turkey 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife    - 

, 

424  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  120.— HALIFAX  BAY. 

Bt  James  Cassady,  Esq.,  and  R.  Johnstone,  Esq, 

Of  the  tribe  which  inhabits  Halifax  Bay  and  the  lower 
portion  of  the  Herbert  Eiver  two  accounts  have  been  for- 
warded to  me,  one  by  Mr.  James  Cassady  and  the  other  by 
Mr.  R.  Johnstone.  The  first  of  these  gentlemen  gives  me 
the  following  information. 

The  Halifax  Bay  tribe  occupies  a  tract  of  country 
fronting  the  shore  of  the  bay  for  about  fifty  miles,  and 
extending  fifteen  miles  inland.  It  is  divided  into  seven  sub- 
tribes,  called  Ikelbara,  Doolebara,  Mungulbara,  Mandam- 
bara,  Karabara,  Bungabara,  and  Yoembara.  In  1865,  when 
the  Halifax  Bay  country  was  first  occupied  by  the  Whites, 
the  tribe  is  estimated  to  have  amounted  to  about  500 
persons.  The  numbers  which  existed  in  1880  are  set  down 
approximately  to  have  been  40  men,  30  boys  over  ten  years, 
100  womeii  and  girls  over  ten  years,  and  30  chUdren  of 
both  sexes  under  ten  years ;  in  all  200  souls.  This  decrease 
my  informant  attributes  to  the  brutality  of  the  Native 
Mounted  Police  and  some  of  the  settlers,  who,  in  the  begin- 
ning, relentlessly  hunted  down  and  shot  as  many  of  the 
males  ©f  the  tribe  as  possible.  The  present  excess  of 
females  over  males  (the  common  proportion  in  our  tribes 
being  about  three  males  to  one  female)  bears  out  this  state- 
ment. 

The  Halifax  Bay  tribe  in  their  wild  state  wore  no  clothes. 
On  occasions  of  corroboree  the  men  smear  themselves  with 
a  mixture  of  fat  and  red  ochre.  Their  weapons,  save  the 
boomerang  which  returns,  my  informant  has  not  par- 
ticularized, but  remarks  generally  that  those  in  use  are 
carved  by  means  of  flints  and  shells.  They  have  bags  made 
of  grass  and  baskets  of  cane.     Amongst  their  articles  of 


HALIFAX    BAY. 


425 


food  are  swamp-nuts,  fish,  and  wallabies,  which  they  cook 
on  the  embers,  or  in  temporary  ovens  of  heated  stones 
covered  with  earth. 

In  this  locality  no  signs  of  the  former  existence  of  small- 
pox have  been  noticed.  The  men  object  to  tell  their  names. 
Restrictions  concerning  food  exist,  and  some  of  the  yoang 
women  are  forbidden  to  eat  the  flesh  of  male  animals  and 
eels.  Marriage  occurs  both  within  and  without  each  of  the 
sub-tribes,  and  is  regulated  by  classes.  Of  these  there  are 
four,  to  one  of  which  each  person  belongs.  The  system 
works  in  this  way: — 


Males.  Females. 

Korkoro  marries  Wongarungan, 
Wongo        „        Korkorungan, 
Korkeen     „        Woterungan, 
Wotero       „        Korkeelingan, 


Males. 

i  Wotero 
Korkeen 
WoBgo 
Korkoro 


Females. 
Woterungan. 
Korkeelingan. 
Wongerungan. 
Korkorungan. 


All  the  neighbouring  tribes  pursue  the  same  system,  and 
the  classes  just  given  have  their  acknowledged  equivalents 
in  them.  Hence,  when  a  man  marries  outside  of  his  tribe, 
it  must  be  a  female  whose  class  corresponds  to  the  one  in 
his  own  tribe,  into  which  he  is  at  liberty  to  marry.  Children 
are  frequently  betrothed  in  infancy.  Polygamy  is  practised, 
and  men  have  occasionally  as  many  as  four  wives.  A 
widow  becomes  the  wife  of  a  brother  of  her  deceased  hus- 
band. Lung  diseases  and  fever  prevail.  Shells  are  worn  as 
ornaments.  Both  males  and  females  have  the  shoulders  and 
chest  scarred.  They  also  knock  out  a  front  tooth  of  the 
upper  jaw,  pierce  the  septum  of  the  nose,  and  wear  a  bone 
through  the  orifice.  The  women  have  a  joint  of  the  first 
finger  amputated,  and  it  is  noticeable  that  the  same  custom 
existed  in  the  Sydney  tribe,  as  well  as  in  some  of  the 
southern  portions  of  Queensland.     Circumcision  is  unknown. 

The  Halifax  Bay  tribe  believe  in  a  good  and  bad  spirit,  and 
that  their  doctors  are  able  to  make  rain  and  wind  by  incan- 
tation, and  to  inflict  sickness  and  death  on  their  enemies. 
Message-sticks  are  in  use  amongst  them.     Fish  are  procured 


Uncle  - 

-  kowa. 

Aunt  - 

-  bimo. 

Cousin 

-  balgalla. 

Up       ■ 

-  kaney. 

426  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE  : 

with  spears  and  hooks.  Canoes  are  made  of  sheets  of  bark 
sewn  together,  and  kangaroo  and  emu  are  captured  with 
nets. 

The  tribe  to  the  north  of  the  one  under  consideration  is 
called  Wombelbara,  and  that  to  the  south  Korambelbara. 
Mr.  Oassady  has  sent  me  the  following  words  in  addition  to 
those  of  the  Common  Vocabulary: — 

Down  -  -  -  yeno. 

Across  -  -  dindeyara. 

Arm    -  -  -  mango. 

Knee  -  -  -  mokko. 

It  is  very  remarkable  that  mero=ivommera,  which  prevails 
so  extensively  on  the  west  coast,  two  thousand  mUes  off,  is 
also  found  in  this  and  in  the  languages  of  Hinchenbrook 
Island  and  Port  Mackay.  Does  not  this  lead  to .  the  infer- 
ences that  this  weapon  was  known  to  the  first  comers,  or  at 
all  events  to  their  descendants  before  the  race  had  been  very 
much  spread,  and  that  miro  was  its  original  name  ? 

What  Mr.  Johnstone  has  to  say  concerning  the  tribes  in 
this  locality  is  as  follows: — About  Halifax  Bay  there  are 
six  bara,  or  tribes,  called  ikelbara,  Dulenbara,  Karrabara, 
Yauembara,  Mungalbara,  and  Mandambara.  They  speak 
dialects  of  one  language.  Their  country  was  occupied  by  the 
Whites  to  some  extent  in  1864,  since  which  period,  as  the 
result  of  measles,  consumption,  and  drink,  the  numbers  com- 
posing the  tribes  have  greatly  diminished.  My  informant 
assigns  forty  years  as  the  duration  of  life  amongst  these 
people,  so  far  as  he  is  able  to  judge;  but  from  the  short  ex- 
perience yet  had  of  them,  it  is  perhaps  premature  to  offer 
any  opinion  on  the  subject.  In  the  day-time  the  people  of 
these  tribes  wore  no  clothing  in  their  natural  state,  though 
now  they  put  on  when  about  the  township  such  cas1>off 
trousers,  shirts,  &c.,  as  they  are  able  to  obtain,  but  strip  at 
night  and  supplement  the  warmth  obtained  from  their  fires 
by  covering  themselves  with  Melaleuca  bark,  or  with  a  sort 
of  blanket  manufactured  from  the  bark  of  the  kurrajong 


HALIFAX   BAY.  427 

tree,  and  also  ty  smearing  themselves  with  clay.  On  occasions 
of  corroborees  and  fights  they  paint  their  skins  with  red 
ochre  and  pipe-clay,  and  with  charcoal  when  in  mourning. 
Besides  the  bags  and  nets  common  throughout  the  continent, 
these  tribes  have  water-bags,  which  they  make  of  closely- 
plaited  "lawyer"  {Calamus  Australis),  and  also  of  palm- 
leaf  sewn  with  the  sinews  of  animals.  They  also  use  fish- 
hooks made  of  tortoise-shell  and  of  mother-of-pearl.  Their 
weapons  are  spears,  some  simply  pointed,  others  barbed,  and 
others  edged  with  flints ;  they  have  also  harpoons,  wooden 
swords,  shields,  and  clubs.  Some  of  these  are  carved  and 
painted;  spears  are  thrown  both  by  hand  and  with  the 
wommera.  The  boomerang  is  not  mentioned.  Their  imple- 
ments are  the  usual  flint  knives  and  stone  tomahawks,  some 
ground  and  some  chipped  to  an  edge.  They  have  also  bark 
canoes,  sewn  at  each  end.  For  food,  besides  marsupial  game, 
they  have  fish,  roots,  and  fruits  of  several  kinds.  From 
some  of  the  roots  they  extract,  before  they  can  be  eaten, 
certain  poisonous  qualities  by  more  than  one  ingenious  pro- 
cess. Of  the  cannibal  practices  of  these  tribes  my  informant 
speaks  very  decidedly,  for  he  says  he  has  seen  them  eating 
Kanackas,  White  men,  and  corpses  of  their  own  tribe.  He 
also  notices  that  they  object  to  tell  their  names.  Polygamy 
is  in  vogue,  and  the  tribes  are  divided  into  the  following 
classes: — 

Males.  Femalefl. 

Korearo.  Korearobingan. 

Wongo.  Wongobingan. 

Korkeen.  Korkeenbingan. 

Wordon.  Wordoingan. 

These  divisions,  no  doubt,  have  reference  to  their  system 
of  marriage,  though  my  informant  does  not  say  so.  Infanti- 
cide was  practised  before  the  coming  of  the  Whites.  The 
diseases  now  most  common  are  consumption,  fever,  and 
rheumatism.  The  practices  of  punching  out  teeth,  piercing 
the  septum  of  the  nose,  and  scarring  the  skin  are  also  in  vogue. 
Message-sticks,  Mr.  Johnstone  informs  me,  are  in  use,  the 


428 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE; 


marks  carved  on  them,  he  remarks,  "  being  a  guarantee  of 
the  messenger,  the  same  as  a  ring  with  ns  in  former  times." 
He  also  remarks  that  the  hair  of  these  Blacks  is  generally- 
curly,  but  often  straight;  that  they  paint  representations  of 
imaginary  animals  in  caves  and  on  rocks,  and  dispose  of  their 
dead  by  laying  them  on  platforms,  by  burying  in  the 
ground,  and  by  eating  them.  In  the  vocabularies  attached 
we  find  two  words  which  begin  with  r,  and  the  word  wee, 
which  in  some  places  means  j'lre,  the  equivalent  of  sun. 


No.  120.— HALIFAX  BAY. 


By  J.  Cassady,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

-  bally. 

Opossum 

-  katra. 

Tame  dog   - 

-  knarbo. 

Wild  dog    - 

-  gerole. 

Emu    - 

-  kondolo. 

Black  duck  - 

-  te-te. 

Wood  duck 

- 

Pelican 

-  yembor. 

Laughing  jackas 

s  kowokara 

Native  companion  korore. 

White  cockatoo 

-  gemra. 

Crow  - 

-  wagan. 

Swan  - 

- 

Egg    - 

•  meto. 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  genua. 

Fish    - 

-  knoto. 

Lobster 

-  motoga. 

Crayfish 

- 

Mosquito     - 

-  komo. 

Fly      - 

-  koyom. 

Snake 

- 

The  Blacks 

-  tinga. 

A  Blackfellow 

-  tinga. 

A  Black  woman 

-  kolokolo. 

Nose  - 

■■  woro. 

Hand  - 

■■  mandy. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  yakka  tinga. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  cabo  tinga. 

One     - 

-  yongole. 

Two    - 

-  yakka. 

Three 

-  kabo. 

Four  or  more 

-  yongonda    or 

kikaborgo. 

Father 

-  baby. 

Mother 

-  kora,  yong, 

yonga. 

Sister-Elder 

-  murkingun, 

boban. 

,,       Younger 

-  tantchuan. 

Brother-Elder 

-  murkin,  thalnbo 

„          Younger  tantchuling. 

A  young  man 

-  nabigaro. 

An  old  man 

-  kelan. 

An  old  woman 

-  kellingan. 

A  baby  (male) 

-  morgo. 

,,       (female) 

-  murkey. 

A  White  man 

-  mecolo. 

Children     - 

-  yabingara. 

Head  - 

-  wallow. 

Eye     - 

-  koro. 

Ear      - 

-  binna. 

HALIFAX   BAY. 

4 

No.  120.— Halifax  'Sa.y —contmwd. 

Mouth 

nanda. 

Boomerang  - 

-  wongal. 

Teeth 

-  yera. 

Hill    - 

-  mongan. 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  molong. 

Wood- 

-  tano. 

Beard  - 

-  talba. 

Stone  - 

-  balgal. 

Thunder     - 

-  oondono. 

Camp  - 

-  rongo. 

GrasB  ■ 
Tongue 

-  wota. 

-  talang. 

Yes     - 
No 

-  ye. 

-  bai. 

Stomach     - 

-  keppa. 

I- 

-  kmba. 

Breasts 

-  ngamoon. 

Thigh-       - 

-  wakka  or  tharra. 

You    - 

-  nino. 

Foot   - 

-  genna. 

Bark  - 

-  yonga. 

Bone  - 

-  tolkul. 

Good  - 

-  touoa. 

Blood  ■ 

-  koma. 

Bad     - 

-  wago. 

Skin   ■        - 

-  yonga. 

Sweet  - 

-  matana. 

Fat     - 

-  tanuny. 

Food  - 

. 

Bowels 

-  bara-bara. 

Hungry 

-  ngoami. 

Excrement  - 
War-spear  - 

-  gona. 

-  kalge. 

Thirsty 

-  walnga. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  raba. 

Eat     - 

-  dialgo. 

Wommera    or 

mere. 

Sleep  - 

-  werail. 

throwing-stick 

Drink 

-  bona. 

Shield 

-  pikel. 

Walk 

-  yanya. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  bargo. 

See      - 

-  nalgalgo. 

Canoe  - 

-  wolgo. 

Sit      - 

-  nena  or  nega 

Sun     -        - 

-  tula. 

Yesterday  - 

-  minonga. 

Moon  - 

-  balano. 

To-day 

-  ki-kin. 

Star    - 

-  karomin. 

To-morrow  - 

-  cobara. 

Light  - 

-  miera 

Where    are  the 

winta  tinga? 

Dark  - 

-  knowronga. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold  - 
Heat  - 

-  gerole. 

-  tow-wong. 

I  don't  know 

-  knab  molgee 
kniba. 

Day    - 

Night-       - 

-  miera. 

-  knowronga. 

Plenty 

-  yongonda. 

Fire    - 

-  tano,  ka,ndagya. 

Big     - 

-  nucoa. 

Water 

-  yakko. 

Little  - 

-  tantchu. 

Dead  - 

-  boral,  wolie 

Smoke 

-  tonone. 

Ground 

-  ki-ie. 

By-and-by  - 

-  wolo. 

Come  on 

-  ngari. 

Wind- 

-  bundle. 

Milk  - 

-  ngamoon. 

Rain  - 

-  ukan. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  cory-tella. 

God    - 

-  wonga-mally. 

Wild  turkey 

-  cabocalla. 

Ghosts 

-  wonga. 

Wife   - 

-  gain. 

429 


430 


THE    AUSTRALIAN  'RACE  ; 


No.   120.— HALIFAX  BAY. 

By  R.  Johnstone,  Esq. 

Kangaroo     - 

borley. 

Hand  - 

mandy. 

Opossum 

kartra. 

2  Blacks 

yakka  tinga. 

Tame  dog     - 

knarboo. 

3  Blacks 

karboo  tinga. 

Wild  dog     - 

gerool. 

One      -      '  - 

yonggole. 

Emu    - 

kondooloo. 

Two     - 

yakka. 

Black  duck  - 

ta-ta. 

Three  - 

karboo. 

Wood  duck- 

Four  and  any 

cicaborgo  yon- 

Pelican 

yeemboo. 

number  over 

gonda. 

Laughing  jackass 

kawookarra. 

Father 

babai. 

Native  companion 

koorom. 

Mother 

-  kora  or  yunga 

White  cockatoo  - 

Sister-Elder 

murkengun. 

Crow   - 

worgan. 

„      Younger 

teutcheran. 

Swan   - 
Egg     -        - 
Track  of  a  foot 
Fiah     - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito     - 

meto. 
genar. 
knoto. 
■  motogar. 

komo. 

Brother-Elder 

„         Younger 
A  young  man 
An  old  man- 
An  old  woman 
A  baby  (boy) 

-  murkin. 

-  tantcheeling. 

-  marcara. 

-  kelang. 

-  kalangan. 

-  worloomoogoo 

Fly      -        - 

kojom. 

„       (girl) 

-  morkeyen 

Snake  - 

A  White  man 

-  mecolo. 

The  Blacks 

Children 

-  yabingaia. 

A  Blackfellow 

tinga. 

Head   - 

-  wallow. 

A  Black  woman 

-  kolo-kolo. 

Eye      - 

-  koro. 

Nose    -        -   , 

-  woro. 

Ear      -        - 

-  binna. 

HALIFAX    BAY. 

4S1 

Ko.  120— Halifax  Bay— continued. 

Mouth 

-  knakna. 

Boomerang  - 

-  wangal. 

Teeth  - 

Hair  of  the  head 
Beard - 
Thunder     - 
Grass  - 

-  jera. 

-  molong. 

-  talba. 

-  oondono. 

-  wotar 

Hill     - 
Wood  - 
Stone  - 
Camp  - 

-  mongan, 

-  tano. 

-  balgal. 

-  ringo. 

Tongue 

-  tallang. 

Yes      - 

-  jea. 

Stomach 

-  kippa. 

No       - 

- 

Breasts 

-  ammun. 

I 

-  kniba. 

Thigh-       - 
Foot    - 
Bone   - 
Blood  - 

-  wakka. 

-  gena. 

-  tolkeel. 

-  koma. 

You     ■ 
Bark    - 
Good    - 

-  enba. 

-  yoonga. 

Skin    -       - 
Fat      - 

-  yonga. 

-  tammy. 

Bad     ^ 

Sweet  - 

-  wargo. 

Bowels 

-  bara-bara. 

Food    - 

-  * 

Excrement  • 

-  goonna. 

Hungry 

-  knamey. 

War-spear  - 

-  kalge. 

Thirsty 

-  warlnga. 

Efied-spear  - 

-  raba. 

Eat      ■        - 

-  diana. 

Wommera  or 

colngo  or 

Sleep   - 

-  werail  or  yokey. 

thro  wing-stick 

maroo. 

Drink  - 

-  bona. 

Shield 

Tomahawk  ■ 
Canoe 
Sun     - 
Moon  - 
Star    - 
Light  -        - 

-  queeary. 
•  kargoo. 

-  wolgo. 

-  potera. 

-  bartamoo. 

-  karromen. 

Walk  - 
See      - 
Sit       - 
Yesterday    - 
To-day 
To-morrow  - 

-  yan-ya. 

-  nawiua,  nalgala. 

-  nina,  nega. 

-  nenonga. 

-  ky-kin. 

-  cobarra. 

Dark  -       - 

-  knora. 

Where    are    the  wonta  tinga  ? 

Cold    -       - 

-  gerole. 

Blacks  ? 

Heat  - 

-  banjera. 

I  don't  know 

-  narlnoolga  kniba 

Day     - 

-  miera. 

Plenty 

-  yere. 

Night  -       - 

-  knoronga. 

Big      - 

-  nuca. 

Fire    -       - 

-  tano,  kandanye. 

Little  - 

-  tantchee. 

Water 

■  ya,koo. 

Dead   - 

-  boril. 

Smoke 

■  tonon. 

By-and-by   - 

-  wolo. 

Ground 

-  kya. 

Come  on 

-  knari. 

Wind  ■ 

-  bundy-bundy. 

Milk    - 

-  nammoon. 

Rain    - 

-  ukan 

Eaglehawk- 

-  coretala. 

God     - 
Ghosts 

■  wonga. 

Wild  turkey 
Wife    - 

-  cabocala. 

-  gain. 

432  THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  121.— THE  HEAD-WATERS  OF  THE  BURDEKIN 

RIVER. 

By  W.  0.  HoDGKiNSON,  Esq.,  Waedbn  of  Goldpiblds,  Mattown. 

The  following  facts  connected  witli  the  Breeaba  tribe, 
whose  country  is  on  one  of  the  head- waters  of  the  Burdekin, 
as  also  the  attached  vocabulary  of  their  language,  were 
kindly  forwarded  to  me  by  Mr.  W.  0.  Hodgkinson,  who 
obtained  them,  as  he  informs  me,  from  a  very  intelligent 
middle-aged  Breeaba  woman  who  lives  at  Maytown  on  the 
Palmer  River. 

This  tribe  have  opossum-skin  rugs^  which  probably  they 
use  only  at  night.  They  possess  also  the  wommera  and 
boomerang.  Certain  articles  of  food  are  forbidden  to  the 
women.  It  is  worthy  of  notice  that  this  is  the  most 
northern  tribe  of  Eastern  Australia  which  reports  the  former 
existence  of  small-pox  amongst  them.  It  is  called  chin-chin, 
and  is  said  to  have  proved  fatal  to  many  at  some  recent 
period.  The  woman  Wonduri,  from  whom  Mr.  Hodgkinson 
obtained  his  information,  declares  that  the  tribe  decided  at 
the  time  of  this  scourge  that  any  one  it  attacked  should  be 
killed  without  delay  whilst  asleep,  and  that  this  plan  was 
carried  out.  However,  seeing  that  the  disease  is  not  heard 
of  nearer  than  300  miles  to  the  south,  no  confidence  can  be 
placed  in  Wonduri's  statement  that  it  existed.  Prior  to  the 
coming  of  the  Whites,  children  who  died  from  natural  causes 
were  eaten,  not  by  their  parents  or  brothers,  but  by  their 
cousins  and  other  more  distant  relatives  of  the  male  sex. 
Their  hands  and  fat  were  the  parts  most  esteemed,  as  we 
find  in  other  cases.  Polygamy  prevails  in  the  tribe,  and  a 
widow  becomes  the  wife  of  the  deceased  husband's  brother. 
Twins  are  occasionally  born.  One  tooth  is  knocked  out  at 
the  age  of  puberty,  and  the  septum  of  the  nose  pierced. 
Fish  are    taken  with  nets,   spears,  and    hooks  ;  also  by 


A  TREE    ON    THE     DIAMANTINA     RIVER      QUEENSLAND 
RECORD    or   A    FIGHT    WHICH    TOOK    PLACE  IN  THE  LOCALITY 


THE   HEAD-WATERS    OF   BURDBKIN   RIVER. 


433 


poisoning  waterholes  with,  leaves  possessing  narcotic  pro- 
perties. Women  and  old  men  are  buried  without  ceremony, 
hut  the  remains  of  able-bodied  males  are  placed  on  platforms 
constructed  in  the  boughs  of  trees.  Message-sticks  are  in 
use.  The  attached  is  the  sketch  of  a  tree  marked  by  the 
tribe  to  commemorate  one  of  their  fights. 

Eeferring  to  the  vocabulary,  my  informant  expresses 
doubts  as  to  the  correctness  of  his  translation  of  three  and 
four.  The  reader  will  notice  the  termination  hurra  in  some 
of  the  words  which  follow.  This,  I  suspect,  is  the  equivalent 
hr  people,  or  perhaps  many.  Chinaman,  it  will  be  noticed, 
they  call  Murri,  like  their  own  people,  whilst  they  have  a 
distinct  term  for  White  man.  Watch  is  expressed  by  the 
same  word  as  sun,  and  socks  by  a  term  derived  from  the 
equivalent  oi  foot.  The  following  words  as  applying  to 
objects  of  which  the  Australian  had  no  knowledge  prior  to 
the  advent  of  the  White  man  are  of  interest: — 


Cat     -        -        -  moorboo. 
Horse  -        -        -  ngooraboongoo. 
Cow,  bullock       -  toomooburra. 
Calf  -        -  kinquan. 

Sheep  -        -        -  burra-burra. 
AVMte  woman     -  yallaman. 
Chinaman   -        -  murri. 
Domestic  fowls    -  kookabinya. 
Chicken       -        -  wongurra  (?). 
Watch-        -        -  kurri. 
Look  out !  he  is  throwing  a  spear     - 

Look  out !  he  is  throwing  a  boomerang 

Whereabouts  is  water  to  be  found?  - 

Do  you  see  the  road  or  track  ?  - 

Yes,  I  see  the  road  -        -        -        . 

What  track  or  road  ?        -        -        . 

I  see  two  kangaroos  -        -        .        . 

VOL.   II, 


mun. 
tinnago. 
bingarro,  kampe. 

mere, 
kunkurre. 

-  dekurra. 

-  woogogo. 

-  toola. 


Boot    - 

Socks  - 

Gown,  coat, 
trousers 

Bridle - 

Knife,  also  fork 

Spoon  - 

Chair  - 

Table  - 
Indi  nukka  kulka. 
You  see        spear. 
Indi  nukka  (or  indi  kooti)  wongul. 
You  see  (you  see)    boomerang. 

■  Wunta  kamo? 
Where  water? 

■  Indi  nukkuUa  tinna  ? 
You  see  track  ? 

-  Nia  nnkkulla  tinna. 

I      see  road. 

•  Unne  tinna  ? 

What  track  ? 

■  Nya  nukka  boolaroo  kargul. 
I        see       two  kangaroos. 

Z  E 


434 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE; 


No.  121.— BURDEKIN  RIVER. 


Kangaroo    - 

kargul. 

Hand  - 

-  muUa. 

Opossum      - 

tungeroo. 

2  Blacks      - 

- 

Tame  dog    - 

moora. 

3  Blacks      - 

- 

Wild  dog     -        - 

ngurbuUa. 

One      - 

-  wirba. 

Emu    -        -        - 

koondooloo. 

Two     - 

-  boollaroo. 

Black  duck  - 

koorpooloo. 

Three  - 

-  koolbarro. 

Wood  duck- 

birga. 

Pelican 

billibungerra. 

Four    - 

-  koorunga. 

Laughing  jackass- 

towa-towa. 

Father 

-  yaboona. 

Native  companion 

burgum. 

Mother 

-  yungunna. 

White  cockatoo  - 

diggoree. 

Sister-Elder 

-  kootanna. 

Crow  -        -        . 

wotagan. 

„       Younger 

-  wobbooin. 

Swan  - 

Brother-Elder 

-  kutta. 

Egg.    - 

kookabinya. 

„          Young 

er  warbo. 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  chinna. 

A  young  man 

-  warbooroo. 

Fish    - 

-  kooiyoo. 

An  old  man 

-  bringubba. 

Lobster 

An  old  woman 

-  murkoorra. 

Crayfish 

A  baby 

-  kandoo  or  kum 

Mosquito     - 

mobo. 

doo. 

Ely      - 

bralla. 

A  White  man 

-  mikooloo  or  ma 

Snake  - 

kobbul,  mooda. 

koolo. 

The  Blacks  - 

murri-murri. 

Children      - 

-  kurndoo. 

A  Blackfellow 

Head  - 

-  kirta. 

A  Black  woman  ■ 

wirmo. 

Eye     - 

-  tillee. 

Nose  - 

koo. 

Ear     - 

-  woUoo. 

THE   HEAD-WATERS    OP    BURDEKIN    RIVER. 


435 


No.  121. — BuBDEKiN  RiTEK — Continued. 

Mouth 

-  tunga. 

Boomerang  - 

-  wongul. 

Teeth  - 

-  nulla. 

HiU     - 

-  mignrra. 

Hair  of  the  head-  tinge. 

Wood  - 

-  tula. 

Beard  - 

-  unga. 

Stone  - 

-  purri. 

Thunder     - 

-  morrella. 

Camp  - 

-  yamba. 

Grass  - 

-  yago. 

Yes      - 

-  nya  (nai-a  ?). 

Tongue 

-  tuUi. 

No       - 

-  kurra. 

Stomach     - 

-  bulloo. 

I-       - 

-  nia. 

Breasts 

-  ngumoon. 

You     - 

-  yinda  or  indi. 

Thigh  - 

-  durra. 

Bark    - 

-  bulkan. 

Foot    - 

-  tinna. 

Good   - 

-  binbi. 

Bone   - 

-  bulbun. 

Blood  - 

-  kooma. 

Bad     - 

-  kicha. 

Skin    -       - 

-  yunga. 

Sweet  - 

-  munta. 

Fat     - 

-  tommi. 

Food    - 

-  ugonga. 

Bowels 

- 

Hungry 

-  quee,  kurmoona 

Excrement  ■ 

- 

Thirsty 

-  woorgoo  toonka. 

War-spear  - 

-  kulka. 

Eat     - 

-  indi-uka. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  tuUa. 

Sleep  - 

-  umberra  ooka. 

Wommera   or 

boolaroo.. 

Drink  - 

-  indi-uka. 

throwing-stick 

Walk- 

-  yaninga. 

Shield-       - 

-  koolmarri. 

See      - 

-  nukka,  kooti. 

Tomahawk 
Canoe  - 

-  balgo. 

Sit       - 

-  kooree. 

Sun     -       - 

-  kurri. 

Yesterday   - 

-  woorgaloonga. 

Moon  - 

-  pallanno. 

To-day 

-  yachiUo. 

Star    -       - 

-  ugo. 

To-morrow  - 

-  peergunga. 

Light  -       - 

-  boori. 

Where    are 

;he    wunta  murri  ? 

Dark  - 

-  ngurnnu. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold   -       - 

-  werera. 

I  don't  know 

-  kurra  (no). 

Heat  - 

-  yago. 

Plenty- 

-  moorga. 

Day    - 

-  kurringa. 

Big      -        - 

-  boolgi. 

Night  -       - 

-  ngurnnu. 

Little  - 

-  warburroo. 

Fire    - 

-  poori. 

Dead   - 

-  woonunga. 

Water 
Smoke 
Ground 

-  kamo. 

-  tooga. 

-  nanni. 

By-and-by  - 
Come  on 

-  yeta  kurbunga. 

-  woongunga. 

Wind-       - 

-  kowri. 

Milk   - 

-  ngamoom. 

Rain  - 

-  tanduuga. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  wirta. 

God     - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

-  tirkooyee. 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife   - 

-  birgoo. 

436 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    EACE  : 


No.  122.— CLARKE  RIVER. 


FOBWARDED  BY  GRESLBY  LITKIN,    ESQ. 


Kangaroo   - 

Hand  - 

merda. 

Opossum     -        -  kajea. 

2  Blacks     - 

Tame  dog  - 
Wild  dog    - 
Emu  -        -        -  goondooloo. 

3  Blacks     - 
One    - 

Black  duck 

Two    - . 

Wood  duck 

Three 

Pelican 

Four  - 

Laughing  jackass 

Father 

Native  companion 
White  cockatoo  - 
Crow  - 

Mother 
Sister-Elder 

younga. 

Swan  - 

„      Younger  - 

Egg    -        -        - 

Brother-Elder     - 

Track  of  a  foot  - 

„       Younger 

Fish   - 

Lobster 

Crayfish 

Mosquito    -        -  kikaberdee. 

Fly     - 

Snake 

A  young  man 

An  old  man 

An  old  woman    - 

A  baby 

A  White  man 

wurboon 

The  Blacks-        -  murdee. 

Children     - 

galbin. 

A  Blackfellow    -  yelda. 

Head  - 

kida. 

A  Black  -woman  -  warrangoo. 

Eye    - 

jeelee. 

Nose  -        -        -  go. 

Ear    - 

CLARKE    RIVER. 


437 


No.  122. — CiAKKB  RivKR — cowtinued. 

Mouth 

ta. 

Boomerang- 

- 

Teeth 

-  urdea, 

Hill    - 

- 

Hair  of  the  heac 

jingo. 

Wood- 

Beard- 

Stone  - 

-  byree. 

Thunder     - 

mur-rung-al-la. 

Camp- 

-  yamba. 

Grass  - 

-  yago. 

Yes    - 

. 

Tongue 

■  tallay. 

No     - 

Stomach     - 

Breasts 

I-      - 

- 

Thigh 

You    - 

- 

Foot  ■ 

jinna. 

Bark- 

■    - 

Bone  - 

Good  - 

- 

Blood-       - 

baragan. 

Bad    - 

- 

Skin  - 

Sweet- 

- 

Fat    - 

-  tammee. 

Food  - 

_ 

Bowels 

Hungry 

_ 

Excrement- 

Thirsty       - 

. 

War-spear  - 

-  bung-gi. 

Eat     - 

Reed-spear- 

Wommera  or 

tarilla. 

Sleep  - 

-  wawga 

throwing-stick 

Drink- 

- 

Shield 

koolmaree. 

Walk - 

Tomahawk  (stone)  balgo. 

See     - 

Canoe 

Sit      -        - 

Sun    - 

ki-ilUa. 

Yesterday  - 

Moon  - 

balanoo. 

To-day 

Star  -    •    . 

To-morrow- 

. 

Light - 

Where     are 

the 

Dark  - 

Blacks  ? 

Cold  - 

wilda. 

Heat  - 

I  don't  know 

-.. 

Day   - 

Plenty 

Night 

Big     -        - 

Fire   - 

taroo. 

Little - 

-  kangor 

Water 

kamoo. 

Dead  - 

-  hoolan 

Smoke 

toga. 

By-and-by  - 

Ground 

Come  on     - 

-  enjee. 

Wind 

memerry. 

Milk  - 

Rain  - 

Eaglehawk- 

God   . 

Wild  turkey 

-  turgoo 

Ghosts       - 

Wife  -        . 

438 


THE  AUSTRALIAN  RACE: 


No.  122.— THE  CLARKE  OR  THE  CAPE  RIVER. 

Words  by  Mr.  De  la  Tour. 

The  writer  is  uncertain  whether  these  words  belong  to  the  Clarke  or  the 

Cape  River. 


Sticks  with  which  kamiUa. 

Claws 

-  piga. 

fire  is  made  by- 

Go  away 

-  munda. 

friction 

Sheep 

-  toomba. 

Kangaroo 

net     -  bundara. 

Gun    - 

-  pardoogo. 

Pigeon 

-  mammilla. 

Club  - 

-  werrga. 

Sharp 

-  berrkay. 

Break 

-  goonjen. 

Blunt 

-  koodoo. 

Dirt    - 

-  nannee. 

Whiskers 

-  nunga. 

Sore    - 

-  gin-gin. 

Lips   - 

-  numbool. 

Give  - 

-  wawgandally 

Eyebrows 

-  ngoon. 

Sick    - 

-  wee-wee. 

Knee 

-  wa-gi-ill. 

Pipe-olay 

-  bearanba. 

Elbow 

-  barago. 

Red  ochre 

-  kalmoo^ara. 

Lightning 

-  bermannow. 

Bottle-tree-        -  kamberra. 

Hail   - 

-  palpee. 

Grass-tree 

-  tackaberda. 

Corroboree-        -  mulgurry. 

Mud  - 

-  goonarree. 

Tail    - 

-  wanna. 

Leaves 

-  kanga. 

Names 

OP  Men. 

Dindera. 

NgoraiiTia. 

Moonga. 

Angoree. 

Munga. 

Poonque. 

Warree. 

Mabbo. 

Gobaranna. 

Mooemoo. 

Wawboo. 

Koongee 

Mundaree. 

Normee. 

Mugiueye. 

Purmboo. 

Mannow. 

Booee, 

THE  CLARKE  OR  THE  CAPE  RIVER. 

Names  of  Women. 


Wanneree. 
Goolberee. 
Munduree. 
Mimgaree. 
Linderree. 


Boongouree. 
Obardee. 
Bobbma. 
Toeroyabban 


439 


440 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE; 


No.  123.— TOP  OF  THE  RANGE  NEAR  DALRYMPLE. 

This  Vocabulary,  with  some  Additional  Words,  were  kindly  sent  to  me  by 
W.  E.  Armit,  Esq.,  Inspector  of  the  Native  Mounted  Police. 


Kangaroo    - 
Opossum      - 
Tame  dog    - 

kargood. 

tangoord. 

kowla. 

Wild  dog     - 
Emu    - 
Black  duck  - 

gunduUu. 

Wood  duck- 

Pelican     .   - 

Laughing  j  aokass - 
Native  companion 
White  cockatoo  - 

kagoobarra. 

Crow  - 

watta. 

Swan  - 

Egg     -        -        - 
Track  of  a  foot    ■ 
Fish     - 
Lobster 

dinango. 
kuya. 

Crayfish 
Mosquito     - 
Fly      -        - 
Snake  - 

moonda. 

The  Blacks  - 

A  Blaokfellow     ■ 

marringo. 
marri. 

A  Black  woman  -  margan  or  birgo. 
Nose   -        -         -  goo. 


Hand  and  arm    -  malla. 

2  Blacks      -        -  marringo  bulla. 


3  Blacks      - 

- 

One     - 

- 

Two    - 

-  bulla. 

Three  - 

- 

Four    - 

- 

Father 

-  yaboo. 

Mother 

-  mama. 

Sister-Elder 

- 

,,      Younger 

- 

Brother-Elder 

- 

,,          Younger 

A  young  man 

-  walbarra. 

An  old  man 

- 

An  old  woman 

-  cuymeu. 

A  baby 

- 

A  White  man 

-  gooin. 

Children      - 

- 

Head  - 

-  katta. 

Eye     - 

-  dilly. 

Ear     - 

-  walloo. 

TOP  OF  :  THE  RANGE  NEAR  DALRYMPLE. 


441 


No 

123. — Range  nbae 

Daleymplb — contintied. 

Mouth 

-  daa. 

Boomerang - 

-  wangal. 

Teeth - 

■  yerra. 

Hill    - 

Hair  of  the  head 

mowra. 

Wood- 

Beard- 

dingo. 

Stone  - 

Thunder     - 

Camp  - 

yamba. 

Grass  - 

Yes     - 

Tongue 

No      - 

karra. 

Stomach     ■ 

I 

nya. 

Breasts 

namoon. 

You    - 

inda. 

Thigh 

tarra. 

Bark  - 

Foot  - 

dinna. 

Good  - 

Bone  - 

Bad    - 

Blood - 

Sweet  - 

Skin  - 

Food  - 

Fat     - 

Hungry 

Bowels 

Thirsty 

Excrement  - 

goona. 

Eat     - 

yugain. 

War-spear  - 

pikalla. 

Sleep  - 

wooka. 

Eeed-spear- 

Drink - 

Wonnmera  or 

throwing-stick 

Walk  - 

ngani. 

Shield 

See     - 

Tomahawk - 

bargoo. 

Sit      - 

Canoe 

Yesterday  - 

Sun     - 

karri. 

To-day 

yigilga. 

Moon  - 

nylian. 

To-morrow - 

wooga. 

Star    - 

wilba. 

. 

Where  are    the 

wanda  marri ! 

Light  - 

Dark  - 

Blacks  ? 

Cold  - 

kirroo. 

I  don't  know 

Heat  - 

Plenty 

•  curbarra. 

Day    - 

Big     - 

Night - 

Little  - 

-  wuputchum. 

Fire    -        - 

burri. 

Dead  - 

Water 

gamoo. 

By-and-by  - 

-  yabunda. 

Smoke 

Ground 

Come  on     - 

Wmd 

Milk  - 

Rain  -        -    .    - 

yugan. 

Baglehawk- 

-  yilga. 

God    - 

Wild  turkey 

Ghosts 

Wife  - 

442 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  123. — Range  neab  Dalkymple— comifeaed. 
Additional  Words. 


Shin-bone    - 

yangarra. 

Bullock 

-  tumooburru. 

Sword 

pichercan. 

Yam,  yams  - 

-  malboo,  malboon. 

Club    - 

nerroo. 

Honey-comb 

cabba  or  cudja. 

Kangaroo  net 

waagal. 

To  lie  - 

-  oatti. 

Dilly  bag     - 

coonaa. 

You  lie 

catti  nginda. 

Coolaman  (water- 

wargarra. 

Salt-water  (sea) 

-  oalleyunga. 

trough) 

Scrub  - 

-  dulgi. 

Creek  - 
Mountain     - 

calbama. 
-  balgi. 

Agun- 

Plenty  of  Blacks 

-  margin. 

-  curbarra  marri. 

House  - 
Houses 
Bandicoot    - 
Pigeon 
Iguana 
Rat      - 

goooa. 

goooanga. 

wugalla. 

coombree. 

tagani. 

carroola. 

Where?       - 
To  run 
You  run 
A  boy  - 
To  kill 

-  wanda? 
■  wagga. 

waggiua. 
yabba. 

-  gundy. 

Kangaroo-rat 

taiju. 

I  will  kill  you 

nyagna  margiudo 

Carpet  snake 

cabool. 

with  a  gun 

gundy. 

No.  124.— CLEVELAND  BAY. 


By  Abthue  R.  Johnstone,  Esq.,  and  Montagu  Cube,  Esq. 

The  following  vocabularies,  whicL.  were  forwarded  to  me,  the 
one  by  Mr.  Arthur  Johnstone  and  the  other  by  my  brother, 
Mr.  Montagu  Curr,  are  both  assigned  to  Cleveland  Bay,  and 
belong  no  doubt  to  the  dialects  of  two  tribes  in  that 
locality. 

Mr.  Johnstone  informs  me  that  when  a  Black  of  this  tribe 
dies  he  is  buried  and  a  large  fire  made  over  his  grave. 
Whilst  it  is  burning,  a  gigantic  man,  it  is  believed,  comes 
and  takes  away  aU  the  remains  of  the  dead  man  with  the 


CLEVELAND    BAY. 


443 


exception  of  his  shadow  and  fingers.  Should  his  surviving 
kinsfolk  travel  at  night  without  fire-sticks,  they  fancy  they 
see  the  shadow  of  the  departed,  now  here^  now  there, 
amongst  the  trees.  The  men  gash  themselves  horribly 
on  the  death  of  a  relative,  and  blacken  their  faces  with 
charcoal. 
Mr.  Johnstone  furnishes  the  following  Additional  Words: — 


Forehead    - 

-  mooloo. 

Eyebrows    - 

poorloo. 

Throat 

■  rooka. 

Whiskers    - 

■  thalburra. 

Moustache  - 

-  moolia. 

Chest  - 

-  ra,llee. 

Shoulders    - 

-  dilbree. 

Navel 

-  toogool. 

Arm    - 

-  culgul. 

Elbow - 

-  mooroo. 

Wrist- 

■  poolgammoo 

Fingers  and  toes 

-  eweera. 

Little  finger 

-  kobbee. 

Back  ■ 

-  thooree. 

Knee  - 

moko. 

Calf  of  the  leg 

-  arka. 

Shin    - 

-  rumpa. 

Ankle  - 

-  mookal. 

Rump  - 

-  moon. 

Anus  - 

-  pundein. 

Urine - 

-  coral. 

Salt-water  - 

-  unda. 

Coral  - 

-  thumbee. 

Devil  - 

-  mungal. 

Paddle  for  canoe 

,  -  pareel. 

Fishing-line 

-  rara. 

Fish-hook    - 

-  mingee. 

Corroboree  - 

-  mareka. 

To  swim 

-  ununga. 

To  burn 

-  kundimena. 

To  cut 

-  koonaborra. 

Come  ! 

-  oorein! 

To  throw     - 

-  runna. 

To  sing 

-  mureka. 

To  bite' 

-  koongunna. 

Let  go 

-  nnna. 

To  cook 

-  unga. 

Sick    - 

-  moogee. 

Turtle  - 

-  yungiin. 

Wallaby      - 

"  thallum. 

Iguana 

-  pingoonburra 

BSche-de-mer 

-  toonbulla. 

Pigeon- 

-  noolamoola. 

Sword  (native) 

-  koonowa. 

Bag     - 

-  murrimikkee 

444 


THE   AUSTEALIAN    RACE; 


No.  124.— CLEVELAND  BAY. 


Br  A.  R.  Johnstone,  Esq. 


Kangaroo  - 

-  thallun. 

Hand  - 

muUa. 

Opossum    - 

2  Blacks     - 

Tame  dog   - 
Wild  dog   - 
Emu  - 

3  Blacks     - 
One    - 

Black  duck 

-■  oorandoo. 

Two    - 

Wood  duck 

_ 

Three-        - 

Pelican 

Four  - 

Laughing  jackass"  kakoogoo. 

Father 

Native  companion 

Mother 

White  cockatoo 
Crow  - 
Swan  - 
Egg    -        - 

-  keemaroo. 

Sister-Elder 

„      Younger  - 
Brother-Elder    - 

Track  of  a  foot 

, ,       Younger 

Fish    - 

A  young  man 

Lobster 

An  old  man 

Crayfish 

An  old  woman    - 

Mosquito    - 

Ply       .            . 

Snake 
The  Blacks- 

kabool. 

A  baby 

A  White  man     - 

Children     - 

moolooramoon 

A  Blackfellow 

■  elgooral. 

Head  - 

A  Black  woman 

muugun. 

Eye     - 

mil. 

Nose  - 

ooroo. 

Ear     - 

pena. 

CLEVELAND    BAY. 


445 


No.  124.— Clbvelaijd  Bay— continued. 


Mouth 

-  tha. 

Boomerang  - 

-  ungal. 

Teeth  - 

keera. 

Hill     - 

. 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  moolooit. 

Wood  - 

-  puree. 

Beard  - 

Stone  - 

. 

Thunder 

Camp  - 

-  oora. 

Grass  - 

oyulo. 

Yes     - 

. 

Tongue 

thalein. 

No       - 

Stomach 

keepa. 

I- 

Breasts 

namoon. 

You     - 

Thigh  - 

thara. 

■ 

Foot   - 

tinna. 

Bark    - 

- 

Bone   ■ 

Good  - 

•  noolambarroo 

Blood  - 

kungen. 

Bad     - 

-  areea. 

Skin    - 

Sweet  - 

- 

Fat     -        - 

Food   - 

-  moodthuuna. 

Bowels 

keerulgarul. 

Hungry 

-  oolein. 

Excrement  - 

Thirsty 

. 

War-spear  - 
Reed-spear  - 
Wommera    or 

Eat      -, 
Sleep   - 

-  koongool. 

-  yookecarko. 

thro  wing-stick 

Drink  - 

-  punga. 

Shield - 

kooeeree. 

Walk  -        - 

-  thararoo. 

Tomahawk  - 

See      - 

■ 

Canoe  - 

oolgaroo. 

Sit       - 

-  neeka. 

Sun     - 

oba. 

Yesterday   - 

- 

Moor.  - 

bulbun. 

To-day 

- 

Star    - 

puekarakkara. 

To-morrow  - 

Light  - 

Where    are   the 

Dark   - 

Blacks? 

Gold    - 

keeto. 

I  don't  know 

Heat  - 

einburra. 

Plenty 

Day     - 

Big      - 

-  kuka. 

Night  - 

Little  - 

Fire     -.       - 

paree. 

Dead   - 

-  ooleina. 

Water 
Smoke 
Ground 

thalmul. 

puno. 

arroeen. 

By-and-by   - 
Come  on 

Wind  - 

Milk    - 

Rain   -        s. 

ooreal. 

Eaglehawk  - 

God     -        - 

Wild  turkey 

oorumpa. 

Ghosts 

Wife   - 

keu  or  ken. 

446 


THE.  AUSTRALIAN   RACE 


No.  124.— CLEVELAND  BAY. 


By  Montagu  Cube,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

poUee. 

Hand  - 

-  mal-la. 

Opossum 

kudthara. 

2  Blacks      - 

Tame  dog    - 

oyeo. 

3  Blacks      - 

- 

Wild  dog    - 

One     - 

-  yoongul. 

Emu    - 

windoloo. 

Two    - 

-  yug-ga. 

Black  duck  - 
Wood  duck- 
Pelicau 

yamooroo. 

gooda-gro-go. 

buUoo. 

Three  - 
Four  - 

-  murgine. 

Laughing  jackass 

Father 

-  a-boo. 

Native  companion  kondil. 

Mother 

-  a-mee. 

White  cockatoo  - 

gim-o-ro. 

Sister-Elder 

-  ava-ru. 

Crow  -        -        - 

o-gal. 

„     Younger 

- 

Swan  - 

Brother-Elder 

-  aw-ood-tha. 

Egg     - 

korindil. 

„       Younger 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

yalgi. 

A  young  man 

-  mur-gur-ra. 

Fish    -        - 

ood-gurh. 

Lobster 

An  old  man 

-  woor-goor-bee. 

Crayfish 

An  old  woman 

-  ko-lo-la. 

Mosquito     - 

koo-be-yal. 

A  baby 

-  nunga. 

Ply      -        -        - 

koo-roo-mo. 

A  White  man 

. 

Snake  -        -        - 

ur-buUa. 

Children      - 

-  d'thoon-ga-ree 

The  Blacks  - 

goon-gar-re. 

Head  - 

-  alloc. 

A  Blaokfellow     - 

A  Black  woman  - 

mar-boora. 

Eye     - 

-  ma-el. 

Nose  - 

oro. 

Ear     - 

-  "pinna. 

CLEVELAND   BAY. 


447 


No.  124.— Cleveland  Bay— contimted 

Mouth 

-  d'tha. 

Boomerang  - 

Teeth  - 

-  reera. 

Hill    - 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  moo-loin. 

Wood  - 

Beard 

-  d'thub-barr. 

Stone  - 

burree. 

Thunder     - 

-  d'the-go-ro. 

Camp  - 

oo-gi. 

Grass  - 

-  boo-gun. 

Yea     - 

ud-d'tha. 

Tongue 

-  kal-line. 

No       -        -        - 

aou-woo. 

Stomach 

-  kee-la. 

I          -        -        - 

Breasts 

-  ngammoon. 

Thigh 

-  d'tharra. 

You    - 

Foot    - 

-  d'thinna. 

Bark   -        -        - 

Bone  - 

-  doo-ree. 

Good  - 

Blood  - 

-  goon-bunna. 

Bad     - 

kou-un-ju-ga. 

Skin    -       - 

-  d'thal-goor. 

Sweet  - 

koo-bun. 

Fat     - 

-  tammee. 

Pood   - 

koou-jan-na. 

Bowels 

- 

Hungry 

ooline. 

Excrement  - 

-  koona. 

Thirsty 

boogar-go. 

War- spear  - 

-  kul-gi. 

Eat      - 

Reed-spear  - 

-  but-thurr. 

Sleep  - 

Wommera    or 

koola. 

Drink  - 

thro  wing-stick 

Walk  - 

SUeld 

-  bingone. 

See      - 

Tomahawk  - 

-  bun-una. 

Sit       - 

Canoe  - 

-  woo-roo. 

Sun     - 

-  ooba. 

Yesterday  - 

ma-rul-a-go. 

Moon  - 

-  kun-gine. 

To-day 

cud-geen. 

Star    - 

-  oobun-jella. 

To-morrow 

kur-ul-a-go. 

Light  - 

-  moo-rone. 

Where    are  the 

un     dthnngo 

Dark  - 

-  mung-urr. 

Blacks  ? 

burra  minya 

Cold   - 

-  kid-doo. 

I  don't  know 

a-oo-gud-tha. 

Heat  - 

-  ungurra. 

Plenty 

mindi-yarra. 

Day    - 

-  oo-ba. 

Big     -        - 

moo-ga. 

Night  - 

-  ned-dee. 

Little  - 

bun- j  ah. 

Fire    - 

-  ar-a-bee. 

Dead  - 

ola-na. 

Water 

-  kammoo. 

By-and-by  - 

lur-ga. 

Smoke 

-  poo-uoo. 

Come  on 

oo-rine. 

Ground 

-  ky-ee. 

Milk  - 

Wind- 

-  wirra-wirra. 

Rain   - 

-  ko-a. 

Eaglehawk  - 

God     - 

_ 

Wild  turkey 

Ghosts 

_ 

Wife   - 

- 

448  THE   AUSTRALIAN   EACE: 


No.  125.— MOUNT  ELLIOTT. 

Pkom  a  Pamphlet  entitled  "Sketch  or  the  Residence  of  James 
moebill  among  the  aborigines  of  noetheen  queensland  egk 
Seventeen  Yeaes,"  etc. 

By  Edmund  Geegoet. 

The  following  items  of  information  in  connection  with  the 
language  and  customs  of  the  tribe  of  which  Mount  Elliott 
is  the  head-quarters,  and  which  frequents  also  at  intervals 
the  coast  at  and  near  Cape  Cleveland,  were  obtained  from 
James  Murrells  (commonly  called  Morrill),  and  recorded  in 
the  pamphlet  by  Edmund  Grregory  named  above.  That 
fuller  particulars  of  Murrells'  experiences  were  not  preserved 
is  to  be  regretted.  Of  those  which  we  have,  the  chief  points 
of  interest  are  as  follows  : — 

In  1846  several  persons  in  a  very  exhausted  state  landed 
at  Cape  Cleveland  from  a  raft,  on  which  they  had  made 
their  escape  from  a  vessel  which  had  been  wrecked  six  weeks 
previously  on  a  reef  considerably  to  the  eastward  of  that 
point.  Amongst  them  was  a  young  sailor  named  James 
Murrells,  who  shortly  became  the  sole  survivor  of  the  party. 
He  relates  that  they  were  received  by  the  Mount  EUiott 
people,  who  were  then  on  the  coast,  with  a  sort  of  rough 
hospitality,  being  well  fed,  and  sheltered  from  the  sun  in 
huts  made  of  boughs,  but  were  robbed  by  those  children  of 


MOUNT    ELLIOTT.  449 

Nature  of  almost  everything  they  possessed.  The  reason  of 
the  unfortunates  finding  favor  with  the  tribe  appears  to 
have  been  that  the  latter,  having  no  idea  that  any  race  save 
their  own  existed  in  the  world,  thought  the  new  arrivals 
were  formerly  defunct  members  of  their  tribe  come  to  life 
again.  With  this  tribe  Murrells  lived  as  one  of  themselves 
for  seventeen  years,  acquiring  both  their  language  and 
habits,  until,  hearing  of  the  arrival  of  some  squatting 
pioneers  with  their  flocks  and  herds  on  the  Mall-mall  or 
Burdekin  Eiver,  he  made  his  way  to  their  hut,  with  the  con- 
sent of  the  tribe,  and  returned  to-  civilization.  After  the 
lapse  of  a  few  months,  Murrells  married,  received  the 
appointment  of  Customs  officer  at  Bowen,  where  he  must 
have  died  not  very  long  after,  as  the  date  of  the  pamphlet  in 
which  that  event  is  mentioned  is  1865.  The  following  facts 
are  gleaned  fram  Mr.  Gregory's  account  of  Murrells. 

Polygamy  exists  in  the  Mount  Elliott  tribe,  a  few  of  the 
men  having  as  many  as  eight  or  nine  wives.  In  three  or 
four  instances  twins  were  born.  The  food-supply,  consisting 
of  animals,  fish,  and  roots,  is  both  varied  and  abundant. 
Cannibalism  prevails,  those  of  their  own  tribe  who  are  killed 
in  battle  or  by  accident  being  eaten  by  their  kinsfolk,  but 
not  the  enemies  whom  they  slay.  There  seem  to  have  been 
eight  distinct  tribes  living  in  association  at  and  near  Mount 
Elliott,  all  of  whose  dialects  Murrells  spoke. 

"The  different  animals,"  says  the  pamphlet,  "are 
arranged  according  to  the  size  of  their  feet,  hence  the  sheep 
have  the  same  name  as  their  wallabies  {cargoon).  All 
kinds  of  sailing  vessels  have  the  same  name  as  their  canoes, 
viz.,  woolgoora,  because  they  float  on  the  water.  The 
heavenly  bodies  are  named  differently;  the  sun  is  ingin,  which 
they  think  is  a  body  of  fire,  because  of  its  warmth,  and 
especially  so  since  they  saw  us  light  a  rag  with  a  burning- 
glass.  The  moon  (werboonburra)  they  say  is  a  human  being 
Uke  themselves,  and  comes  down  on  the  earth,  and  they 
sometimes  meet  it  in  some  of  their  fishing  excursions. 
They  say  one  tribe  throws  it  up,  and  it  gradually  rises  and 

VOL.    II,  2  F 


450  THE   AUSTRALIAN   EACE  : 

then  comes  down  again,  when  another  tribe  catches  it  to 
save  it  from  hurting  itself.  They  accordingly  think  there 
is  a  new  sun  and  moon  every  day  and  night.  There  is 
a  large  open  space  on  Mount  Elliott  with  not  a  vestige 
of  vegetation  on  it,  whilst  up  to  the  very  margin  of 
it  is  a  thick  scrub;  and  they  told  James  Murrells  it  was 
done  by  the  moon,  who  threw  his  circle-stick  round  it 
(meaning  his  boomerang),  and  cut  it  off.  Throwing  the  sun 
and  moon  up  by  one  tribe,  and  catching  them  by  another, 
will  easily  be  recognized  as  their  explanation  of  the  rising 
and  setting  of  these  bodies.  They  have  no  knowledge  of  the 
earth  beyond  the  locality  they  inhabit.  .... 

They  think  all  the  heavenly  bodies  are  under  their  control, 
and  when  there  is  an  eclipse  some  of  their  tribe  hide  it  with 
a  sheet  of  bark  to  frighten  the  rest.  There  was  about  six 
years  before  Murrells'  restoration  an  eclipse  of  the  sun, 
nearly  a  total  eclipse — the  only  one  he  saw — about  four 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon.  He  asked  an  old  man  what  it 
meant,  and  he  told  him  his  son  had  hid  it  (the  sun)  to 
frighten  another  of  his  tribe.  But  they  were  very  uneasy 
during  its  continuance.  They  picked  up  a  piece  of  grass  and 
bit  it,  making  a  mumbling  noise,  keeping  their  eyes  steadily 
fixed  on  it  till  it  passed  over,  when  they  became  easy  again. 
They  think  they  have  power  over  the  rain  (durgun)  to  make 
it  come  and  go  as  they  like.  The  rainbow  (terebare)  they 
think  is  the  clouds  spewing  fish  in  the  lagoons,  and  roots 
on  the  hills,  or  something  for  their  good,  wherever  the  end 

points They  told  me  that  their 

forefathers  witnessed  a  great  flood,  and  nearly  all  were 
drowned,  only  those  who  got  on  a  very  high  mountain 
{Bibbiringda,  which  is  inland  of  the  north  bay  of  Cape 
Cleveland)  were  saved.  He  understood  them  to  refer  to  the 
flood  mentioned  in  Scripture,  especially  as  they  say  only  a 
few  were  allowed  to  go  up."  One  of  the  ceremonies  prac- 
tised, when  admitting  lads  to  the  status  of  men,  is  tying  up 
the  arms  above  the  elbow,  as  is  done  on  the  west  coast. 
Many  other  practices  already  referred  to  in  these  pages  are 


MOUNT    Ea^LIOTT.  451 

also  mentioned  by  Murrells.  Following  are  given  the  few 
words  which  appear  in  the  pamphlet  and  are  found  in  my 
Common  Vocabulary. 


2  F  2 


452 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  125.— MOUNT  ELLIOTT. 


Kangaroo    - 

Opossum     -        -  moongun. 

Tame  dog  - 

Wild  dog   - 

Emu   -        -        -  koondoola. 

Black  duck         -  yamara. 

Wood  duck 

Pelican 

Laughing  jackass 

Native  companion  phorogwan. 

White  cockatoo  - 

Crow 

Swan 

Egg    ■ 

Track  of  a  foot   - 

Fish    - 

Lobster 

Csayfish 

Mosquito    - 

Fly     -        -        - 

Snake- 

The  Blacks 

A  Blackfellow    -  munya. 

A  Black  woman  -  youngoora. 

Nose  - 


Hand  - 

kaban  kaban 

2  Blacks     - 

3  Blacks     - 

One    - 

woggin. 

Two  - 

boolray. 

Three 

goodjoo. 

Four  - 

murrwool. 

Father 

Mother 

Sister-Elder 

„     Younger  - 

Brother-Elder    - 

„       Younger 

A  young  man 

An  old  man 

An  old  woman    - 

A  baby 

colamar. 

A  White  man    - 

Children     - 

Head  - 

coode. 

Eye    - 

teeburra. 

Ear     - 

deeragun, 

MOUNT    ELLIOTT. 


453 


No.  125.— Mount  Elliott— continued. 

Mouth 

■ 

Boomerang  - 

. 

Teeth- 

■ 

Hill     - 

Hair  of  the  head 

■  weir. 

Wood  - 

Beard  - 

- 

Stone  - 

Thunder 
Grass  - 

-  teegoora. 

Camp  - 
Yes      - 

Tongue 

-  telli. 

Stomach 

-  booloo. 

No       -        - 

- 

Breasts 

-  urga,  namoon. 

I- 

- 

Thigh  - 

- 

You     - 

- 

Foot    - 

-  deena. 

Bark    - 

- 

Bone    - 

. 

Good   - 

- 

Blood  - 

. 

Bad     - 

- 

Skin    - 

Sweet  - 

- 

Pat      - 

- 

Food    - 

- 

Bowels 

- 

Hungry 

- 

Excrement  - 

- 

Thirsty 

- 

War-spear  - 

- 

Eat      - 

- 

B«ed-spear  - 

- 

Sleep  - 

„ 

Wommera    or 

Drink  - 

. 

-  throwing-stick 

Walk  - 

Shield  - 

See      - 

_ 

Tomahawk  - 

-  buUgoo. 

Sit       - 

Canoe  - 

■  woolgoora. 

Sun     -        - 

-  injin. 

Yesterday  - 

- 

Moon  - 

■  wurboonburra. 

To-day 

- 

Star     - 

mUgoolerburda. 

To-morrow  - 

- 

Light  - 

Where     are 

the 

Dark   - 

Blacks? 

Cold    - 

I  don't  know 

- 

Heat    - 

Plenty 

-  qneerarilla. 

Day     - 

Big      -        - 

-  wadoolbil. 

Night  -        - 

Little  - 

-  waboora. 

Tue 

ejugaba. 

Dead    - 

.    . 

Water - 
Smoke- 

-  doongalla. 

By  and-by   - 

- 

Ground 

mannie. 

Come  on 

- 

Wind  - 

Milk    - 

- 

Raia    - 

■  durgun. 

Eaglehawk 

- 

God     - 

Wild  turkey 

-  mooraynburra 

Ghosts 

Wife    - 

. 

454 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  126.— MOUTHS  OF  THE  BURDEKIN  RIVER. 


By  J.  O'CoNNOE,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

arragoo. 

Hand  - 

-  wurrumby. 

Opossum 

onehunger. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  blarin  dulgooh. 

Tame  dog    - 
Wild  dog     - 

oodoodoo. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  wungoo  dulgooh 

Emu    - 

karboonmillery. 

One     - 

-  warrin. 

Black  duck  - 

hoorooburry. 

Two    - 

-  blarin. 

Wood  duck  - 

culburh. 

Three  - 

-  wungoo. 

Pelican 

dooroomuUy. 

Four    - 

-  muiragi. 

Laughing  jackass 

karcoobura. 

Father 

-  abah. 

Native  companion  kooroogowgun. 

Mother 

White  cockatoo  - 

bunginna. 

-  yunguma. 

Crow   - 

wombugah. 

Sister-Elder 

-  kooda. 

SwEin  - 

,,      Younger 

- 

Egg     - 

gunnoo. 

Brother-Elder 

-  kudun. 

Track  of  a  foot 

yulmun. 

„          Younger 

Fish     - 

weambura. 

A  young  man 

-  deebahgul. 

Lobster 

boogurrie. 

An  old  man 

-  nuganugamun. 

Crayfish 

inundah. 

An  old  woman 

-  bundeyun. 

Mosquito 

hoonhoono. 

Fly      -        -        - 

nin. 

A  baby 

-  cowla. 

Snake  - 

boongi  (carpet). 

A  White  man 

-  yuarroo. 

The  Blacks  - 

dulgooh. 

Children 

-  moolaramoo. 

A  Blackf ellow 

dulgooh. 

Head  - 

-  karboyan. 

A  Black  woman 

tudgegun. 

Eye     - 

-  deebara. 

Nose    - 

wuneary. 

Ear     - 

-  kungun. 

MOUTHS    OF    THE    BURDEKIN    RIVER, 


455 


No.  126 

. — Mouths  of  the  Bukdekin  Rivee- 

—continued. 

Mouth 

-  unga. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

•  dinguU. 

Hill     - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  targuinn. 

Wood  - 

-  moora. 

Beard  - 

-  talba. 

Stone  - 

-  bungil. 

Thunder      - 

-  burrahroo. 

Camp  - 

-  midera. 

Grass  - 

-  narahminie. 

Yes     - 

-  yu  yow. 

No      - 

-  karbil. 

Tongue 

-  dulling. 

I 

-  uda. 

Stomach 

-  boonda. 

Breasts 

-  dulnbinn. 

You    - 

-  ninda. 

Thigh - 

-  duburrin. 

Bark   - 

-  bulgun. 

Foot   - 

-  dingooburra. 

Good  - 

-  boongoon. 

Bone  - 

-  mimmoon. 

Bad     -        - 

-  diga. 

Blood  - 

-  queeberry. 

Sweet  - 

-  goondi. 

Skin    - 

-  tnindeer. 

Food  - 

-  dunggee,  ogoo 

Fat     - 

-  boongaroo. 

Hungry 

-  garoo. 

Bowels 

-  yabboo. 

Thirsty 

- ,  armboo  yul- 

Excrement  - 

-  guno. 

burana. 

War-spear  - 

-  woolunbura. 

Eat     - 

-  dulgee  ogoo. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  (none  used). 

Sleep  - 

-  boog  oggba. 

Wommera     or 

buddurrie. 

Drink  - 

-  kudge  ogoo. 

throwing-stiok 

Shield 

-  poodda  poodda. 

Walk  - 

-  warin. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  oolun. 

See 

-  na. 

Canoe  - 

-  karbeyal. 

Sit       - 

-  duri. 

Sun     - 

-  mnlloun. 

Yesterday  - 

-  dirrierih. 

Moon  - 

-  waboonburra. 

To-day 

-  cudgin. 

Star    -        - 

-  dirilger. 

To-morrow  - 

-  burrigunda. 

Light  - 

-  baragunna. 

Where    are    the    ulba  dalgul  ? 

Dark  - 

-  wuUmrrie. 

Blacks? 

Cold  .- 

-  orbehgun. 

I  don't  know 

-  carbilbrather. 

Heat  - 

-  moondo  moondo. 

Plenty 

-  murrgi. 

Day     - 

-  unbur. 

Big      - 

-  yunga. 

Night  - 

- 

Little  - 

-  arbooro. 

Fire    - 

-  neebuU. 

Dead  - 

-  walgoon. 

Water 
Smoke 
Ground 

-  dunjun. 

-  doongin. 

-  dingur. 

By-and-by  - 
Come  on 

-  boodinhi. 

-  kooa. 

Wind- 

-  uinne. 

Milk   - 

- 

Rain  - 

-  marroo. 

Baglehawk  - 

- 

God    - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife   - 

- 

456 


THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE 


No.  127.— PORTER'S  RANGE. 


Bt  Montagu  Curb,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

woora. 

Hand 

-  malla. 

Opossum      - 

thangaroo. 

2  Blacks       - 

- 

Tame  dog    - 

moora. 

3  Blacks      - 

. 

Wild  dog     - 

Emu 

koondooloo. 

One     - 

-  wigin. 

Black  duck 

koberri. 

Two    - 

-  poolaroo. 

Wood  duck 

jimaju. 

Three  - 

-  koorburra 

Pelican 

pooloon. 

Pour   - 

- 

Laughing  jackass 

kakoburra. 

Father 

-  yabbo. 

Native  companioi] 
White  cockatoo  - 

■ 
therone. 

Mother 

-  yanga. 

Crow  - 

wooralta. 

Sister-Elder 

-  koodtha. 

Swan  - 

„     Younger 

- 

Egg     -        -        - 

koomurra. 

Brother-Elder 

-  waboo. 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

yalga. 

„        Young 

er 

Fish    - 

kooyo. 

A  young  man 

-  kowala. 

Lobster 
Crayfish 

wagooramoo. 

An  old  man 

-  magoora. 

Mosquito     - 

kooa. 

An  old  woman 

-  wumpan. 

A  baby 

-  kundoo. 

Fly      - 

-  ninga. 

Snake 

noonda. 

A  White  man 

-  miggolo. 

The  Blacks  - 

kooroon. 

Children 

-  webburru 

A  Blackfellow 

murree. 

Head  - 

-  kowro. 

A  Black  woman  - 

wangu. 

Eye     - 

-  dthille. 

Nose   - 

nindee. 

Ear      - 

-  walloo. 

PORTER'S    RANGE. 


457 


No.  127.— Poetek's 


Mouth 

-  dtha. 

Teeth  - 

-  yeera. 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  kudtha. 

Beard  - 

-  iiTiga. 

Thunder      - 

-  moandhilla 

Grass  - 

-  boogun. 

Tongue 

-  dthallan. 

Stomach 

-  buima. 

Breasts 

-  bilbille. 

Thigh 

-  yungurra. 

Foot    - 

-  deena. 

Bone  - 

-  bulbun. 

Blood  - 

-  kooma. 

Skm    - 

-  miniun. 

Fat      ■ 

-  tammy. 

Bowels 

-  nambo. 

Excrement  - 

-  koonua. 

War-spear  - 

-  kalka. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  moongul. 

Wommera     or 

bingo. 

throwing-atick 

Shield - 

-  koolmaree. 

Tomahawk  ■ 

-  balko. 

Canoe  - 

- 

Sun     - 

-  kyee. 

Moon  - 

-  ebarra. 

Star     - 

-  botho. 

Light  - 

-  bunning. 

Dark  - 

-  oonoo. 

Cold    - 

-  winua. 

Heat   - 

-  mungurra. 

Day     - 

-  kurringo. 

Night  - 

-  oonoo 

Fu-e.    - 

-  booree. 

Water 

-  kamoo. 

Smoke 

-  dthoga. 

Ground  . 

-  nauee. 

Wind- 

-  eburra. 

Rain    - 

-  komoo. 

God     - 

. 

Ghosts 

_ 

Range — continued. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Hill     ■ 

- 

Wood  - 

-  dthoola. 

Stone  - 

-  byee. 

Camp  - 

-  yamba. 

Yes     - 

-  wyee. 

No       - 

-  gurra. 

I 

-  ngiar. 

You     - 

-  inda. 

:Bark  - 

-  koka. 

Good   - 

-  booroolera. 

Bad     - 

-  magora. 

Sweet 

- 

Pood  - 

-  uree. 

Hungry 

-  karamoonoo. 

Thirsty 

-  woola. 

Eat     - 

-  uguUa. 

Sleep  - 

-  bomburra. 

Drink  - 

-  uganago. 

Walk  - 

-  tooago. 

See      - 

-  mug-gul-a. 

Sit       - 

-  naboo. 

Yesterday  - 

- 

To-day 

- 

To-morrow  - 

-  wirraroo. 

Where     are 

the  wundthamurree? 

Blacks  ? 

I  don't  know 

-  gnia  gurra  yim- 

billa. 

Plenty 

-  boolgun. 

Big      - 

- 

Little  - 

-  walidgero. 

Dead  - 

-  woolanoo. 

By-and-by  - 

-  dthango. 

Come  on 

-  kannee. 

Milk   - 

- 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Wife   - 

458 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  128.— CHARTERS  TOWERS. 


From  the  Chief  Commissionbe  of  Police,  Brisbane. 


The  equivalent  for  the  word 
tribe,  now  long  extinct.     There  is 


is  the  same  as  that  of  the  Sydney 
but  one  word  to  express  hill  and  stcyne. 


Kangaroo     - 

oora. 

Opossum- 

tandroo. 

Tame  dog    - 

ooda. 

Wild  dog     - 

Emu    - 

kondoolo. 

Black  duck  - 

kubbrie. 

Wood  duck  - 

Pelican 

weeda. 

Laughing  jackass 

Native  companion 

White  cockatoo  - 

doorona. 

Crow   - 

warralba. 

Swan  - 

Egg     -        -        . 

kookabeck. 

Track  of  a  foot 

dinna. 

Pish    - 

koorie. 

Lobster 

Crayfish 

Mosquito     - 

kooa. 

Ply      -        -        ■ 

Snake  - 

The  Blacks  - 

mankill. 

A  Blackfellow     - 

marria. 

A  Black  woman 

Nose   - 

uinde. 

Hand  - 

-  muUa. 

2  Blacks      - 

- 

3  Blacks      - 

- 

One     - 

- 

Two    - 

- 

Three  - 

- 

Pour   - 

- 

Pather 

-  yabba. 

Mother 

-  yanga. 

Sister-Elder 

- 

,,     Younger 

- 

Brother-Elder 

-  kudena 

,,         Younger  wappo. 

A  young  man 

- 

An  old  man 

-  prengul 

An  old  woman 

- 

A  baby 

-  wappo. 

A  White  man 

- 

Children      - 

- 

Head  - 

-  kudda. 

Eye     - 

-  dillie. 

Ear      - 

-  walloo 

CHARTERS    TOWERS. 


459 


No.  128. — Chapters 

Mouth         -  -  da. 

Teeth-       -  -  alia. 
Hair  of  the  head-  kudda. 

Beard-       -  -  ongar. 
Thunder 

Grass  -       -  -  woomba. 

Tongue        -  -  alia. 

Stomach      -  -  bona. 

Breasts       -  -  mombot. 

Thigh-        -  -  thurra. 
Foot    - 

Bone  -        -  -  yangarra. 
Blood  - 

Skin    -        -  -  milqut. 
Fat     - 
Bowels 
Excrement  - 

War-spear  -  -  konda. 
Eeed-spear  - 
Wommera     or 
throwing- stick 

Shield  -  -  heelaman. 

Tomahawk  -  balgo. 
Canoe - 

Sun     .        -  -  kurra. 

Moon  -       -  -  kooqurra. 

Star    -        -  -  budda. 

Light  -        -  -  oona. 

Dark  -        -  -  oonock 

Cold   -        -  -  weeda. 

Heat  -        -  - 

Day    -       -  - 
Night  - 

Fire     -       -  -  borra. 

Water         -  -  abra. 

Smoke        -  -  doogar. 

Ground       -  -  nana. 
Wind  - 

Rain   -       -  .  cobra. 
God    - 

Ghosts        -  -  gooie. 


To^iEBS— continued. 

Boomerang  - 

-  warangal 

Hill     - 

-  barrie. 

Wood  - 

-  budda. 

Stone  - 

-  barrie. 

Camp  - 

-  yamba. 

Yes     - 

- 

No      - 

- 

I 

- 

You     - 

- 

Bark   - 

-  bulgut. 

Good  - 

-  nooda. 

Bad     - 

- 

Sweet  - 

- 

Pood  - 

- 

Hungry 

-  curquna. 

Thirsty 

-  abra. 

Eat     - 

- 

Sleep  - 

-  yamba. 

Drink 

-  abra. 

Walk  - 

- 

See     - 

- 

Sit       - 

- 

Yesterday  - 

- 

To  day 

- 

To-morrow  - 

- 

Where    are 

the 

Blacks  ? 

I  don't  know 

- 

Plenty 

- 

Big      -        - 

- 

Little  - 

-  coa. 

Dead  - 

-  oUa. 

By-and-by  • 

- 

Come  on 

- 

Milk   - 

-  ommoon. 

Baglehawk  - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

-  burcum. 

Wife  - 

-  berguna. 

460 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   BACE : 


No.  129.— UPPER  FLINDERS,  HUGHENDEN, 
BUTTON  RIVER,  ETC. 

By  Montagu  Cueb,  Esq.,  ajsb  Edwabd  Cube.  Esq. 

Of  the  dialects  of  the  Upper  Flinders  and  Dutton  Rivers  I 
have  received  two  specimens  from  my  brother  and  son  named 
above.  The  name  of  the  language  is  Pooroga.  It  mnch 
resembles  that  of  Tower  Hill  and  Cornish  Creek,  and  has 
many  words  found  in  the  Porter's  Range,  Diamantina  and 
Thomson  Rivers  languages.  The  two  samples  produced  of 
the  Pooroga  agree  very  well,  though  obtained  probably 
from  persons  of  distinct  tribes. 


No.  129.— UPPER  FLINDERS,  HUGHENDEN,  AND  DUTTON 
RIVER. 


By  Montagu  Cure,  Esq. 

Kangaroo     - 

gooroo. 

Hand  - 

murra. 

Opossiim 

cudthra. 

2  Blacks       - 

Tame  dog    - 

cobboora. 

3  Blacks 

Wild  dog    - 

Emu    - 

One      - 

Black  duck  - 

oooburree. 

Two     - 

boolurroo. 

Wood  duck  - 

Three  - 

boorka. 

Pelican 

Four    - 

Laughing  jackass 

co-ca-burra. 

Native  companion  bilbungala. 

Father 

mareera. 

White  cockatoo  - 

mooranga. 

Mother 

marrunka. 

Crow  - 

wagunna. 

Sister-Elder 

cudthuuna 

Swan  - 

,,      Younger 

Egg     - 

Track  of  a  foot    ■ 

dthaudoo. 

Brother-Elder 

moogoona. 

Fish    - 

cooyoo. 

,,          Younger 

Lobster 

marooroo. 

A  young  man 

nyunka. 

Crayfish       - 

An  old  man 

baboora. 

Mosquito     - 

coongoona. 

An  old  woman 

Fly      - 
Snake  - 

ngingya. 
moonda. 

A  baby 

dgellaroo. 

The  Blacks  - 

murree 

A  White  man 

(doubtful). 

Children 

A  Blackfellow 

Head  - 

A  Black  woman  - 

ngyunga. 

Eye     - 

dthilli. 

Nose   - 

wangoye. 

Bar     - 

munta. 

UPPER    FLINDERS,    HUGHENDEN,    ETC. 


461 


No.  129. — Upper  Flinders,  Htjghenden,  and  Ddtton  River — 
crnitinued. 


Mouth 

dthowa. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

ulgulla. 

Hill     - 

Hair  of  the  head 

cudthagoorun. 

Wood  - 

Beard 

unga. 

Stone  - 

-  but-thuUa. 

Thunder      - 

■  ge-i. 

Grass  ■ 

yagoo. 

Camp  - 

-  wongo. 

Tongue 

-  koogunya. 

Yes      - 

-  eea. 

Stomach 

-  yagoora. 

No      - 

- 

Breasts 

I 

Thigh 
Foot    - 

-  d'tharroo. 

-  d'thinna. 

You     - 

■ 

Bone  - 

-  goomgooma. 

Bark   - 

-  magoora. 

Blood  - 

-  eergurra. 

Good   - 

Skin    - 

-  magoora. 

Bad     - 

- 

Fat     - 

-  dthoona. 

Sweet  - 

. 

Bowels 

Food   - 

-  minna. 

Excrement  - 

-  koomia. 

Hungry 

-  win-giu-a-roo 

War-spear  - 
Eeed-spear 

-  moorga. 

Thirsty 
Eat      - 

-  kunga. 

Wommera     or 

throwing-stick 

Sleep  - 

Shield-        - 

-  coolmurree. 

Drink  - 

Tomahawk  - 

-  coodja. 

Walk  - 

Canoe  - 

- 

See      - 

Sun     - 

.  knmba. 

Sit       - 

- 

Moon  - 

-  kogurra. 

Yesterday  - 

- 

Star    -        - 

-  d'the-gul-cood- 

To-day 

. 

Light  - 

tha. 

To-morrow  - 

-  djinroo. 

Dark  - 

-  burgun. 

Where  are  the 
Blacks  ? 

Cold    - 

-  inguano. 

Heat  - 

I  don't  know 

Day 

Plenty 

Night  -        - 

- 

Big      - 

Fire     - 

-  booree. 

Little  - 

Water- 

-  kamoo. 

Dead   - 

-  ooranoo. 

Smoke 

-  dthooga. 

By-and-by  - 

Ground 

-  goondee. 

Come  on 

Wind  - 

-  poodtha. 

Milk    - 

Rain 

-  kamoo. 

Eaglehawk  - 

God     -        - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

Ghosts 

. 

Wife   - 

462 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE; 


No.  129.— UPPER  FLINDERS,  HUGHBNDEN,  AND  DUTTON 
RIVER. 

By  Edwaed  CuiiK,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

gooroo. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum 

kathara. 

2  Blacks      - 

Tame  dog    - 
Wild  dog    - 
Emu    - 
Black  duck  - 

kabburra. 

ooloarri. 
koo-daboora. 

3  Blacks      - 
One      - 
Two    - 

-  ungarr. 

-  boolarri,  poole. 

Wood  duck  - 

narawool. 

Three  - 

-  goorboore. 

Pelican 

tarraroo. 

Four    - 

-  poorooga. 

Laughing  jackass 

kakooburra. 

Father 

-  maruna,  marri. 

Native  companion 
White  cockatoo  - 
Crow  - 

bilbungara. 

murroin. 

wadda. 

Mother 
Sister-Elder 

-  yamgin,  yanga. 

-  ngamalla. 

Swan  - 

„      Younger 

-  wabagoo. 

Egg     - 

tarndoo. 

Brother-Elder 

-  muggi. 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

tinna. 

,,          Younger  wabagoo. 

Fish    - 

kooyoo. 

A  young  man 

-  wangoor,  balba. 

Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito     - 
Fly      -        - 
Snake  - 

koongain. 

yilna. 

moouda. 

An  old  man 
An  old  woman 
A  baby 
A  White  man 

-  eyara. 

-  mangoor. 

-  gallaroo. 

-  yerby. 

The  Blacks  - 

yalgaburra. 

Children 

-  ooranga. 

A  Blackfellow 

Head  - 

-  paragna,  parryn 

A  Black  woman 

wooroona. 

Eye     ■ 

-  timmari. 

Nose  - 

gooni. 

Ear     - 

-  munga. 

UPPER    FLINDERS,    HUGHENDEN,    ETC. 


463 


No.  129. — Upper  Plindebs,  Hughenden,.  and  Button  Rivbr- 
contimied. 


Mouth- 

-  dt-hawa. 

Boomerang  - 

-  kulga. 

Teeth  - 

-  nugala. 

Hill  •  - 

-  undoothala. 

Hair  of  the  head 

■  wooroo. 

Wood  - 

-  boorri. 

Beard  - 

-  nunga. 

Stone  - 

-  yanandoro. 

Thunder      - 

-  pimanoo. 

Camp  - 

■  warngo. 

Grass  - 
Tongue 

-  yakoo. 

-  kookanya. 

Yes     - 

-  yae. 

Stomach 

-  koogingara. 

No 

-  nowa. 

Breasts 

-  yammoon. 

I 

-  yo. 

Thigh - 

-  yangara. 

You     - 

-  ioo. 

Foot    - 

-  tiima. 

Bark   - 

-  mindana,  yoo- 

Bone   - 

-  koongoona. 

arna. 

Blood  - 

"-  yirgoora. 

Good  - 

-  tarrili,  dtharil 

Skin    - 

-  magoora. 

Bad     - 

-  al-i-goo. 

Fat      - 

-  toodda. 

Sweet  - 

Bowels 

-  padanna. 

Pood   - 

-  minna,  purga. 

Excrement  - 

-  koonna. 

Hungry 

-  karamulberri. 

War-spear  - 

-  moorga. 

Thirsty 

-  karraga. 

Reed-spear  - 
Wommera    or 

-  kaygooma. 
koonbinna. 

Eat     - 

■  yooga. 

throwing-stick 

Sleep  - 

-  wilgida. 

Shield - 

-  koolmurri. 

Drink  - 

-  yoogangaoo. 

Walk  - 

-  kabonaoo. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  kooga. 

See 

-  tillilma. 

Canoe  - 
Sun     - 

-  karri. 

Sit 

-  yinda. 

Moon  - 

-  tagara,  ka,gara. 

Yesterday  - 
To-day 

-  kageam. 

-  waabedunga. 

Star     - 

■  tigalnagoo. 

To-morrow  - 

-  waanga. 

Light  - 

-  waa. 

Where    are 

the    ninaya  nagaoo. 

Dark   - 

-  oonno. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    - 

-  wirra,  weda. 

I  don't  know 

-  nawadi. 

Heat  - 
Day    - 

Night  - 

-  wanginna. 

-  nambimbidoo. 

Plenty 
Big      - 

-  yangamara, 

pooroga. 

-  walbagna. 

Fire     - 

-  boorri. 

Little  - 

-  wabigoo. 

Water- 

-  kammoo. 

Dead   - 

-  oola,  cunga. 

Smoke 

-  tooka. 

Ground 

-  koondi. 

By-and-by  - 

- 

Come  on 

-  kawayi. 

Wind  - 

-  parooga. 

Rain    - 

-  kammoo,  woor- 

Milk    - 

-  kooma. 

alba. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God     .        - 

_ 

Wild  turkey 

-  pragam. 

Ghosts 

, 

Wife   - 

-  nadunda. 

464  THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  130.— THE  WATERSHED  AND  UPPER  PORTION 
OF  THE  CAPE  RIVER. 

By  M.  Armstrong,  Inspector  op  Police. 

FoK  the  foUowing  account  of  the  Mungerra  tribe,  which 
inhabits  the  watershed  and  upper  portion  of  the  Cape  River, 
I  am  indebted  to  the  Commissioner  of  PoUce  in  Queensland, 
and  to  Inspector  M.  Armstrong.  The  extent  of  country 
belonging  to  the  tribe  is  said  to  be  about  300  square  nules; 
and  its  numbers  are — 70  men,  30  women,  30  boys,  and  20 
girls,  in  all  150  souls.  When  their  country  was  first 
occupied  by  the  Whites  in  1860,  their  numbers  were  estimated 
at  360.  The  decrease  is  attributed  to  the  diseases  always 
introduced  by  the  Whites,  and  to  influenza,  sMn  disease, 
want  of  food,  and  probably  to  the  atrocities  of  the  Black 
Police,  which  are  not  mentioned,  however.  My  informant 
says  that  this  tribe  wear  no  clothes;  that  the  height  of  the 
men  is  about  five  feet  seven  inches,  and  that  of  the  women 
four  feet  eleven  inches  ;  and  that  few  live  to  be  over  forty 
years  of  age.  That  the  stature,  strength,  and  duration  of 
life  amongst  the  Blacks  of  Northern  Queensland  are  less 
than  in  the  southern  portion  of  the  continent,  I  find  to  be 
the  opinion  of  several  of  my  correspondents,  Mr.  Armstrong 
amongst  them. 

For  ornaments,  the  Mungerra  tribe  wear  a  bone  through 
the  septum  of  the  nose,  a  mussel-shell  on  the  forehead,  and 
a  necklace  of  small  reeds  cut  into  short  lengths.  On 
occasions  of  corroborees,  deaths,  and  fights,  the  men  smear 
their  persons  with  the  usual  grease  and  red  ochre  or  pipe- 
clay, according  to  circumstances.  Their  implements  are 
baskets,  knives  which  resemble  chisels  in  shape,  and  stone 


WATERSHED  AND  PORTION  OF  CAPE  RIVER.  465 

tomahawks  ground  to  an  edge.  They  have  also  nets  for  the 
capture  of  kangaroo,  emu,  .and  fish.  Their  weapons  are 
jagged  war-spears  thrown  with  the  hand,  and  reed-spears 
thrown  with  the  wommera;  also  boomerangs  of  both  sorts, 
and  the  inevitable  nuUa-nuUa  or  club,  which  last  is  the  only- 
weapon  they  decorate  with  carving.  Their  meat  they  cook 
on  the  coals;  ovens  are  not  found  amongst  them.  No  traces 
of  small-pox  have  been  observed. 

My  informant  remarks  that  this  tribe  are  cannibals  to  a 
limited  degree,  and  when  sorely  pinched  by  hunger  have 
been  known  to  kill  and  eat  some  of  their  female  children. 
They  have  no  objection  to  tell  their  names.  Marriages  are 
made  both  in  and  out  of  the  tribe.  The  males  are  allowed 
to  get  wives  at  from  seventeen  to  twenty  years  of  age  if  they 
are  able,  and  the  females  become  wives  at  eleven  to  fourteen 
years  of  age,  and  have  been  known  to  have  children  at 
twelve  years.  About  one-fifth  of  the  men  who  have  wives 
have  more  than  one.  Children  belong  to  the  tribe .  of  the 
father.  In  youth,  the  males  and  females  have  their  skins 
orn'amented  with  scars.  When  the  period  of  adolescence  is 
past,  a  front  tooth  is  knocked  out  of  the  upper  jaw  of  the 
males  and  the  lower  jaw  of  the  females.  Circumcision  and 
other  rites  of  the  sort  are  not  practised  in  this  tribe,  but  on  . 
occasions  of  mourning  they  cut-  and  gash  themselves  in 
various  places.  They  have  a  great  fear  of  a  Supernatural 
Being,  and  also  of  the  dead.  They  make  young  men  on  the 
occasion  of  their  corroborees.  Their  dead  are  buried,  but 
not  at  any  great  depth,  and  the  friends  of  the  deceased  paint 
portions  of  their  bodies  -with  pipe-clay  on  such  occasions. 
Disagreements  are  settled  by  pitched  battles,  single -combats, 
or  arbitration.  "  I  have  known,"  says  Mr.  Armstrong,  "  a 
•message  to  be  sent  over  one  hundred  miles  on  a  stick  about 
four  inches  long,  notched  all  over  -with  diamond-shaped 
marks.    The  stick  was  about  one  inch  in  circumference." 

So  far  as  has  been  observed,  no  government  exists  in  the 
tribe.  The  names  of  the  neighbouring  tribes  are  Bulla, 
TumbuUa,  Mungubra,  Queebinbirra,  and  Mungabirra. 

VOL.   II.  2  G 


466 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE  : 


No.  130— WATERSHED  AND  UPPER  PORTION  OE  CAPE 
RIVER. 


Kangaroo     - 

tikkara. 

Opossum 

Tame  dog    - 

Wild  dog    - 

Emu    -        -  .     - 

goberri. 

Black  duck  - 

kotubra. 

Wood  duck- 

barcoma. 

Pelican_ 

bilbungra. 

Laughing  jackass 

obbirri. 

Native  colnpanion 

tarrooroo. 

White  cockatoo  - 

chikeri. 

Crow  - 

wawteringa. 

Swan  - 

Egg     -        -        - 

thando. 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

tri. 

Pish     - 

kooyoo. 

Lobster 

Crayfish ■     - 

- 

Mosquito     - 

kogunnia. 

Fly      -         -         - 

nunga. 

Snake  - 

thrana. 

The  Blacks 

meanna. 

A  Blaokfellow     - 

A  Black  woman  ■ 

uugoo. 

Nose   - 

ungne. 

Hand  - 

mobrey. 

2  Blacks      - 

3  Blacks      - 

One     - 

wongra. 

Two    -     ' - 

booUi. 

Three  - 

Pour   -        -    ■    - 

goodberri 

Father 

marena. 

Mother 

■  younga. 

Sister-Elder 

omula. 

„     Younger  - 

kathna. 

Brother-Elder    - 

mugenna. 

„        Youngei 

tombua. 

A  young  man 

ulora. 

An  old  man 

nathua. 

An  old- woman 

babina. 

A  baby 

■  galaroo. 

A  White  man 

Children      ■ 

ama. 

Head 

yabinga. 

Eye     - 

-  dilli. 

Ear      - 

■  mungua. 

WATERSHED  AND  PORTION  OF  CAPE  RIVER. 


467 


No.   130— V 

T'atershed  and  Upp 

BR  Portion  of 

Cape  River — 

contimmd. 

Mouth 

■  tooga. 

Boomerang  - 

-  gulga. 

Teeth  - 

-  era. 

Hill     - 

-  mungna. 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  yoUi. 

Wood  - 

-  thoola. 

Beard  - 

-  nunda. 

Stone  - 

-  pathilla. 

Thunder      - 

-  gurru. 

Camp  - 

-  yamba. 

Grass  - 

-  yago. 

Yes     - 

-  yalguma. 

Tongue 

-  kaae. 

'  No       - 

-  nowa. 

Stomach 

-  koona. 

I 

-  iu. 

Breasts 

-  thungoo 

You    -        - 

-  wolaga. 

Thigh 

-  mogo. 

Bark   - 

-  koka. 

Foot  ■  ■ 

-  thinna. 

Good  - 

-  tharibra. 

Bone  - 

-  gunguna. 

Bad     -        - 

-  kicha. 

Blood  - 

-  ugra. 

Sweet  - 

-  tharibra. 

Skin   - 

-  mokra. 

Fat     - 

-  tommi. 

Food   - 

-  mooa. 

Bowels 

-  thunga. 

Hungry 

-  kajnunga. 

Excrement  - 

-  goomia. 

Thirsty 

-  kurena. 

War-spear  - 

-  bilgi. 

Eat      - 

-  maionuna. 

E^ed-spear  - 

-  warda 

Sleep  - 

-  olkitta. 

Wommera  - 

-  thoomulla. 

Drink - 

-  mangena. 

Shield 

-  gullmerri. 

Walk  - 

-  tooa. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  koooha. 

See      - 

-  parrari. 

Canoe 

- 

Sit       - 

-  endana.  . 

Sun     - 

-  winganna. 

Yesterday  - 

-  kalkura. 

Moon  - 

-  kokkra. 

Star    - 

-  buttu. 

To-day 
To-morrow  - 

-  nakka. 

Light  - 

-  nnnu. 

Dark  - 

. 

Where  are  the 

kurra  murra  ? 

Cold    - 

-  wida.  ■ 

Blacks? 

Heat   - 

-  thowri. 

I  don't  know 

-  natu. 

Day    - 

-  nnnu. 

Plenty 

-  yanunga. 

Night  -        - 

-  waberri. 

Big      - 

-  baabirra. 

Fire    -        : 

-  bree. 

Little - 

-  kokoro. 

Water 

-  kanamo. 

Dead  - 

-  woligi.  . 

Smoke 

-  dungunna. 

By-and-by  - 

-  guragura. 

Ground 

-  gunay. 

Come  on 

-  thourakabona. 

Wind- 

-  parretta. 

Milk   - 

-  nommuima. 

Rain   - 

-  kammo. 

Eaglehawk  - 

-  umbilla. 

God    -       - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

-  yarri. 

2 

Wife    - 

3r2 

-  wouna. 

468  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

No.   131.— NATAL  DOWNS  STATION,  CAPE  EIVER. 

By  F.  M.  -ToMPSON,  Esq.,  and  William  Chatpield,  Jun.,  Esq. 

Of  the  laaguage  of  the  Pegulloburra  tribe,  which  is  called 
Eneby,  I  have  received  two  vocabularies,  one  from  Mr.  F.  M. 
Tompson,  Inspector  of  Police,  and  the  other  from  Mr.  Wm. 
Chatfield,  jun.,  of  Natal  Downs  Station.  This  latter  gentle- 
man, who  has  taken  much  kindly  interest  in  my  inquiries, 
has  also  furnished  me  with  such  information  as  has  enabled 
me  to  give  the  following  account  of  the  tribe. 

In  country  watered  by  the  Cape  Eiver,  and  measuring 
about  one  hundred  miles  square  (i.e.,  ten  thousand  square 
miles,  or  six  million  four  hundred  thousand  acres),  dwell  six 
burra,  or  tribes,  who  speak,  with  smaU  dialectic  differences, 
what  they  call  the  Eneby  language.  The  names  of  these 
tribes  are: — 

1.  Yukkaburra,  supposed  to  be  the  original  stock. 

2.  Pegulloburra. 

3.  Wokkulburra  (i.e.,  Eel  people). 

4.  Mungooburra. 

5.  MunguUaburra  (Spinifex  people). 

6.  Goondoolooburra  (Emu  people). 

Each  of  these  tribes  is  subdivided  into  four  classes.  Every 
class  has  its  representative  bird,  animal,  or  reptile  (com- 
monly called  totem  or  crest),  and,  says  Mr.  Chatfield,  every 
member  of  the  tribe,  male  or  female,  has  imprinted  on  his 
or  her  person  on  arriving  at  puberty  a  mark  which  identifies 
the  class  to  which  he  or  she  belongs.  This  statement,  I  think, 
requires  confirmation  before  it  can  be  accepted.  The  follow- 
ing are  the  names  of  the  classes  in  the  Yukkaburra  tribe, 
with  their  crests  or  totems,  of  which  some  have  two: — 

Utheroo  -  .  .  .  Crest— Emu  or  carpet  snake. 

Multheroo  -  -  -  -  Crest — Iguana. 

Yungaroo  -  -  -  .  Cresfh-Opossum. 

Goorgilla  -  -  .  .  Crest— Scrub  turkey. 


NATAL    DOWNS    STATION,    CAPE    RIVER.         .     469 

These  class-names  are  given  in  the  masculine  gender; 
when  applied  to  women,  each  has  a  feminine  termination  or 
equivalent. 

Many  words  in  the  Eneby  vocabulary  are  commonly  met 
with  as  far  as  Broad  Sound.  In  the  vocabulary  of  these 
tribes  are  also  words  prevalent  on  the  Upper  Flinders.  The 
word  munkine,  young  woman,  is  found  on  the  Norman  River, 
on  Spear  Creek,  at  Cleveland  Bay,  at  Townsville,  and  other 
places.  Amongst  the  Additional  Words  will  be  foitnd 
bomar  =  beat,  which  is  met  with  on  the  Burnett  and  also  in 
Western  Australia  but  slightly  altered. 

The  territory  of  the  Pegulloburra,  Mr.  Chatfield  informs 
me,  was  first  occupied  as  a  station  in  1863,  but  the  tribe  was 
not  what  is  technically  called  let  in  until  1868.  Generally, 
after  the  first  occupation  of  a  tract  of  country  by  a  settler, 
from  three  to  ten  years  elapse  before  the  tribe  or  tribes  to 
which  the  land  has  belonged  from  time  immemorial  is  let  in, 
that  is,  is  allowed  to  come  to  the  homestead,  or  seek  for  food 
within  a  radius  of  five  or  ten  miles  of  it.  During  this  period 
the  squatter's  party  and  the  tribe  live  in  a  state  of  warfare; 
the  former  shooting  down  a  savage  now  and  then  when 
opportunity  ofi'ers,  and  calling  in  the  aid  of  the  Black  Police 
from  time  to  time  to-  avenge  in  a  wholesale  way  the  killing 
or  frightening  of  stock  off  the  run  by  the  tribe.  Acting  on 
the  well-known  feature  of  aboriginal  ethics,  that  every  male 
stranger  is  an  enemy,  who  must,  if  possible,  be  slain,  the 
Queensland  Grovernment  has  largely  availed  itself  of  its 
aboriginal  population  for  the  jpurpose  of  punishing  aboriginal 
agressions.  The  stereotyped  proceedings  which  follow  the 
taking  up  of  a  run  may  be  described  in  this  way,  and  if  I 
mention  them,  it  is  only  on  the  chance  that  further  publicity 
— for  they  are  well  known — may  possibly  contribute  to  the 
adoption  of  more  humane  measures. 

When  the  settler  then  locates  his  stock  on  a  piece  of 
country  hitherto  in  the  sole  possession  of  a  tribe,  the  roots, 
grass-seeds,  and  game  on  which  the  people  habitually  live 
quickly  fail.     Then  come  hunger  and  also  anger,  for  amongst 


470     .  THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE : 

themselves  the  hunting  or  gathering  of  food  by  a  tribe  on 
land  which  does  not  belong  to  it  is  always  considered  a 
casus  belli  by  the  rightful  proprietors;  just  as  in  our  case  to 
take  or  destroy  a  neighbour's  sheep  or  cabbages  is  a  punish- 
able act.  Then  some  cattle  are  speared,  or  frightened  off 
the  run  by  the  mere  presence  of  the  Blacks  in  search  of 
food.  In  either  of  these  events  the  Blacks  are  attacked 
and  some  of  them  shot  down.  In  revenge,  a  shepherd 
or  '  stockman  is  speared.  Recourse  is  then  had  to  the 
Government;  half-a-dozen  or  more  young  Blacks  in  some 
part  of  the  colony  remote  from  the  scene  of  the  out- 
rage are  enlisted,  mounted,  armed,  liberally  supplied 
with  ball  cartridges,  and  despatched  to  the  spot  under  the 
charge  of  a  Sub-inspector  of  Police.  Hot  for  blood,  the  Black 
troopers  are  laid  on  the  trail  of  the  tribe ;  then  follow  the 
careful  tracking,  the  surprise,  the  shooting  at  a  distance 
safe  from  spears,  the  deaths  of  many  of  the  males,  the 
capture  of  the  women,  who  know  that  if  they  abstain  from 
flight  they  will  be  spared ;  the  gratified  lust  of  the  savage, 
and  the  Sub-inspector's  report  that  the  tribe  has  been 
'^dispersed,"  for  such  is  the  official  term  used  to  convey  the 
occurrence  of*  these  proceedings.  When  the  tribe  has  gone 
through  several  repetitions  of  this  experience,  and  the  chief 
part  of  its  young  men'  been  butchered,  the  women,  the 
remnant  of  the  men,  and  such  children  as  the  Black  troopers 
have  not  troubled  themselves  to  shoot,  are  let  in,  or  allowed 
to  come  to  the  settler's  homestead,  and  the  war  is  at  an  end. 
Finally,  a  shameful  disease  is  introduced,  and  finishes  what 
the  rifle  began.  The  PeguUoburra  were  not  let  in  until  1868, 
having  in  the  interim,  Mr.  Chatfield  says,  "been  murdered 
bj  Whites  and  Native  Police  wherever  seen."  When  they 
were  let  in,  there  were  only  125  able-bodied  men  left,  the 
numbers  of  the  women  -and  children  being  considerably 
greater.  Measles  also  ravaged  the  tribe,  so  that  the 
PelguUoburra  at  the  time  of  Mr.  Chatfield's  writing 
reckoned  only  thirty  men,  fifty  women,  and  some  few 
children,  for  infanticide  has  become  general  amongst  them. 


NATAL    DOWNS    STATION,    CAPE    RIVER.  47  L 

Amongst  the  whole  of  the  six  hurra,  or  tribes,  there  still 
remained,  however,  in  1880  at  least  200  men,  and  a  much 
larger  number  of  women. 

A  good  many  of  this  tribe,  both  men  and  women,  lived, 
as  far  as  my  informant  could  judge,  to  be  fifty  or  sixty  years 
of  age.  Some  of  them  have  opossum-rugs,  with  which 
they  cover  themselves  at  night,  but  none  use  any  cover- 
ing during  the  day,  and,  as  usual  in  the  north,  all  sleep 
surrounded  by  several  small  fires.  Their  principal  orna- 
ments are  sea  shells,  worn  in  the  hair  and  round  the  neck, 
which  they  obtain  by  barter  from  the  Kokleburra  or 
Wokkulburra  tribes,  which  occasionally  visit  the  sea-coast. 
At  corroborees  they  also  wear  waist-belts  made  of  opossum- 
fur,  chaplets  of  the  teeth  of  wild  dogs  or  kangaroo,  and  also 
■plumes  of  feathers.  Of  course  they  smear  the  person  with 
grease  whenever  they  can  get  it,  for  this  is  a  custom  common 
to  the  whole  of  the  Australian  tribes ;  besides,  they  paint 
themselves  at  corroborees  with  red  ochre  and  pipe-clay,  and 
rub  the  skin  with  charcoal  when  in  mourning. 

Of  nets  they  have  several  descriptions,  manufactured  from 
the  bark  of  the  Kurrajong-tree ;  kangaroo  nets,  wallaby  nets, 
and  fishing  nets.  Fish-hooks  are  unknown.  They  have  also 
vessels  of  wood  and  bags  of  bark  in  which  they  carry  water. 
The  bags  in  which  they  convey  their  few  belongings  when 
on  the  march  are  made  of  grass;  and  what  little  sewing  they 
do  is  with  the  common  bone  awl,  the  needle  being  unknown. 
Their  knives  are  of  flint,  chipped  and  never  ground  to  an 
edge.  Their  chisel  consists  of  a  handle  of  wood,  about  six 
inches  long,  which  is  split  at  one  end,  has  a  flake  of  flint  or 
volcanic  glass  inserted  in  the  split,  and  is  then  tied  and 
covered  with  gum  or  beeswax.  Sometimes  the  flint  is  merely 
fastened  to  the  end  of  the  stick  with  gum  or  wax,  without  a 
split.  Their  tomahawks  are  of  diorite,  first  chipped  and 
then  ground  sharp  at  the  edge,  with  handles  of  vines,  split 
and  bent  once  round  the  stone,  and  secured  where  they  meet 
with  a  seizing  of  twine,  wax  being  thickly  laid  on  to  prevent 
slipping.    Throughout  the  continent,  as  far  as  is  known. 


472  THE   AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 

there  is  always  a  difficulty  in  uniting  the  heads  of  toma- 
hawks and  chisels  with  their  handles,  which  is  partly  met 
by  the  use  of  wax  or  gum.  Mr.  Chatfield  thinks  that  toma- 
hawk-heads which  are  picked  up  underground  are  merely 
unfinished  articles,  and  not  tools  of  an  earlier  date,  as  some 
have  supposed.  He  adds — "  There  is  a  large  quarry  thirty 
miles  from  this  with  thousands  of  unfinished  flawed  toma- 
hawks lying  about,  as  is  also  the  case  in  many  of  the  camps 
for  miles  around.  May  not  many  of  the  unpolished  stone  . 
hatchets  of  the  so-called  Palaeolithic  period  consist  of  rejected 
articles  such  as  these  ?  Tn  Figuier's  Primitive  Man,  page 
154,  figure  108,  there  is  a  drawing  of  a  rubber  for  making 
tomahawks  and  bone  needles,  and  did  I  not  know  where  the 
stone  represented  was  found,  I  should  have  thought  it  came 
from  this  run.  Before  we  introduced  iron  tools,  every  camp 
had  a  stone  of  this  kind."  A  curious  implement  of  this 
tribe  is  the  emu-call,  a  hollow  piece  of  wood  about  two  feet 
long  and  three  inches  in  diameter,  partially  closed  with  wax 
at  the  small  end.  By  blowing  through  this  they  make  a 
sort  of  bellowing  sound,  sufficiently  like  the  emu's  voice  to 
attract  the  bird  at  night  within  spear  range  or  inside  of 
kangaroo  nets  which  have  been  set  for  the  purpose.  This 
call  is  not  very  common.  Amongst  their  belongings  are 
also  head-bands  made  of  strong  cobwebs,  and  others  of  spun 
opossum  fur,  and  waist  bands  of  the  last  named  material ; 
also  small  fringes  worn  round  their  middles  by  the  women 
on  festive  occasions. 

Hence  the  love,  of  ornamental  covering  exists,  whilst  the 
first  claims  of  decency  are  nearly,  but  not  entirely,  disre- 
garded. That  there  survives,  even  amongst  people  who  have 
never  worn  any  covering,  an  occasional  shame  of  nakedness, 
I  have  noticed  myself ;  and  one  of  my  Barcoo  correspondents, 
speaking  of  a  tribe  with  which  he  is  acquainted,  remarks  the 
same  thing.  Men  and  women  seem  never  entirely  to  forget 
their  nakedness. 

Of  the  weapons  of  the  tribe,  one  is  the  boomerang  which 
returns  when  thrown.     Mr.  Chatfield  describes  it  as  flat  on 


NATAL    DOWNS    STATION,    CAPE    RIVER'.  473 

one  side  and  convex  on  the  other,  as  usual.  On  the  convex 
side  is  carved  a  diamond-shaped  pattern  or  one  of  parallel 
zig-zag  lines,  after  the  usual  style  of  the  ahoriginal  artist. 
Their  spears  are  light  ones  of  grass-tree  (or,  perhaps,  partly 
of  grass-tree,  as  in  the  South),  thrown  with  the  wommera, 
and  heavy  wooden  ones  thrown  by  hand.  Some  of  both  kinds 
are  barbed.  In  some  cases  the  barbs  are  cut  out  of  the  soHd, 
and  in  others  made  of  a  piece  of-  hard  wood,  or  of  a  flint,  or 
a  fish-bone,  or  a  porcupine  quill,  neatly  lashed  to  the  point. 
Spears  which  are  not  barbed  are  covered  with  the  gum  of  the 
gidyah-tree,  which  is  supposed  to  aggravate  the  wound,  a 
circumstance  which  reminds  us  of  the  poisoned  arrows  of 
some  savages. 

Mr.  Chatfield  adds,  as  worthy  of  remark,  that  the  tribes  of 
the  Nogoa  and  Dawson,  though  they  sometimes  meet  the  Cape 
River  tribes  at  Peak  Downs,  never  use  the  wommera,  though 
they  have  plenty  of  grass-trees  to  make  light  spears  of ;  and 
do  not  barb  their  spears,  which  remark  he  also  extends  to 
the  Wide  Bay,  Brisbane,  and  Burnett  tribes.  Any  one  who 
has  had  what  I  may  call  a  general  experience  of  the  race,  how- 
ever, must  have  noticed  that,  though  an  intense  family  like- 
ness in  customs  prevails  throughout,  most  tribes  have  some 
peculiarities  to  which  they  cling  with  much  pertinacity. 
Another  weapon  of  these  tribes  is  a  wooden  sword,  about 
three  feet  six  inches  in  length,  which  much  resembles  a 
boomerang  in  shape,  and  is  wielded  with  both  hands.  They 
have  also  clubs  of  many  varieties,  each  of  which,  as  usual, 
has  a  distinct  name.  They  have  likewise  shields.  Their 
weapons  are  always  colored. 

The  food  of  these  tribes  is  very  various.  Amongst  other 
articles  they  have  emu,  kangaroo,  wallaby,  opossums,  snakes, 
and  birds ;  in  fact,  all  living  things  found  in  their  country. 
But  each  season  of  the  year  has  its  particular  article  of  food. 
At  one  time  there  is  the  nut  of  a  cycas,  which  is  prepared 
by  first  steeping  in  water,  then  roasting,  and  finally  grinding 
like  wheat,  and  cooking  like  our  dampers.  At  another 
season  there  is  the  root  of  a  water-lily,  and  also  its  seed. 


474  ■  .  THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE  : 

which  is  ground,  and  looks  something  like  rice.  Wild 
honey  is  likewise  obtained  in  considerable  quantities.  In 
winter  they  have  a  sort  of  yam,  and  so  on.  As  usual,  there 
are  many  restrictions  connected  with  food..  Emu  and  eels, 
for  instance,  are  eaten  only  by  full-blown  warriors.  Eggs 
are  prohibited  to  young  men  and  young  women.  Much  of 
the  food  is  cooked  by  means  of  heated  stones  in  extemporized 
ovens.  The  more  permanent  ovens,  or  ash-heaps  of  the 
South,  are  not  found  in  the  PeguUoburra  country.  No 
marks  of  small-pox  exist  in  these  tribes.  Cannibalism  is  of 
undoubted  but  of  rare  occurrence.  For  instance,  should  a 
fat  man  fall  from  a  tree  and  break  his  neck,  he  is  eaten. 

Marriages  are  regulated  within  the  tribe  by  classes,  men 
exchanging  their  daughters  and  sisters  for  females  of  the 
proper  classes,  who  become  their  wives.  Women  are  also 
exchanged  with  other  tribes,  and  sometimes  acquired  by 
capture.  When  the  country  was  first  settled  by  us,  many 
of  the  men  were  in"  possession  of  two  wives,  whilst  some  had 
sis,  and  the  majority  none. 

Female  children  become  wives  at  seven  and  mothers  at 
twelve  years  of  age.  Widows,  if  not  too  old,  go  to  brothers 
of  their  defunct  husbands,  or  in  default  are  seized  upon  by 
some  strong  man.  The  women  rear  (or  used  to  do)  about 
three  children  each,  which  belong  to  the  tribe  of  the  father, 
but  to  the  class  of  the  mother.  Infanticide  has  much 
increased  since  the  coming  of  the  Whites;  prior  to  that 
only  such  children  were  destroyed  as  their  mothers  were 
unable  to  carry  with  them  on  the  march. 

The  principal  diseases  are  those  usually  introduced  by 
the  Whites  and  consumption,  and  of  late  years  the  low 
feVer  from  which  the  Whites  in  those  parts  suffer,  which 
used  to  be  but  little  known  amongst  the  tribe  in  their  wild 
state. 

These  Cape  River  tribes,  like  perhaps  all  others,  scar 
their  persons.  The  operation  is  performed  with  a  flint,  and 
the  wound  filled  -with  feathers  or  down.     Men  scar  their 


NATAL   DOWNS    STATION,    CAPE    RIVER.  475 

backs  and  shoulders  in  this  way;  the  women  are  scarred 
shghtly  between  the  breasts  and  across  the  stomach.  Scars 
are  made  generally  on  the  left  thigh  both  of  the  men  and 
women,  continues  Mr.  Chatfield,  but  occasionally  on  the 
right,  for  the  purpose  of  denoting  the  particular  class  to 
which  they  belong ;  but  as  such  a  practice  would  conflict  with 
the  custom  prevalent  throughout  the  continent,  as  far  as 
known,  which  is  to  make  these  marks  for  ornament  alone, 
the  statement  cannot  be  received  without  further  evidence. 
The  tribe  does  not  circumcise,  nor  does  that  rite  obtain  at 
any  place,  says  my  informant,  mthin  one  hundred  and  fifty 
miles  of  their  country.  A  front  tooth  used  always  to  be 
knocked  out,  but,  like  other  native  customs,  this  one  has 
been  going  out  of  vogue  since  the  coming  of  the  Whites. 

Mr.  Chatfield  informs  me  that  the  Cape  Eiver  tribes,  ot 
which  we  are  speaking,  have  a  vivid  belief  in  a  future  life. 
When  a  Blackfellow  dies  whose  actions  during  life  have 
been  what  they  hold  to  be  good,  he  is  said  to  ascend  to 
Boorala  {i.e.,  to  the  Creator,  literally  good),  where  he  lives 
much  as  he  did  on  earth,  less  the  usual  terrestrial  discomforts. 
The  Milky  Way,  which  is  called  Tugar  {i.e.,  smoke),  is  said 
to  be  the  smoke  proceeding  from  celestial  grass,  set  fire  to 
by  departed  women,  who  by  this  signal  direct  the  ghosts  of 
the  deceased. (as  they  did  their  husbands  of  old  to  their  bush 
camp)  to  the  eternal  camp-fires  of  the  tribe.  It  is  strange 
that  the  Eucla  people,  so  far  away,  should  also  regard  the 
Milky  Way  as  connected  with  themselves,  as  well  as  the 
Narrinyeri  tribe.*  To  the  man  who  has  led  a  bad  life,  death 
is  thought  to  be  simple  annihilation.  Goin,  the  evil  spirit, 
is  said  to  be  an  old  mau,  with  claws  like  an  eagle  and  feet 
like  an  alligator,  who  occasionally,  in  the  dark,  tears  people 
to  pieces.  They  much  fear  the  ghosts  of  their  departed 
kinsfolk,  and,  if  they  think  one  is  near,  will  sometimes  rush 
at  night  from  their  camps  in  the  wildest  dismay,  each  to 
hide  where  best  he  can. 

*  See  Taplin's  Folklm-e,  p.  39. 


476  THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 

In  sandstone  caves,  which  are  numerous  in  their  country, 
the  PeguUoburra  make  drawings  of  emu  and  kangaroo,  and 
also  imprints  of  their  hands  daubed  with  red.  These  latter 
are  found  on  the  almost  inaccessible  faces  of  the  white 
sandstone  cliffs.  On  the  Cape  Eiver,  these  red  hands  are 
called  beera,  a  word  which  Mr.  Chatfield  correctly  says 
means  hand  on  the  Burnett,  500  miles  south.  About  these 
red  hands  he  could  never  get  any  information,  but  circum- 
stances which  he  mentions  led  him  at  last  to  conjecture  that 
they  are  connected  with  some  superstitious  custom  or  belief. 
This,  however,  I  think,  needs  confirmation,  and  I  fancy  my 
informant  was  mistaken ;  for  we  know  that  to  made  imprints 
of  their  feet  on  sand  or  muddy  ground  is  common  to  the 
Blacks,  little  and  big,  everywhere ;  and  also  to  imprint  their 
greasy  hands  on  any  object  which  will  receive  the  impression. 
I  have  often  noticed  that  the  sight  of  such  impressions  gives 
them  pleasure,  and  I  look  on  the  practice  as  an  early  stage 
of  that  love  of  art  which  is  inherent  in  man.  By  pictures 
and  images  the  Australian  is  greatly  attracted. 

The  PeguUoburra  are  a  tallish  people,  with  straight  hair 
generally,  and  some  few  curly  heads  incline  to  be  woolly. 
The  practice  of  making  young  men  by  secret  ceremonies  is  in 
vogue.  When  a  man  dies,  his  heart,  bowels,  liver,  &c.,  are 
taken  out  and  buried  in  the  ground.  The  corpse  is  buried 
separately.  After  three  or  four  weeks  it  is  disinterred,  and 
any  flesh  which  may  be  left  cleaned  off  the  bones.  The  skull 
and  bones  are  then  generally  broken  and  tied  up  in  ti-tree 
bark.  Over  these  for  a  few  nights  there  is  much  lamenting. 
The  parcel  of  bones  is  then  placed  on  a  platform  made- in  a 
tree,  where  it  remains  for  three  months  or  so.  After  that, 
the  female  relatives  of  the  deceased,  if  he  have  any,  carry  the 
bones  about  thus  tied  up  until  tired  of  the  encumbrance,  or 
until  they  have  ceased  to  cherish  the  memory  of  the  deceased. 
The  bodies  of  boys,  women,  and  girls  are  sometimes  buried 
and  sometimes  burnt.  But  little  ceremony  and  one  good 
cry  take  place.  Immediately  after  a  death,  the  camp  is 
shifted  for  fear  of  ghosts. 


NATAL    DOWNS    STATION,    CAPE    RIVER. 


477 


The  causes  of  war  are  the  murder  of  stragglers,  the 
stealing  of  -womeh,  but,  alaove  all,  the  belief  in  deaths  from 
incantations.  When  both  sides  are  tired  of  killing  stragglers, 
and  have  haid  enough  of  war,  the  fighting-men  hold  a  council, 
and  choose  two  or  three  to  meet  the  other  side.  The  matter 
is  then  arranged,  and  the  weaker  party  give  some  nets  and 
women  to  make  matters  up. 

The  practice  of  sending  a  notched  stick  with  a  messenger 
to  another  tribe  is  in  use.  Mr.  Chatfield  expresses  himself 
as  having  a  fancy  that  there  are  some  faint  traces  of 
freemasonry  amongst  the  tribe.  He  has  not  seen  or  heard 
of  any  Albinos.  Witchcraft  is  practised.  Old  m6n  pretend 
to  extract  crystals  from  the  bodies  of  the  sick  by  sucking. 

Amongst  the  Pegulloburra  there  is  a  vague  tradition 
that  their  country  once  belonged  to  another  tribe  whom  their 
ancestor  conquered.  Many  of  the  names  of  places  in  their 
territory  are  those  given  by  the-  former  occupants,  and 
have  meanings ;  as  moonyor-moonya  =  bats ;  wolomina  = 
_  cr  mi -place;  kurgiringa  =  Hawks' -place,  and  so  on.  In 
counting,  the  fingers  and  sometimes  the  toes  are  used  to 
represent  numbers.  Mr.  Chatfield  gives  the  following 
Additional  Words : — 


Adbitional  Words. 

Kangaroo  net 

boojoroo,  boo- 

A  stick 

-  tular. 

garoo. 

Flowers 

-  mujiga. 

Wallaby  net 

wyang. 

Lily  root      - 

-  coomy. 

Fish  net 

mabbe. 

Lily  seed 

-  pundy,.  pundoo. 

Net  worn  on  fore  - 

tarwoo. 

Cabbage-tree 

-  ungun. 

head 

Bottle-tree 

-  binge. 

Net  baga  made  of 

widgee 

Mulga-tree  ■ 

-  boonaroo. 

grass 

Gidyah-tree 

-  coobarool. 

Men's  waist-belt 

moogooba. 

Yams  - 

-  monilla,  cuthia 

Fringe  worn  as  an 

womby. 

Cycas  nut 

-  deweel. 

apron     by    the 

Rock  kangaroo 

-  kargool. 

women 

Forest  wallaby 

-  tomba. 

Spinifex 

mungnlla. 

Rook  wallaby 

-  gooniooloo. 

Tree    -     _  - 

boboro. 

Kangaroo-rat 

-  wier. 

Leaves 

di-i. 

Flying  squirrel 

-  mungoroo. 

478 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE 


Bush  rat 

Rabbit-rat 

Flying  fox 

Porcupine 

Bandicoot 

Iguana 

Alligator 

iguana) 
Dew  or  Jew  lizard 
Lice     - 
Wooden  '     water 

vessel 
Bone   needles    or 


Additional  Woii,i)S--continiied. 

Diamond  snake   - 
Water  snake 
Black-head  snake 
Deaf  adder 
Black  snake 


(long 


mabberoo. 

tubberoo. 

goondi. 

bubbera. 

uguUa. 

tukkin. 

tukkina. 


Flakes  of  flint     - 

Emu-call 
Flint  knife  - 
Chisel 

Opossum-rug 
A  spear  barb 
Grass-tree  spear  - 
Sword 
NuUa-nuUa  or  club 


Honey 

Three      sorts    of 

wild  bees 
Pigeon 

Common  hawk    - 
Sparrow-hawk     - 
Quail 
Scrub  turkey  •     - 

Bat- 
ch dear ! 
Feathers 

Snake  in  general  - 
Carpet  snake 
Green  snake  (tree) 
Brown  snake 


bungara. 
kooleen. 
egara. 

pegooroo. 

tarine  (i.e., 

sharp), 
boothera. 
kunga. 

tango,  tangoroq. 
coomby. 
minke. 
culga. 
quinkum. 
mirroo, 

dimmy-dimmy, 

bullen-buUen. 
carpa. 
carpa,  wothul, 

gooara. 
marmala. 
peiga. 
kurgine. 
burrandool. 
coocoobeen  (i.e., 

eggs), 
moonya-  moonya. 
yukkii  I 
boona. 
moonda. 
carbool. 
warrowa. 
yabbeya. 


"Black  bream 
Eel      - 
Dew-flsh 
Fresh-water 
turtle 
Throat 
Chest 
Arms  - 

Lower  part  of  leg 
Knee  and  elbow  - 
The  liver     - 
Togo 
To  sing 
To  hear 

To  hunt 
To  smell      - 

To  flog 

To  beat  (to  excel) 

To  come  back 

To  bite 

To  pretend  - 

To  tie  up     - 

To  cry 

To  cooee 

To  wipe 

To  lose 

To  laugh      - 

To  hide 

To  dream     - 

To  kill 

Scrub 

Plains 

Charcoal 

Ashes 

Perspiration 


moongilly. 

ammoondoro 

goyogoro. 

munnum. 

coobree. 

weaner. 

wakul. 

doongooloo. 

congerree. 

booa. 
toonga. 
peigar. 
yungera. 
magia. 
yarkery. 
ninbago. 
mombo. 
walloogo, 
nuggalee. 
yimgundiana. 
ninde  go 


wummera. 

boomali. 

yandogoingalle. 

curraburra. 

ugatharingo. 

ondigano. 

barry 

congul. 

ongo. 

umbuUy. 

yie. 

niroo. 

pidgoring. 

goondaty. 

muther. 

burguUa. 

mether. 

booan. 

culgara. 


NATAL   DOWNS    STATION,    CAPE    RIVER. 


479 


Additional  Wo 

BDS — continued. 

White-        -        -  bumbera. 

There  or  here      -  uUe. 

Black  -        -        -  coorebila. 

Where  ?       -        -  undee  ? 

Red     -        -        -  nameroo. 

A  long  way         -  yurgo. 

Green          -        -  boorba. 

Near    -        -        -  yathan. 

Grey   -        -        -  bingara. 

Fight  -        ■         -  uthuUa, 

Sand   ■        -        -  9ulba;. 

I  have  had  enough  bunner  uthuUa. 

A  sandy  creek     -  culbara. 

to  eat;  literally. 

A  native  hut        -  bulgunna. 

stomach-tight 

Salt-water  or- sea-  commo  cungal, 

Tii'ed  -        -        -  dilnurra. 

ooogera. 

A  large  person    -  ballongo. 

A  young  woman  -  munkine. 

A  wild  person      -  bungineme. 

A  maid       -  .     -  oolbo. 

Long   -                 -  goorgan. 

Uncle  T        ■        -  mamy. 

Short  -         -         -  wapitu. 

Aunt  -        -        -  tabina. 

Quick  -        -        -  wokker. 

Male  cousin         -  kungun. 

To  break     -         -  coongelee. 

Female  cousin     -  kunguna. 

To  tumble  down  -  coongeringo. 

Husband     -        -  goongul. 

Begone.      -        -  munga-munga. 

God,  also  good    -  boorala. 

Go  on  -        -        -  umbaga. 

Evil  spirit  ■        -  goee,  goin. 

New    -        -        -  yagilla. 

A  bad  man  •        -  murre  goee. 

Old      -        -        -  coolbaroo. 

Ghost  -        ■        -  yungal. 

Stop    -         -        -  mungoindee. 

The  Milky  Way  ■  tugar(lit.  smoke). 

Sharp  -         -        -  tarrine. 

The      Southern    goondooloo    (lit. 

What      is      yovtr  uumbera  inder  ? 

Cross                     emu). 

name? 

Pleiades       -        -  munkine    (lit.    a 

What      is     your  annyburra  inder? 

young  woman). 

tribe? 

Mine  -        -        -  ichu.     * 

Sunset         -         -  kie  burra. 

Yours-       -        -  uno. 

Sunrise        -        -  kie  wedera. 

Come  here  -        -  uUumbago. 

Noon  -        -        -  kie  kungat. 

Put  down    -        -  star. 

Lightning    -         -  betmallen. 

Names  of  Men. 

Names  of  Eemales. 

YuTigadoo. 

Woolinu. 

Moogathoo. 

Bingwee. 

Tbomble. 

Nunguree. 

Moimoorga. 

Bubalinga. 

Moorgan. 

Indalinga. 

Tandeningo. 

Emar. 

Indamingo. 

Pinchallu. 

BuUamiago. 

Toonombinga. . 

Bibinothe. 

Milga. 

Goonbody. 

Nooky. 

These  names  are  said  to  have  no  meaning. 


480 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  131.— CAPE  RIVER. 


By  p.  M.  Tompson,  Esq. 


Kangaroo     - 

hoora. 

Hand  - 

-  bu-ka. 

Opossum 

thung-er-oo. 

2  Blacks      - 

Tame  dog    - 

noota. 

3  Blacks      - 

Wild  dog     - 

One     - 

Emu    - 

gun-du-la. 

Black  duck  - 

coo-Md-dy. 

Two     - 

buller. 

Wood  duck  - 

now-wow. 

Three  ■ 

goolburra. 

Pelican 

bool-loo. 

Four    - 

moorga. 

Laughing  jackass 

ka-koo-burra. 

Father    .    - 

yabbo. 

Native  companion  gool-du-ra. 
White  cockatoo  -  dick-a-ry. 

Mother 

yung-er. 

Crow  - 

wuth-a. 

Sister-Elder 

goothoona. 

Swan  - 

(none). 

,,      Younger 

Egg     -        -        ■ 

wun-buUa. 

Brother-Elder 

cu-than. 

Track  of  a  foot 

wun-da. 

„          Youngei 

Fish     - 

coo-e-yu. 

A  young  man 

cowla. 

Lobster 

(none  inland). 

An  old  man 

brin-gul-lo. 

Crayfish 

(unknown). 

An  old  woman 

boorrung-un 

Mosquito     - 

cooa. 

A  baby 

gundoo. 

Fly      . 

nin. 

A  White  man 

coo-in. 

Snake  - 

moon-da. 

The  Blacks  - 

murry. 

Children 

cul-burroo. 

A  Blaokfellow 

Head  - 

cuth-a. 

A  Black  woman 

noolba. 

Eye      - 

thilly. 

Nose    - 

nindy. 

Bar     - 

wuUoo. 

NATAL   DOWNS    STATION,    CAPE-  RIVER. 


481 


No.  131.^Capb  River — continued. 

Mouth 

-  thar. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth  - 

-  e-ar. 

mil    - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  boo-e-lia6. 

Wood  - 

-  thoo-la. 

Beard  - 

-  ren-ga. 

Stone  - 

-  burray. 

Thunder      - 

-  moo-ral-la. 

Camp  - 

-  yam-ba. 

Grass  - 

-  bookun. 

Yea      - 

-  ya. 

Tongue 

-  thuUi. 

No       - 

-  cur-ra. 

Stomach 

-  bunna. 

I 

-  i-ar. 

Breasts 

-  am-moon. 

You     -        -     • 

-  yin-da. 

Thigh 

-  thur-ra. 

Bark    - 

-  bul-gun. 

Foot    - 

-  thin-na. 

Good   - 

-  thur-ril. 

Bone   - 

-  bul-bun. 

Bad     - 

-  muc-coo-ra. 

Blood  - 

-  coo-ma. 

Sweet  - 

-  goon-gil-win. 

Skin    - 

-  bit-ty. 

Pood    - 

-  mun-dar-uri. 

Fat      - 

-  thum-my. 

Hungry 

-  cun-gun-oo. 

Bowels 

-  yung-er-um. 

Thirsty 

-  eu-ka. 

Excrement  - 

-  goona. 

Eat      -         - 

-  bun-jul. 

War-spear  - 

-  cul-ga. 

Sleep  - 

-  oo-ka. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  coo-be-roo. 

Wommera     or 

thoo-miilla,. 

Drink  - 

-  brung-gul. 

throwing-stiok 

Walk  - 

-  thoo-a. 

Shield  ■       - 

-  cool-merry. 

See      - 

-  nuth-uUa. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  balgo. 

Sit 

-  in  da. 

Canoe  - 

-  koo-ga. 

Yesterday   - 

-  coom-bool- 

Sun     - 

-  cur-ray. 

boong-a 

Moon  - 

-  bul-la-no. 

To-day 

-  ad-gilla. 

Star    - 

-  buth-oo. 

To-morrow  - 

-  we-dar-roo. 

Light  - 

-  bun-ney. 

Where    are    the 

murry-un-da  ? 

Dark  - 

-  coo-ra. 

Blacks? 

Cold    - 

-  we-da. 

I  don't  know 

-  unda-wira. 

Heat   - 

-  wTil-lee-ry. 

Plenty 

-  coor-un-by. 

Day     -        - 

-  ad-ge-la. 

Big      - 

-  boonga. 

Night  - 

-  goo-rung-a. 

Little  - 

-  wab-ba-roo. 

Fire     - 

-  bur-ree. 

Water 

-  com-mo. 

Dead   - 

-  goon-ga. 

Smoke 

-  thoog-er. 

By-and  by  - 

-  thuc-co. 

Ground 

-  nanny. 

Come  on 

-  cow-a. 

Wind  ■ 

-  ebur. 

Milk    - 

- 

Rain   -        -' 

-  tha-cow. 

Eaglehawk  - 

- 

God     - 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

Wife    - 

VOL.    II. 

2 

H 

482 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  131.— CAPE  RIVER. 


By  Wm.  Chatmeld,  Jun, 


Kangaroo  ■ 
Oposaum 
Tame  dog  - 
Wild  dog  - 
Emu  - 
Black  duck  - 
Wood  duck  - 
Pelican 

Laughing  jackass 
Native  companion 
White  cockatoo  - 

Crow  - 

Swan  -     ■    - 

Egg     - 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

Fish  ■  - 

Lobster 

Crayfish 

Mosquito     - 

Fly      -        -        - 

Snake  - 

The  Blacks  - 

A  Blackfellow     - 

A  Black  woman  - 

Nose    - 


oora. 
tungaroo. 
wunti,'moora. 
wunti. 
goondooloo. 
oooberri. 
ungue. 
booloon. 
go-goberri. 
kooltheroo. 
teroon  or 
deegoon. 
wathuu. 
(none), 
koocoobeen. 
diner, 
goyo. 
(none), 
cunder. 
boothun. 
nein. 
moonda. 
murri. 
murri. 

wongo,  munkine. 
ninde. 


Hand 

-  muUa. 

2  Blacks      - 

- 

3  Blacks      - 

- 

One     - 

-  wigin. 

Two    - 

-  bullaroo. 

Three  - 

-  goolburra. 

Pour  or  more 

-  moorga. 

Father 

-  yaboo. 

Mother 

-  yunguTia. 

Sister -Elder 

-  koothoona. 

,,      Younger 

- 

Brother-Elder 

-  cuthun. 

„        Younger  wabo. 

A  young  man 

-  cowla. 

An  old  man 

■  boorgam. 

An  old  woman 

■  boorgam. 

A  baby 

- 

A  White  man 

-  macro. 

Children      - 

-  cundoojwongora 

Head  - 

-  kutha. 

Eye     - 

■  dille. 

Ear     - 

-  walloo. 

NATAL   DOWNS    STATION,    CAPE    RIVER. 


483 


No.  131. — Cape  River — continued. 


Mouth- 

-  mai. 

Teeth 

-  ear. 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  kuthy. 

Beard - 

-  unga  or  yarrang 

Thunder      - 

-  pulbine. 

Grass  - 

-  boorgan,  mooloo 

Tongue 

-  tarrine. 

Stomach 

-  bunner. 

Breasts 

-  ammoona. 

Thigh-        - 

-  yungra. 

Foot    - 

-  diner. 

Bone  - 

-  bulbun. 

Blood  -        - 

-  kooma,  goor. 

Skin    -        - 

-  peetee. 

Fat     - 

-  tommi. 

Bowels 

- 

Excrement  • 

-  goonna. 

War-spear  - 

-  moorga. 

Reed-spear  - 

- 

Wommera    or 

tumuUa. 

throwing-stick 

Shield-        - 

-  koobnurray. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  polgo. 

Canoe  - 

Sun     - 

-  kurri,  kie. 

Moon  - 

-  buUanoo,  kug- 

gera. 

Star    -        - 

-  buthi. 

Light  - 

Dark  - 

Cold    - 

-  wera. 

Heat  - 

-  kie. 

Day    - 

-  quongolu. 

Night  -        - 

Fire    - 

-  burry. 

Water 

kommo,  ammoo. 

Smoke- 

■  tugar. 

Ground 

-  nannee. 

Wind-        - 

ebara. 

Raia    - 

yoongaloo. 

God    . .     . 

boorala. 

Ghosts 

youngal. 

Boomerang  - 

-  wongul. 

Hill     - 

-  byee. 

Wood 

-  tular. 

Stone  - 

-  byee. 

Camp  - 

-  yaambaa. 

Yea     - 

-  yie,  yee. 

No       - 

-  kurra. 

I 

-  ia. 

You     - 

-  iuda. 

Bark   - 

-  goga. 

Good  - 

-  boorala. 

Bad     - 

-  wotoru. 

Sweet 

Pood    - 

-  murga,  munda. 

Hungry 

-  congono. 

Thirsty 

-  commo  boomul 

Eat      - 

-  bungul. 

Sleep  - 

-  umbera. 

.  Drink 

-  boomul. 

Walk  - 

-  denergo. 

See      - 

-  naggalee. 

Sit       - 

-  biuda. 

Yesterday  - 

To-day 

To-morrow  - 

-  werowa. 

Wbere  are  the 

murri  undee  ? 

Blacks? 

I  don't  know 

-  inuggalu  kurra 

Plenty 

-  moorga. 

Big      -        - 

-  buUongo. 

Little  - 

•  wapitu. 

Dead  - 

-  goonga. 

By-and-by  - 

- 

Come  on 

-  wingialla. 

Milk   - 

-  ammoona. 

Eaglehawk 

-  coorathuUa, 
cooraga 

Wild  turkey 

-  burkum. 

Wife    - 

-  pigoona. 

B 

[2  • 

484 


THE    AUSTRALIAN    RACE: 


No.  132.— RAVENSWOOD,  UPPER  BURDEKIN. 
By  W.  H.  Kent,  Esq. 


Kangaroo    - 

woora. 

Hand  - 

- 

Opossum 

meerambera. 

2  Blacks      - 

_ 

Tame  dog    - 
Wild  dog     - 
Emu    - 

ngoora. 
goondooloo. 

3  Blacks      - 
One      - 

- 

Black  duck  - 

Two    - 

- 

Wood  duck 

Three  - 

- 

Pelican 

booloongurra. 

Four    - 

. 

Laughing  jackass 

kookooburra. 

Father 

_ 

Native  companior 
White  cockatoo  - 
Crow   - 

thickeree. 

Mother 
Sister-Elder 

- 

Swan  - 

,,      Younger 

■ 

Egg     .        -        - 

wanraurra. 

Brother-Elder 

- 

Track  of  a  foot    - 
Pish    - 
Lobster 
Crayfish 
Mosquito     - 
Ply     ■       - 

wena, 

, ,          Younger 
A  young  man 
An  old  man- 
An  old  woman     • 
A  baby 

guhnburra 

Snake  - 

cahbool. 

A  White  man 

- 

The  Blacks  - 

Children 

- 

A  Blackfellow     - 

Head  - 

- 

katha. 

A  Black  woman 

Eye     - 

- 

taiie. 

Nose    - 

mamboo. 

Ear      - 

. 

walloo. 

RAVENSWOOD,    UPPER    BURDEKM. 


485 


No.  132 

— Ravenswood,  Upper  Buedekin- 

—contimied. 

Mouth 

Boomerang  - 

-  boonool. 

Teeth  -        -        : 

yerra. 

Hill     - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head 

Wood 

-  wongal. 

Beard  ■ 

• 

Stone  - 

-  burrie. 

Thunder      - 

Camp  - 

- 

Grass  - 

Yes     - 

- 

Tongue 

tuUi. 

No   •   - 

- 

Stomach 

banna. 

I 

, 

Breasts 

You     - 

- 

Thigh  -        -        - 

ngurgo. 

Bark    -       '- 

- 

Foot    - 

teera. 

Good  - 

- 

Bone    - 

Bad      - 

_ 

Blood  - 
Skin    - 
Fat      - 
Bowels 
Excrement  - 
War-spear  - 

gooma. 

-  koonna. 

-  buggurra. 

.  Sweet  - 
Food    - 
Hungry 
Thirsty 
Eat      - 

-  bunjuU. 

Reed-spear  - 

Sleep   - 

- 

Wommera    or 

Drink  - 

- 

throwing-stick 
Shield  - 

-  goolmurri. 

Walk  - 

See       - 

Tomahawk  - 

Sit        - 

- 

Canoe 
Sun     - 
Moon  -  ■     - 
Star    - 
Light  - 
Dark   - 
Cold    -        - 

-  kurrie. 

-  -kuggurra. 

-  woora. 

Yesterday   - 
To-day 
To-morrow  - 
Where    are    i 
Blacks  ? 
I  don't  know 

.he 

Heat  - 

Plenty 

- 

Day    - 

Big      - 

- 

Night  -        - 

Little  - 

Fire     - 

-  booree. 

Dead    - 

- 

Water 
Smoke 
Ground 
Wind  -        - 
Rain    - 
God     - 

-  kurra. 

-  mooloo. 

-  eburra. 

-  kamo. 

By-and-by   - 
Come  on 
Milk    - 
Eaglehawk  - 
Wild  turkey 

-  bandurra. 

-  thoona  gongall 

Ghosts 

. 

Wife    - 

- 

486 


THE    AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  133.— MOUNT  BLACK. 

FOKWAEDED  BY  THE  GoVBBNMENT   OP  QUEENSLAND. 

Of  the  manners  •  and  customs  of  .the  Oriba-Kulba  tribe  I' 
received  a  short  account  in  1881  from,  the  Government  of 
Queensland.  In  it,  however,  there  is  -nothing  worthy  of 
note,  except  that  the  sole  survivors  of  the  tribe  were  two 
men  and  five  women,  and  that  no  marks  of  small-pox 
existed  amongst  them.  Accompanying  the  account  of  the 
tribe  were  also  two  vocabularies,  which  agree  so  well  that  I 
have  only  inserted  'one  of  them.  The  following  Additional 
Words  were  also  given: — 


Girls  - 

-  marbura. 

We      - 

-  ngana. 

Husband      - 

-  koorangle. 

They   -         - 

-  tanna. 

Frog    - 
Neck   - 

-  pugarin. 

-  manno. 

He,  she 

-  noola. 

Opossum-cloak 

-  kumbi. 

When,  where 

-  unda. 

No.  133.— MO 

DNT  BLACK. 

Kangaroo    - 

-  yoori. 

Hand  - 

-  murra. 

Opossum     - 

-  kathurra. 

2  Blacks      - 

-  poolari  ngoomba 

Tame  dog    - 

-  kowla. 

3  Blacks      - 

-  koolkurra      • 

Wild  dog     - 

-  kowla  (?) 

ngoomba. 

Emu    - 
Black  duck  - 
Wood  duck  - 

-  koondoolo. 

-  yamaroo. 

-  tipia. 

One     - 
Two     - 

-  anga. 

-  poolari. 

Pelican 

-  bulloon. 

Three  - 

-  koolkurra. 

Laughing  jackass  kowragurra. 

Four    - 

'-  toorko. 

Native  companion  nOgorabal. 

Father 

-  aboo. 

White  cockatoo 

-  tingari. 

Mother 

-  ammi. 

Crow  -     ■   - 

-  wokkun,  wog- 

Sister-Elder 

-  yungoian,  auta. 

Swan  - 

gan. 

, ,       Younger 

-  amberoian. 

■ 

Brother-Elder 

-  mukkidoo. 

Egg     -        - 
Track  of  a  foot 

-  kotoo. 

-  pakula. 

„          Younger  talboo. 

Fish     - 

-  koio. 

A  young  man 

-  tipukkal. 

Lobster      •  - 

-  reri-reri,  mokin. 

An  old  man 

-  orabarbi. 

Crayfish      - 

-  tararukau. 

An  old  woman 

-  koolaloo. 

Mosquito     - 

-  kaika. 

A  baby 

-  moolooramo. 

Fly      - 

-  nenga. 

A  White  man 

-  mikkolo. 

Snake  - 
The  Blacks  - 

-  tumbal. 

-  ngoomba-kora. 

Children      - 

A  Blackfellow 

-  ngoomba. 

Head  - 

-  katta. 

A  Black  woman 

-  mungan. 

Eye     - 

-  telle. 

Noae   - 

-  ko,  koo. 

Ear      - 

-  arlo. 

MOUNT   BLACK. 


487 


No.  133.— Mount  'Black.— continued. 

Mouth 

■  tu,  taw. 

Boomerang  - 

-  wongal. 

Teeth  - 

-  yerra. 

Hill     - 

-  aboro,  palkara 

Hair  of  the  head 

-  tingo  tego. 

Wood  - 

-  toolani. 

Beard  - 

-  talba. 

Stone  - 

-  dalkara. 

Thunder      - 

-  pulbarri,   pal- 

Camp  - 

-  yamba. 

Grass  - 

-  wombo,  kolko. 

Yes     - 

-  yi,  oroka. 

Tongue 

-  tallavy. 

No       - 

-  kara. 

Stomach 

-  banna,  rolgo. 

I- 

-  ngaia. 

Breasts 

-  ooko,  kao. 

You     - 

-  inda. 

Thigh  - 

-  tara. 

Bark    - 

-  bila. 

Foot    - 

-  tinna. 

Good  - 

-  pumbarra. 

Bone  - 
Blood  - 

-  pipo. 

-  kooma. 

Bad     - 

-  amgo. 

Skin    - 

-  ngoorokal. 

Sweet  - 

-  kauga. 

Fat     - 

-  toocha. 

Food   - 

-  mada,  munda. 

Bowels 

-  koomia,  pooloo. 

Hungry 

-  clung.  . 

Excrement  - 
War-spear  - 

-  koomia. 

-  kalka. 

Thirsty 

-  poomal. 

Eeed-spear  - 

-  pat    r,  tooka- 

Eat      - 

-  mutanyo. 

bun. 

Sleep  - 

-  ookako. 

Wommera    or 

pangila. 

Drink  - 

-  pitamyo. 

throwing-stlck 

Walk  - 

-  makanyo. 

Shield-        - 
Tomahawk  - 

-  koobathal. 

-  ngoolan. 

See      - 

-  nakanyo. 

Canoe  - 

-  oolkooroo. 

Sit       - 

-  tamanyo. 

Sun     - 

-  oomba,  ooba. 

Yesterday  - 

-  orokolongrega. 

Moon  - 

-  pulanoo. 

To-day 

-  nila. 

Star    - 

-  yoko. 

To-morrow  - 

-  ^garlara. 

Light  - 

-  patchun,  kar- 

Where     are 

the  undi  ngoomba  f 

gauni. 

Blacks? 

Dark  - 

-  tillingono. 

I  don't  know 

-  audeaton. 

Cold   - 

-  wira-wira. 

Plenty 

-  koora. 

Heat  - 

-  kanjara. 

Big      -        - 

-  yoongo. 

Day    - 

-  uba,   kurrangun. 

Little  - 

-  aboodjirro, 

Night  - 

-  ngona. 

aburoo. 

Fire     - 

-  pori. 

Dead  - 

-  koongal,  oolala. 

Water 

-  kamoo,  kam. 

Smoke 

-  tooka. 

By-and-by  - 

-  karrka. 

Ground 

-  nanni. 

Come  on 

-  arrauni. 

Wmd- 

-  kindo'. 

Milk   - 

-  koodrarr. 

Eain   - 

-  ukun,  yukan. 

Eaglehawk 

-  korethaUa. 

God    - 

. 

Wild  turkey 

- 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife   - 

-'perro,  preko. 

488 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE: 


No.  134.— LOWER  BURDEKIN. 


By  E.  Cunningham,  Esq.,  and  F.  J.  Gokton,  Esq. 


In  addition  to  the  two  vocabularies  inserted  of  the  Lower  Burdekin 
languages,  I  have  received  a  third  from  W.  Carr  Boyd,  Esq.,  which  so 
much  resembles  that  of  Mr.  E.  Cunningham,  that  I  have  not  thought  it 
necessary  to  give  it.  ■ 


Kangaroo     - 

-  hoora. 

Hand  - 

-  mobirra. 

Opossum 

-  moonganna. 

2  Blacks       - 

_ 

Tame  dog     • 

.  oogier. 

3  Blacks      - 

. 

Wild  dog     - 
Emu    - 
Black  duck  t 

-  kowvverra. 

-  yammooroo. 

One     - 
Two     - 

-  warmina. 

-  blareena. 

Wood  duck  - 

-  mumboogooba. 

Three  - 

-  kudjua. 

Pelican 

-  boloona. 

Four    - 

-  kulburra. 

Laughing  jackass  kowurgurra. 

Father 

-  kiya. 

Native  companioit  braroogan. 

Mother 

-  younga. 

White  cockatoo 
Crow   - 
Swan   - 
Egg     -        - 

-  digooi. 

-  wyaguna. 

-  woergerella. 

-  wyoorda. 

Sister-Elder 

„      Younger 
Brother-Elder 

-  kootha. 

-  wabooa. 

Track  of  a  foot 

-  dooigooburra. 

,,         Younger 

Fish     - 

-  weenburra. 

A  young  man 

-  karrebella. 

Lobster 

-  koongooya. 

An  old  man- 

-  booingermuima. 

Crayfish 
Mosquito     - 
Fly      - 
Snake  - 

-  goombarroo. 

-  kowearoo. 

-  karoovella. 

-  oonguUaba. 

An  old  woman 

A  baby 

A  White  man 

-  boingergunna. 

-  muUererammoo. 

-  yooarroo. 

The  Blacks  - 

-  murre. 

Children 

-  erroomunna. 

A  Blackf ellow 

. 

Head   - 

-  kurria. 

A  Black  woman 

-  wurrungooa. 

Eye     - 

-  mudjura. 

Nose    - 

urrooa. 

Ear      - 

-  awbilla. 

LOWER   BURDEKIN. 


489 


No.  134.— Lower  Bhebekin— comtwiteti. 

Mouth 

da. 

Boomerang  - 

- 

Teeth 

-  irra. 

Hill     - 

- 

Hair  of  the  head- 

gunnarri. 

Wood  - 

-  doola. 

Beard  - 

thungier. 

Stone  - 

-  burreea, 

Thunder      - 

degoroo. 

Camp  - 

-  yaamba. 

Grass  - 

wudthoor. 

Yes      - 

-  yea. 

Tongue 

thuUamia. 

No       - 

-  kurra. 

Stomach 

-  bunboona. 

I          - 

-  iyooa. 

Breasts 

-  woorga. 

You     - 

-  yindooa. 

Thigh  - 

-  toomburra. 

Bark   - 

-  bulgan. 

Foot    - 

-  dingooburra. 

Good    - 

Bone    - 

-  bulbanna. 

Bad     - 

-  kooyooa. 

Blood- 

-  gwiburri. 

Skm    - 

-  yoolanna. 

Sweet  - 

-  kowangubba. 

Fat      - 

-  towia. 

Food   - 

-  igango. 

Bowels 

-  gurroona. 

Hungry 

-  nangoora. 

Excrement  - 

-  goonna. 

Thirsty 

-  dthunginna. 

War-spear  - 

-  nirremoo. 

Eat      - 

-  igango. 

Reed-spear  - 

-  wollaburra. 

Sleep   - 

-  boogoora. 

Wommera    or 

birrana. 

Drink  - 

-  bithungo. 

throwing -stick 

Walk  - 

-  kunnaigo. 

Shield 

-  goolmurri. 

See       - 

-  timmi. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  bulgooa. 

Sit 

-  thunnango. 

Canoe  - 

-  kobbetheba. 

Sun     - 

-  burgdrri. 

Yesterday   - 

-  yambowerroe 

Moon  - 

-  bowarri. 

To-day 

-  nilla. 

Star     - 

-  bunjoldi. 

To-morrow  - 

-  burgenda. 

Light  - 

-  burgungubba. 

Where     are 

the  ondia  murre  ? 

Dark  - 

-  wooroowobba. 

Blacks  ? 

Cold    -        - 

-  didoora. 

I  don't  know 

-  kurra  mira. 

Heat    - 

-  towarroo. 

Plenty 

-  qniarilla. 

Day     - 

-  woorabunda. 

Big      ■         - 

- 

Night  - 

-  wooroonga. 

Little  - 

-  wa-baw-au- 

Fire     - 

-  wygunna. 

boona. 

Water - 

-  kowara. 

Dead  - 

-  waulgoona. 

Smoke 

-  toogar. 

By-and-by  - 

-  thagoo. 

Groiiud 

-  nannier. 

Come  on 

-  kowa. 

Wind  - 

-  quioona. 

Milk    -         - 

- 

Rain   - 

-  yoogana. 

Eaglehawk  - 

God     - 

- 

Wild  turkey 

Ghosts 

- 

Wife    ■ 

- 

490 


THE   AUSTRALIAN   RACE; 


No.  134.— LOWER  BURDEKIN. 


By  F.  J.  GoKTON,  Esq. 


Kangaroo     - 

wootha. 

Hand  - 

mulbroo. 

Opossum 

goong. 

2  Blacks      - 

Tame  dog    - 

minde. 

3  Blacks      - 

Wild  dog    - 

One     - 

Emu    - 
Black  duck  - 

gocgidaloo.  . 
buggininulli. 

Two     - 
Three  - 

bool. 
ka. 

Wood  duck  - 
Pelican 
Laughing  jackass 

detto. 

booloon. 

kookaburra. 

Four    - 

Father 

yaba,  yabo 

Native  companion  buberenuUi. 

Mother 

yanga. 

White  cockatoo  - 

bugina. 

Sister-Elder 

Crow  - 

wethergun. 

„      Younger 

Swan  - 

Brother-Elder     ■ 

Egg     - 

Track  of  a  foot    - 

werroo. 

,,          Younger 

Pish    - 

kooia. 

A  young  man 

thillagal. 

Lobster 

goonaway. 

An  old  man 

bunganan. 

Crayfish 

An  old  woman     - 

bulnagun. 

Mosquito     - 

dee. 

A  baby 

Ply      - 
Snake  - 
The  Blacks  - 
A  Blackf  ellow     ■ 

wormbaloo. 

A  White  man 
Children 
Head  - 

kabbon. 

A  Black  woman 

gungan. 

Eye     - 

deburri 

Nose   -'      - 

woodroo. 

Ear     - 

wobbilla. 

LOWER   BIIRDEKIN. 


491 


No.  134. — Lower  Bttrdekin — continued. 


Mouth 

yawirra. 

Teeth  - 

woonung. 

Hair  of  the  head 

Beard  - 

-  thungi." 

Thunder      - 

-  digoro. 

Grass  - 

■:  quwytho. 

Tongue 

- 

Stomach 

-  boric. 

Breasts 

-  wuggunna. 

Thigh  - 

-  toombur. 

Foot    - 

-  bulliger. 

Bone   - 

- 

Blood  - 

-  moondtha. 

Skin   - 

-  uline. 

Fat      -        - 

-  koonoo,  goomo. 

Boweln         -    ' 

-  kullinga. 

Excrement  - 

-  goonna. 

War-spear  - 

-  woomburro. 

Reed-spear  - 

- 

Wommera    or 

throwiag-stick 

Shield - 

-  gooldinare. 

Tomahawk  - 

-  nubanin. 

Ca